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Constantinos Potamitis, Dimitra Siakouli, Konstantinos D Papavasileiou, Athina Boulaka, Vassiliki Ganou, Marina Roussaki, Theodora Calogeropoulou, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Michael N Alexis, Maria Zervou, Dimitra J Mitsiou
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs; however, GC therapy is often accompanied by adverse side effects. The anti-inflammatory action of GCs is exerted through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in part by antagonizing the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor k B (NF-kB) whereas the majority of side effects are assumed to be mediated by transactivation of GR target genes. We set out to identify novel non-steroidal selective GR agonists (SEGRA) favoring transrepression of NF-kB target genes over transactivation of genes associated with undesirable effects...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fangzheng Zhang, Jingzhan Shi, Yu Zhang, De Ben, Lijun Sun, Shilong Pan
Phase noise analyzers (PNAs) are indispensable for evaluating the short-term stability of microwave signals. In this Letter, a high-sensitivity PNA with self-calibration capability is proposed based on an optical frequency comb generator and an optical-hybrid-based I/Q detector. The negative factors that result in inaccurate measurement, including the direct component interference, amplitude noises of the microwave signal under test and the laser, and phase noise of the laser, are all eliminated through digital signal processing...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Teresa Romanillos, Roser Maneja, Diego Varga, Llorenç Badiella, Martí Boada
Numerous studies show the benefits that contact with the natural environment have for human health, but there are few studies on the role of Protected Natural Areas (PNAs), either from the preventive point of view or on their potential benefits, on individuals with health problems. A study was made of the relationship between the visitation of Montseny Natural Park and Biosphere Reserve and health, from the perspective of a population group with different diseases. A total of 250 patients resident in the areas near the park were surveyed, recording their beliefs about the benefits of nature, as well as the reasons for visiting and the activities associated with health that they carried out in the park...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Johannes Mauer, Simon Mendez, Luca Lanotte, Franck Nicoud, Manouk Abkarian, Gerhard Gompper, Dmitry A Fedosov
A recent study of red blood cells (RBCs) in shear flow [Lanotte et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 13289 (2016)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1608074113] has demonstrated that RBCs first tumble, then roll, transit to a rolling and tumbling stomatocyte, and finally attain polylobed shapes with increasing shear rate, when the viscosity contrast between cytosol and blood plasma is large enough. Using two different simulation techniques, we construct a state diagram of RBC shapes and dynamics in shear flow as a function of shear rate and viscosity contrast, which is also supported by microfluidic experiments...
September 14, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jordan D Dworkin, Russell T Shinohara, Danielle S Bassett
As the field of neuroimaging grows, it can be difficult for scientists within the field to gain and maintain a detailed understanding of its ever-changing landscape. While collaboration and citation networks highlight important contributions within the field, the roles of and relations among specific areas of study can remain quite opaque. Here, we apply techniques from network science to map the landscape of neuroimaging research documented in the journal NeuroImage over the past decade. We create a network in which nodes represent research topics, and edges give the degree to which these topics tend to be covered in tandem...
September 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Lutz Bornmann, Adam Y Ye, Fred Y Ye
"Hot papers" (HPs) are papers which received a boost of citations shortly after publication. Papers with "delayed recognition" (DRs) received scarcely impact over a long time period, before a considerable citation boost started. DRs have attracted a lot of attention in scientometrics and beyond. Based on a comprehensive dataset with more than 5,000,000 papers published between 1980 and 1990, we identified HPs and DRs. In contrast to many other studies on DRs, which are based on raw citation counts, we calculated dynamically field-normalized impact scores for the search of HPs and DRs...
2018: Scientometrics
Mehdi Mirzakhanloo, Mohammad-Reza Alam
It has long been believed that eukaryotic flagellated swimming cells feel solid boundaries through direct ciliary contact. Specifically, based on observations of behavior of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii it has been reported that it is their "flagella [that] prevent the cell body from touching the surface" [Kantsler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1187 (2013)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1210548110]. Here, via investigation of a model swimmer whose flow field closely resembles that of C...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
H S Battey, D R Cox
Recently, Cox and Battey (2017 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114 , 8592-8595 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1703764114)) outlined a procedure for regression analysis when there are a small number of study individuals and a large number of potential explanatory variables, but relatively few of the latter have a real effect. The present paper reports more formal statistical properties. The results are intended primarily to guide the choice of key tuning parameters.
July 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jaime I Castillo, Marcin Równicki, Monika Wojciechowska, Joanna Trylska
A combination of antibacterial agents should make the emergence of resistance in bacteria less probable. Thus we have analyzed the synergistic effects between antibacterial antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and conventional antibiotics against Escherichia coli AS19 (lipopolysaccharide defective) strain and a derivative of a pathogenic strain E. coli O157:H7. PNAs were designed to target mRNA transcripts encoding the essential acyl carrier protein (gene acpP) and conjugated to the cell-penetrating peptide (KFF)3 K for cellular uptake...
October 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tao Cheng, Andres Jaramillo-Botero, Qi An, Daniil V Ilyin, Saber Naserifar, William A Goddard
This issue of PNAS features "nonequilibrium transport and mixing across interfaces," with several papers describing the nonequilibrium coupling of transport at interfaces, including mesoscopic and macroscopic dynamics in fluids, plasma, and other materials over scales from microscale to celestial. Most such descriptions describe the materials in terms of the density and equations of state rather than specific atomic structures and chemical processes. It is at interfacial boundaries where such atomistic information is most relevant...
August 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gangqiang Qin, Qianyi Cui, Weihua Wang, Ping Li, Aijun Du, Qiao Sun
Developing advanced materials and new technologies for efficient CO2 capture and gas separation can enormously alleviate its impact on global climate change. In this study, we report a comprehensive density functional theory investigation of N2 , CH4 , H2 , and CO2 adsorption on a graphene-like C3 N monolayer. Our calculation results show that the four gas molecules are all physisorbed on the neutral C3 N monolayer. However, the interaction between CO2 and C3 N can be significantly boosted via the strategies of electrochemical methods such as introducing negative charge or applying external electric field to the system...
July 31, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Itamar Peled, Eylon Yavin
The forced-intercalation peptide nucleic acid (FIT-PNA) concept, introduced by Seitz and co-workers, is based on replacing a nucleobase of the PNA sequence with a cyanine dye (such as thiazole orange). The cyanine dye is thus a surrogate base that is forced to intercalate in the duplex (e.g. , PNA: DNA). This allows single-mismatch sensitivity as the introduction of a mismatch in the vicinity of the dye increases freedom of motion and leads to a significant depletion of its fluorescence because of the free rotation of the monomethine bond separating the two π-systems of the cyanine dye...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Bénédicte Ndeboko, Olivier Hantz, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Lucyna Cova
Alternative therapeutic approaches against chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection need to be urgently developed because current therapies are only virostatic. In this context, cell penetration peptides (CPPs) and their Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) cargoes appear as a promising novel class of biologically active compounds. In this review we summarize different in vitro and in vivo studies, exploring the potential of CPPs as vehicles for intracellular delivery of PNAs targeting hepadnaviral replication. Thus, studies conducted in the duck HBV (DHBV) infection model showed that conjugation of (D-Arg)₈ CPP to PNA targeting viral epsilon (ε) were able to efficiently inhibit viral replication in vivo following intravenous administration to ducklings...
July 16, 2018: Biomolecules
Kiran M Patil, Desiree-Faye Kaixin Toh, Zhen Yuan, Zhenyu Meng, Zhiyu Shu, Haiping Zhang, Alan Ann Lerk Ong, Manchugondanahalli S Krishna, Lanyuan Lu, Yunpeng Lu, Gang Chen
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structures form triplexes and RNA-protein complexes through binding to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) regions and proteins, respectively, for diverse biological functions. Hence, targeting dsRNAs through major-groove triplex formation is a promising strategy for the development of chemical probes and potential therapeutics. Short (e.g., 6-10 mer) chemically-modified Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) have been developed that bind to dsRNAs sequence specifically at physiological conditions...
September 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Monique A R Udell
Domestic dogs have become well known for their socio-cognitive successes, so what does it mean when domestic dogs fail to cooperate? A new study by Marshall-Pescini, Schwarz, Kostelnik, Virányi, and Range (PNAS, 114(44) 11793-11798, 2017) highlights the importance of considering socioecological context, learning, and relationship quality when evaluating the social cognition of dogs and wolves.
July 6, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Si-Ying Wang, Jing Lin, Ling Huang, Xing-Mei Liu, Yuan-Yuan Han, Wen-Ping Han, Bang-Quan An, Gui-Fang Li, Sheng-Wen Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of blocking polypyrimidine complex binding to DNA site by using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on γ-globin gene expression. METHODS: PYR-PNA, β-PNA and RS-PNA (random sequence-PNA) were designed and synthesized, then were transfected into K562 cells with the cationic liposome lipofectamine 2000 used as vector. The expression of γ-globin gene at both the transcriptional and translational level was detected by RT-PCR and the Western blot respectively at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after transfection with PNAs...
June 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Adele S Ricciardi, Raman Bahal, James S Farrelly, Elias Quijano, Anthony H Bianchi, Valerie L Luks, Rachael Putman, Francesc López-Giráldez, Süleyman Coşkun, Eric Song, Yanfeng Liu, Wei-Che Hsieh, Danith H Ly, David H Stitelman, Peter M Glazer, W Mark Saltzman
Genetic diseases can be diagnosed early during pregnancy, but many monogenic disorders continue to cause considerable neonatal and pediatric morbidity and mortality. Early intervention through intrauterine gene editing, however, could correct the genetic defect, potentially allowing for normal organ development, functional disease improvement, or cure. Here we demonstrate safe intravenous and intra-amniotic administration of polymeric nanoparticles to fetal mouse tissues at selected gestational ages with no effect on survival or postnatal growth...
June 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Alessandro Bertucci, Simone Silvestrini, Roberto Corradini, Luisa De Cola
Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are oligonucleotide mimics that can be used as drugs as they can interact with DNA and RNA targets in organisms. Loading PNAs into inorganic nanocarriers can improve their cellular uptake and co-delivering them together with drugs can improve the therapy efficacy by synergic effects. Furthermore, the functionalization of the carriers with labels allows theranostics, and the possibility to monitor the efficacy of the therapy in real time. The present protocol describes the synthesis of Zeolites-L nanocrystals and mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their loading with cationic PNAs and other smaller molecular weight payloads towards theranostics applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alex Manicardi, Roberto Gambari, Luisa de Cola, Roberto Corradini
Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are oligonucleotide mimics that can be used to block the biological action of microRNA, thus affecting gene expression post-transcriptionally. PNAs are obtained with solid-phase peptide synthesis, and can be easily conjugated to other peptides. Conjugation with R8-Peptide or modification of the PNA backbone (at C5 or C2 carbon) with arginine side chains allows efficient cellular uptake. The present protocol describes the synthesis of cationic PNAs that can be used alone as drugs or for efficient co-delivery in suitable inorganic nanocarriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ehud Gazit
The formation of ordered nanostructures by molecular self-assembly of proteins and peptides represents one of the principal directions in nanotechnology. Indeed, polyamides provide superior features as materials with diverse physical properties. A reductionist approach allowed the identification of extremely short peptide sequences, as short as dipeptides, which could form well-ordered amyloid-like β-sheet-rich assemblies comparable to supramolecular structures made of much larger proteins. Some of the peptide assemblies show remarkable mechanical, optical, and electrical characteristics...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
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