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Jelena Vulevic, George Tzortzis, Aleksandra Juric, Glenn R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics exert beneficial effects upon gastrointestinal (GI) environment, but this is not always accompanied with a positive effect on GI symptoms. B-GOS® is a prebiotic with high selectivity toward bifidobacteria and a variety of other beneficial effects in humans. Here, we investigated its effect on GI symptoms in adults who suffer with bloating, abdominal pain, and flatulence. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 83 subjects from the general population who presented with GI symptoms during screening period and had a predicted probability of functional bowel disorder of more than 75% were randomized to receive either a placebo or the B-GOS® treatment (2...
August 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Alicia N Webb Milum, Craig E Griffin, Kacie S Blessing
BACKGROUND: English bulldogs (EBDs) are considered to commonly show signs of pododermatitis and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe a population of presumed healthy EBDs: (i) evaluate dogs according to published criteria for health, (ii) describe paw lesions, if present, (iii) report pruritic behaviours and GI signs and compare to normal values, (iv) report pedal cytological findings, and (v) determine correlation between lesions, cytological results and pruritic behaviours...
August 14, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
David Y Graham, Gyanprakash A Ketwaroo, Mary E Money, Antone R Opekun
Post-prandial gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal distension, flatulence, bloating, and feeling of fullness are common complaints of often unknown etiology and pathogenesis. There is a long history of trials reporting successful use of products containing a variety of combinations of digestive enzymes including a number of randomized placebo-controlled trials. We provide a narrative review of studies describing the use of multi-digestive enzymes for symptoms consistent with the irritable bowel syndrome...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Fátima Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Alfredo I Servín-Caamaño, Francisco Salas-Gordillo, José L Pérez-Hernández, Juan M Abdo-Francis, Jaime Camacho-Aguilera, Sai N Alla, Fiacro Jiménez-Ponce
Background and Aim: Variceal bleeding is the second most important precipitating factor related to the development of episodic hepatic encephalopathy; but to date there are no recommendations to prevent this complication. The aim of this study was to compare if primary prophylaxis with lactulose or L-ornithine L-aspartate or rifaximin, in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding, is better than placebo for avoiding the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mahsa Khodadoostan, Ahmad Shavakhi, Zahra Sherafat, Alireza Shavakhi
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders among young adults. Various studies have demonstrated that the use of probiotics can reduce the overall symptom of IBS, and thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic products in the reduction of IBS syndrome after colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: Our patients were divided among three groups, including immediate probiotic users, start use of probiotics 1 month after colonoscopy, and placebo group...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Xue Ming, Neil Chen, Carly Ray, Gretchen Brewer, Jeffrey Kornitzer, Robert A Steer
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattentiveness, with genetic and environmental factors contributing to the disorder. With the growing recognition of the microbiome's role in many neurological disorders, the authors propose that it may also be implicated in ADHD. Here, we describe several evolving areas of research to support this hypothesis. First, a unique composition of gut bacteria has been identified and linked to behaviors in ADHD...
2018: Child neurology open
Jürgen Feisthammel, Kien Vu Trung, Marcus Hollenbach, Joachim Mössner, Albrecht Hoffmeister
BACKGROUND: The insufflation of gas during colonoscopy leads to distention of the colon with abdominal discomfort and pain for the patients. Use of CO2 during endoscopy is reported to minimize abdominal discomfort during and after endoscopy. Aim of this study was to find out whether this improvement leads to decreased dosage of sedation drugs in order to improve patient's safety and satisfaction. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized and controlled study 150 Patients referred to colonoscopy were assigned to either CO2 or air insufflation...
September 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Praveena Thirunathan, Annamalai Manickavasagan
Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fibre and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutrients such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors, as well as indigestible carbohydrates called alpha-galactosides. These oligosaccharides are fermented by the microorganisms in the gut, producing gas and causing flatulence in healthy individuals. While this flatulence is undesirable (and results in their low acceptance in the Western diet), alpha-galactosides have also been hypothesized to increase susceptibility to bowel diseases, and their presence in the gut worsens the symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Fatma Abd-Elkader Moharram, Amal Amin Al-Gendy, Siham Mostafa El-Shenawy, Bassant M Ibrahim, Mohamed A Zarka
BACKGROUND: Pimenta racemosa tree has many traditional uses where its leaves are used as herbal tea for treatment of flatulence, gastric disorder, osteoarthritis, colds and fever in addition to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. So, this study aimed to isolate phenolic constituents of 80% aqueous methanol extract (AME) of leaves and evaluate its biological activities. METHODS: The defatted AME was chromatographed and structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using UV, NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-ESI-MS analysis...
July 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jose-Walter Huaman, Marianela Mego, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Nicolau Cañellas, Daniel Cañueto, Hegoi Segurola, Marta Jansana, Carolina Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Jelena Vulevic, George Tzortzis, Glenn Gibson, Esteban Saperas, Francisco Guarner, Fernando Azpiroz
Prebiotics and diets low in fermentable residues (low-FODMAP diet) might reduce symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, despite reports that some non-absorbable, fermentable meal products (prebiotics) provide substrates for colonic bacteria and thereby increase gas production. We performed a randomized, parallel, double-blind study of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders with flatulence. We compared the effects of a prebiotic supplement (2.8 g/day Bimuno containing 1...
June 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
Hinali Zaveri, Amit Surve, Daniel Cottam, Walter Medlin, Christina Richards, Austin Cottam, Samuel Cottam
BACKGROUND: Loop duodenal switch (LDS) can result in fat and starch malabsorption. In a small percentage of patients, a relevant qualitative and quantitative change in stools happens usually characterized by steatorrhea-like diarrhea. Bismuth subgallate (BS) has been marketed as a way to eliminate the odor associated with flatulence and bowel movements. The objective of this study is to see the efficacy and effect of BS on the quality of life (QOL) in patients undergoing LDS. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study was designed...
June 28, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jamie N Pugh, Ben Kirk, Robert Fearn, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool ( n = 66) and Dublin ( n = 30) marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4) GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16%) during training, and nausea (8%) during the marathon race...
June 24, 2018: Nutrients
Ramadevi M, Deepesh Panwar, Juby Elsa Joseph, Gaurav Singh Kaira, Mukesh Kapoor
A hitherto unknown low molecular weight form of α-galactosidase (VM-αGal) from germinating black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds was purified to homogeneity (432 U/mg specific activity, 1542-fold purification) using ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose, CM-sepharose) and affinity (Con-A Sepharose 4B) chromatography. VM-αGal appeared as a single band ~ 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE and showed optimal activity at pH 5 and 55 °C. Hg2+ and SDS completely inhibited VM-αGal activity. The Km, Vmax and catalytic efficiency (kcat /Km ) of VM-αGal for pNPG and raffinose was found to be 0...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Angela Lamarca, Lynne McCallum, Christina Nuttall, Jorge Barriuso, Alison Backen, Melissa Frizziero, Rebecca Leon, Was Mansoor, Mairéad G McNamara, Richard A Hubner, Juan W Valle
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (Wd-NETs) are commonly treated with somatostatin analogues (SSAs). Some patients may develop SSA-related side effects such as pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, the frequency of SSA-induced PEI in 50 sequential patients with advanced Wd-NETs treated with SSAs was investigated. Toxicity was assessed monthly and faecal elastase-1 (FE1) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed 3-monthly...
July 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku, Michelle Larissa Noundjeu Ngamga, Hubert Leundji
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately two-thirds of the human population and it is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. This study sought to determine potential risk factors associated with seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspepsia patients in Cameroon for a better management of the disease. METHODS: The study was carried out from August to December 2014 at Laquintinie Hospital and District Hospital of Bonassama in Douala metropolis...
June 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
John S Leeds, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Solomon Tesfaye, David S Sanders
Objectives: Lower gastrointestinal symptoms are not well characterized in people with type 1 diabetes, and the effects on quality of life and glycemic control are unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lower gastrointestinal symptoms and the effects on glycemic control and quality of life, and to investigate for underlying causes. Research design and methods: This is a prospective, cohort study in secondary care. Patients with type 1 diabetes completed a gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire and the Short Form 36 V...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Nina Boje Kibsgaard Jensen, Richard Pötter, Kathrin Kirchheiner, Lars Fokdal, Jacob Christian Lindegaard, Christian Kirisits, Renaud Mazeron, Umesh Mahantshetty, Ina Maria Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Barbara Segedin, Peter Hoskin, Kari Tanderup
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study describes late bowel morbidity prospectively assessed in the multi-institutional EMBRACE study on MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 1176 patients were analyzed. Physician reported morbidity (CTCAE v.3.0) and patient reported outcome (PRO) (EORTC QLQ C30/CX24) were assessed at baseline and at regular follow-up. RESULTS: At 3/5 years the actuarial incidence of bowel morbidity grade 3-4 was 5...
June 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Arutchelvan Rajamanikam, Suresh Kumar, Chandramathi Samudi, Madhav Kudva
Blastocystis sp. is a gastrointestinal (GI) protozoan parasite reported to cause non-specific GI symptoms including diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, and nausea. Complete eradication of Blastocystis sp. is rather challenging even with the drug of choice, i.e., metronidazole. Here, we report on two Blastocystis sp.-infected individuals, who presented increased parasite load and exacerbated symptoms upon treatment with the usual recommended dosage and regime of metronidazole. The two studies uniquely demonstrate for the first time a cyst count as high as fivefold more than the original cyst count before treatment and show an exacerbation of GI symptoms despite treatment...
June 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
Bridget Candy, Louise Jones, Victoria Vickerstaff, Philip J Larkin, Patrick Stone
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is characterised by constipation, incomplete evacuation, bloating, and gastric reflux. It is one of the major adverse events of treatment for pain in cancer and in palliative care, resulting in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life.This is an update of two Cochrane reviews. One was published in 2011, Issue 1 on laxatives and methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in people receiving palliative care; this was updated in 2015 and excluded methylnaltrexone...
June 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jaspreet Suri, Rahul Kataria, Zubair Malik, Henry P Parkman, Ron Schey
Limited research exists regarding the relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), small bowel transit (SBT), and colonic transit (CT). Furthermore, symptom analysis is limited between the subtypes of SIBO: hydrogen producing (H-SIBO) and methane producing (M-SIBO). The primary aims of this study are to: compare the SBT and CT in patients with a positive lactulose breath test (LBT) to those with a normal study; compare the SBT and CT among patients with H-SIBO or M-SIBO; compare the severity of symptoms in patients with a positive LBT to those with a normal study; compare the severity of symptoms among patients with H-SIBO or M-SIBO...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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