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Jennifer L Walsh
Research is needed to determine targets for interventions to increase pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model has not been tested for PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM). Men and transgender women and men were surveyed at a community event in the Midwest in 2016 (N = 476, 60% White, Mage  = 35). New measures assessed PrEP knowledge, attitudes, stigma, descriptive and subjective norms, and intentions, and participants reported on PrEP use...
December 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Alan W Stacy, Liesl A Nydegger, Yusuke Shono
Many people enrolled in drug diversion programs are not receiving evidence-based prevention for HIV or hepatitis. This study translated basic research from cognitive science to increase screening for infection and condom use in this population. A parallel three-condition randomized trial was conducted in a drug diversion sample (N = 358), comparing a memory practice condition with two active control conditions. Outcomes were condom use frequency and testing for infection (hepatitis B/C, HIV). At 3-month follow-up, participants in the memory practice condition were at least twice as likely (OR = 2...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Benjamin B Lindsey, Edwin P Armitage, Beate Kampmann, Thushan I de Silva
The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Global Health database, and Web of Science for published studies from database inception to May 9, 2018...
December 12, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Gideon Lasco, Nicole Curato
Medical emergencies are staple features of today's 24/7 culture of breaking news. As politics becomes increasingly stylised, audiences fragmented, and established knowledge claims contested, health crises have become even more vulnerable to politicisation. We offer the vocabulary of medical populism to make sense of this phenomenon. We define medical populism as a political style based on performances of public health crises that pit 'the people' against 'the establishment.' While some health emergencies lead to technocratic responses that soothe anxieties of a panicked public, medical populism thrives by politicising, simplifying, and spectacularising complex public health issues...
December 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Juliana Bertoldi Franco, Loreto José Maureira Pena, Fabiana Martins E Martins, Marcio Augusto de Oliveira, Karem L Ortega
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) patients for which the primary mode of management was chemotherapy. METHODS: We have presented the case of a newly diagnosed HIV+ male patient who was diagnosed with a pedunculated nodule in the anterior region of the hard palate, measuring 3.5 cm in diameter and with 2 months of evolution. RESULTS: Histopathological examination confirmed the clinical hypothesis of KS...
December 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Kristin M Beima-Sofie, Susan Brown Trinidad, Kenneth Ngure, Renee Heffron, Jared M Baeten, Grace C John-Stewart, Maureen Kelley
This study explored how multinational HIV experts weigh clinical, evidential, and ethical considerations regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis in pregnant/breastfeeding women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts in HIV policy, research, treatment, and implementation from three global regions. A constant comparative approach identified major themes. Experts noted that exclusion of pregnant women from research limits evidence regarding risks/benefits, emphasizing that underinclusion of pregnant women in RCTs shifts the onus of evidence-building to clinical care...
December 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ci Zhang, Xianhong Li, Deborah Koniak-Griffin, Lloyd A Goldsamt, Jing Zhou
INTRODUCTION: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The randomised controlled trial will be performed in Changsha, Changde, Shaoyang and Yiyang, Hunan province, China, recruiting 184 recent testers (men who had at least one HIV test within the past 2 years) and 26 non-recent testers (men who did not have HIV tests within 2 years or never had an HIV test)...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Andrew Radley, Marijn de Bruin, Sarah K Inglis, Peter T Donnan, John F Dillon
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 0.7% of the general population, and up to 40% of people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST) in Scotland. In conventional care, less than 10% of OST users are tested for HCV and less than 25% of these initiate treatment. Community pharmacists see this group frequently to provide OST supervision. This study examines whether a pharmacist-led 'test & treat' pathway increases cure rates for HCV. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a cluster-randomised trial where 60 community pharmacies provide either conventional or pharmacy-led care...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Lola Madrid, Aina Casellas, Charfudin Sacoor, Llorenç Quintó, Antonio Sitoe, Rosauro Varo, Sozinho Acácio, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sergio Massora, Betuel Sigaúque, Inacio Mandomando, Simon Cousens, Clara Menéndez, Pedro Alonso, Eusebio Macete, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of postdischarge mortality (PDM) in low-income settings appears to be significant, no clear recommendations have been proposed in relation to follow-up care after hospitalization. We aimed to determine the burden of pediatric PDM and develop predictive models to identify children who are at risk for dying after discharge. METHODS: Deaths after hospital discharge among children aged <15 years in the last 17 years were reviewed in an area under demographic and morbidity surveillance in Southern Mozambique...
December 14, 2018: Pediatrics
W Scott Comulada, Wenze Tang, Dallas Swendeman, Amy Cooper, Jeremy Wacksman
BACKGROUND: Advancing technology has increased functionality and permitted more complex study designs for behavioral interventions. Investigators need to keep pace with these technological advances for electronic data capture (EDC) systems to be appropriately executed and utilized at full capacity in research settings. Mobile technology allows EDC systems to collect near real-time data from study participants, deliver intervention directly to participants' mobile devices, monitor staff activity, and facilitate near real-time decision making during study implementation...
December 14, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Matthias G Pauthner, Joseph P Nkolola, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Ben Murrell, Samantha M Reiss, Raiza Bastidas, Jérémie Prévost, Rebecca Nedellec, Benjamin von Bredow, Peter Abbink, Christopher A Cottrell, Daniel W Kulp, Talar Tokatlian, Bartek Nogal, Matteo Bianchi, Hui Li, Jeong Hyun Lee, Salvatore T Butera, David T Evans, Lars Hangartner, Andrés Finzi, Ian A Wilson, Richard T Wyatt, Darrell J Irvine, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders, Shane Crotty, George M Shaw, Dan H Barouch, Dennis R Burton
Passive administration of HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can protect macaques from hard-to-neutralize (tier 2) chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, conditions for nAb-mediated protection after vaccination have not been established. Here, we selected groups of 6 rhesus macaques with either high or low serum nAb titers from a total of 78 animals immunized with recombinant native-like (SOSIP) Env trimers. Repeat intrarectal challenge with homologous tier 2 SHIVBG505 led to rapid infection in unimmunized and low-titer animals...
November 29, 2018: Immunity
Mattia Bonsignori, Eric Scott, Kevin Wiehe, David Easterhoff, S Munir Alam, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Melissa Cooper, Shi-Mao Xia, Ruijun Zhang, David C Montefiori, Rory Henderson, Xiaoyan Nie, Garnett Kelsoe, M Anthony Moody, Xuejun Chen, M Gordon Joyce, Peter D Kwong, Mark Connors, John R Mascola, Andrew T McGuire, Leonidas Stamatatos, Max Medina-Ramírez, Rogier W Sanders, Kevin O Saunders, Thomas B Kepler, Barton F Haynes
Elicitation of VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is an appealing approach for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Despite extensive investigations, strategies to induce VRC01-class bnAbs and overcome the barrier posed by the envelope N276 glycan have not been successful. Here, we inferred a high-probability unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the VRC01 lineage and reconstructed the stages of lineage maturation. Env immunogens designed on reverted VRC01-class bnAbs bound to VRC01 UCA with affinity sufficient to activate naive B cells...
December 5, 2018: Immunity
Lorenza Romani, Stefania Pane, Carlo Severini, Michela Menegon, Gianluca Foglietta, Stefania Bernardi, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Andrea Onetti Muda, Paolo Palma, Lorenza Putignani
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. detection, and area in which the epidemiologic analyses are performed. In non-endemic countries, cases of congenital malaria are rare...
December 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Arash Soltani, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Farnaz Zahedi Avval, Anvar Soleimani, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed Abdorahim Rezaee, Renate Griffith, Baratali Mashkani
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and several other disorders. ATLL occurs in approximately 5% of the 15-20 million people infected by HTLV-1 in the world. In general, ATLL is resistant to chemotherapy, which underlines the need for new and effective therapeutic strategies. Previous studies highlighted the role of viral enzymes, responsible for viral replication, and regulatory proteins such as Tax and HBZ in the progression of HTLV-1-associated diseases...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Boitumelo Phakathi, Herbert Cubasch, Sarah Nietz, Caroline Dickens, Therese Dix-Peek, Maureen Joffe, Alfred I Neugut, Judith Jacobson, Raquel Duarte, Paul Ruff
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics. METHODS: Study participants were females, newly diagnosed from May 2015 through September 2017 with invasive breast cancer at two academic Surgical Breast Units in Johannesburg, South Africa at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital...
December 7, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
William T Heller, Piotr A Zolnierczuk
A short sequence on the gp41 envelope protein of HIV-1 is integral to infection by the virus. Without this sequence, termed the fusion peptide (FP), the virus is far less effective at fusing with the cellular membrane. One of the interesting features of the isolated FP is that it transitions between an α-helical conformation and a β-sheet conformation in lipid bilayer membranes as a function of lipid composition and concentration, and the transition correlates with fusion. To better understand how the conformations of the FP impact lipid bilayer membranes, a variant of the FP that does not strongly promote fusion, termed gp41rk, was studied...
December 11, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Amy W Penn, Hana Azman, Hacsi Horvath, Kelly D Taylor, Matthew D Hickey, Jay Rajan, Eyerusalem K Negussie, Margaret Doherty, George W Rutherford
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supportive interventions can increase retention in care for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We used Cochrane Collaboration methods. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies with comparators conducted in LMIC. Our principal outcomes were retention, mortality and the combined outcome of lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) or death...
2018: PloS One
Yuki Ishida, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Masaya Sugiyama, Kiyoto Tsuchiya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Masashi Mizokami, Shinichi Oka, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among HIV-1-infected individuals in Tokyo. Appropriate clinical management is needed. SETTING: To delineate the epidemiological status of HCV transmission, we analyzed stocked plasma samples of HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients seen at the largest referral center for HIV care in Tokyo. METHODS: HCV full-genome sequences were amplified and determined using next-generation sequencing...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rebecca G Nowak, Andrew Mitchell, Trevor A Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Sosthenes Ketende, Habib O Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Sylvia Adebajo, Julie Ake, Nelson L Michael, William A Blattner, Stefan D Baral, Manhattan E Charurat
BACKGROUND: To date, HIV incidence studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) across sub-Saharan Africa have focused on studying sexual risk practices with less focus on sexual networks. SETTING: TRUST/RV368 conducted in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria recruited MSM using respondent driven sampling (RDS) and followed HIV negative men for incident infection over 4 years. METHODS: Four-hundred forty-one HIV-uninfected MSM underwent a parallel rapid HIV testing algorithm every 3 months for up to 18 months...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Carla Tilchin, Christina M Schumacher, Kevin J Psoter, Elizabeth Humes, Ravikiran Muvva, Patrick Chaulk, William Checkley, Jacky M Jennings
BACKGROUND: The release of the first drug for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 marked the beginning of a new era of HIV prevention. Although PrEP is highly efficacious, identifying and ultimately increasing uptake among the highest risk male subgroups remains a challenge. METHODS: Public health surveillance data from 2009-2016 was used to evaluate the risk of an HIV diagnosis following a syphilis (i.e. primary, secondary, or early latent), gonorrhea, and repeat diagnosis among urban males including MSM and non-MSM in Baltimore City...
December 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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