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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119057/estimating-sizes-of-key-populations-at-the-national-level-considerations-for-study-design-and-analysis
#1
Jessie K Edwards, Sarah Hileman, Yeycy Donastorg, Sabrina Zadrozny, Stefan Baral, James R Hargreaves, Elizabeth Fearon, Jinkou Zhao, Abhirup Datta, Sharon S Weir
BACKGROUND: National estimates of the sizes of key populations, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women are critical to inform national and international responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. However, epidemiologic studies typically provide size estimates for only limited high priority geographic areas. This paper illustrates a two-stage approach to obtain a national key population size estimate in the Dominican Republic using available estimates and publicly available contextual information...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119013/dual-regulation-of-l-selectin-cd62l-by-hiv-1-enhanced-expression-by-vpr-in-contrast-with-cell-surface-down-modulation-by-nef-and-vpu
#2
Erica Giuliani, Lia Vassena, Silvia Galardi, Alessandro Michienzi, Maria Giovanna Desimio, Margherita Doria
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr displays various activities that can favor viral replication such as G2 cell cycle arrest. Vpr also modulates host gene expression, although this property is poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of Vpr on L-selectin (CD62L), which crucially controls leukocytes circulation and generation of immune responses against pathogens. We report that Vpr up-regulates CD62L mRNA level when individually expressed in Jurkat T cells as well as during HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T cells...
August 14, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118996/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hiv-testing-and-hiv-positive-status-in-the-us-results-from-the-national-epidemiological-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii-nesarc-iii
#3
Carlos Blanco, Melanie M Wall, Wilson M Compton, Shoshana Kahana, Tianshu Feng, Tulshi Saha, Jennifer C Elliott, H Irene Hall, Bridget F Grant
We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53.0% among females and 47.0% among males. Among individuals tested, the prevalence of HIV was 1...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118949/quantum-changes-in-self-efficacy-and-condom-use-intention-among-youth-a-chained-cusp-catastrophe-model
#4
Bin Yu, Xinguang Chen, Bonita Stanton, Ding-Geng Din Chen, Yunan Xu, Yan Wang
INTRODUCTION: The complex relationships among HIV knowledge, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, peer influence and intention to use condoms have been rigorously investigated. However, studies guided by a linear behavior change model often explain only a limited amount of variances. This study aims to advance our understanding of the relationships through a nonlinear quantum change paradigm. METHODS: Data (n = 1970, 40.61% male, mean age 16.94 ± 0.74) from a behavioral intervention program among high school students in the Bahamas were analyzed with a chained cusp catastrophe model in two steps...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118774/neuroprotective-effects-of-bergenin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-investigation-through-molecular-docking-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#5
Priyal Barai, Nisith Raval, Sanjeev Acharya, Ankit Borisa, Hardik Bhatt, Niyati Acharya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an enervating and chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, occurring frequently in the elderly and adversely affecting intellectual capabilities and the cognitive processes. Bergenin possesses efficacious antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity along with antinociceptive effect and wound healing properties. Previous studies have shown that bergenin has in vitro bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, β-secretase (BACE-1) enzyme inhibitory activity and prevented neuronal death in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118537/effects-of-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-on-clinical-and-immunological-profile-and-oral-colonization-of-candida-spp-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-chronic-periodontitis
#6
Átila V V Nobre, Tábata L S Pólvora, Letícia R M Silva, Vanessa de O Teles, Kelly Vargas Villafuerte, Raphael J G da Motta, João H P Fortes, Gilberto A Silva, Ana Laura P Ranieri, Leandro D de Macedo, Karen M L Morejon, Benedito A L da Fonseca, Camila Tirapelli, Maria C P Saraiva, Mário Taba, Alan G Lourenço, Ana Carolina F Motta
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic controllable disease. For this reason, chronic conditions related to both HIV infection and senescence, such as chronic periodontitis (CP) need to be studied. This study investigated the impact of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on clinical and immunological features of CP, and on oral colonization by Candida spp. in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118495/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hazardous-alcohol-consumption-and-binge-drinking-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-san-francisco
#7
Glenn-Milo Santos, Christopher Rowe, Jaclyn Hern, John E Walker, Arsheen Ali, Marcial Ornelaz, Maximo Prescott, Phillip Coffin, Willi McFarland, H Fisher Raymond
OBJECTIVES: To describe heavy alcohol use patterns and correlates in a diverse sample of MSM. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to enroll 252 alcohol-using MSM in San Francisco from March 2015-July 2017. We examined heavy alcohol use patterns and conducted RDS-adjusted multivariable analyses to characterize correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption and binge drinking. RESULTS: RDS-adjusted prevalence of weekly and at least weekly binge drinking was 24...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118424/should-there-be-a-disclosure-mandate-for-physicians-caring-for-perinatally-infected-adolescents-who-don-t-know-their-hiv-serostatus
#8
Sabhyta Sabharwal, Jason W Mitchell, Victoria Y Fan
With advances in antiretroviral therapies, perinatally infected children are now living with HIV well beyond adolescence. Parents and health care practitioners thus face the challenge of deciding how best to disclose positive serostatus to children living with HIV. Although many adolescents living with HIV are sexually active, parents often delay disclosure, which presents US physicians with an ethical dilemma because there is no legal requirement to follow clinical guidelines recommending disclosure prior to adolescence...
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118399/acceptability-of-injectable-and-on-demand-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-an-online-sample-of-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-california
#9
Matthew R Beymer, Jennifer L Gildner, Ian W Holloway, Raphael J Landovitz
PURPOSE: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV. However, low uptake of daily oral PrEP since Food and Drug Administration approval and low medication adherence among users have stimulated the investigation of other modalities for delivery, such as injectable PrEP and on-demand PrEP. The objective of this study was to determine the demographic and behavioral predictors of willingness to try alternative PrEP delivery mechanisms among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) who stated that they were unwilling to try daily oral PrEP...
August 17, 2018: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118396/viral-epitope-escape-in-acute-hiv-1-infection
#10
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117396/host-restriction-factors-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-a-dynamic-interplay-involving-all-phases-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#11
Vanessa D'Urbano, Elisa De Crignis, Maria Carla Re
Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). RFs are dominant proteins that target different essential steps of the viral cycle, thereby providing an early line of defense against the virus...
August 16, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117337/identification-of-two-novel-hiv-1-second-generation-recombinant-forms-crf01_ae-07_bc-in-shaanxi-china
#12
Mengyan Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Hua Li, Lifang Dong, Wenhui Chang
Sexual contact is the main route of transmission of HIV-1 pandemic in China. New unique recombinant forms (URFs) were increasingly characterized in sexual populations in recent years. We reported two URFs identified from two male HIV-1 positive patients who were infected through sexual exposure in Shaanxi, China. Phylogenetic analyses and bootscan analyses revealed the near full-length genomes (NFLGs) of the two URFs were both having four recombinant breakpoints, with two CRF07_BC fragments inserted into CRF01_AE backbones...
August 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117324/near-full-length-genomic-characterization-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-b-recombinant-strains-identified-in-hebei-china
#13
Qiao Huang, Weidong Ou, Yi Feng, Fan Li, Kang Li, Jia Sun, Zhangwen Ge, Hui Xing, Hao Liang, Yiming Shao
This study reports a novel HIV-1 recombinant form of CRF01_AE/B that was isolated from a 22 year-old, male individual (HE150308) residing in Hebei province, China. The near full-length genome (NFLG) phylogenetic tree showed that the strain was clustered with CRF01_AE reference sequences and placed at the peripheral position within the branch of CRF01_AE strains. The bootscaning and similarity plot analysis revealed that the NFLG of this novel recombinant was composed of 8 interlaced segments, including four CRF01_AE and four subtype B segments separated by 7 breakpoints observed in the gag, pol as well as nef regions of HIV-1 genome...
August 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117196/when-diabetes-confronts-hiv-biological-sub-citizenship-at-a-public-hospital-in-nairobi-kenya
#14
Edna Bosire, Emily Mendenhall, Gregory Barnabas Omondi, David Ndetei
This article investigates how international donor policies cultivate a form of biological sub-citizenship for those with diabetes in Kenya. We interviewed 100 patients at a public hospital clinic in Nairobi, half with a diabetes diagnosis. We focus on three vignettes that illustrate how our study participants differentially perceived and experienced living with and seeking treatment and care for diabetes compared to other conditions, with a special focus on HIV. We argue that biological sub-citizenship, where those with HIV have consistent and comprehensive free medical care and those with diabetes must pay out-of-pocket for testing and treatment, impedes diabetes testing and treatment...
August 16, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117078/suboptimal-retention-in-care-among-recently-released-prisoners-implications-for-social-workers-in-hiv-primary-care
#15
Jill Murphree, D Scott Batey, Emma Sophia Kay, Andrew O Westfall, Michael J Mugavero
Certain populations of people living with HIV (PLWH) are at greater risk for falling out of care, including PLWH with a history of incarceration. This is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In the current retrospective cohort study, we examined patient-level information for 340 PLWH who had transferred HIV care services from prison or from other community-based or private HIV primary care providers to a large urban HIV clinic in the southeastern United States. Results indicated that, compared to those transferring care from another community-based or private medical provider, PLWH transferring care from prison were significantly less likely to be retained in care than PLWH transferring care from other providers, even after controlling for other factors...
August 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117076/changes-in-sexual-behavior-and-sti-diagnoses-among-msm-initiating-prep-in-a-clinic-setting
#16
Michalina A Montaño, Julia C Dombrowski, Sayan Dasgupta, Matthew R Golden, Ann Duerr, Lisa E Manhart, Lindley A Barbee, Christine M Khosropour
We examined changes in sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among 183 men who have sex with men (MSM) initiating pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at an STD Clinic in Seattle, WA. We used generalized estimating equations to measure changes in sexual behavior during PrEP use, and linked PrEP patient data with STI surveillance data to compare the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis in the periods prior to and during PrEP use. Reporting never using condoms in the prior 30 days increased (adjusted relative risk = 1...
August 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116757/naturally-derived-anti-hiv-polysaccharide-peptide-psp-triggers-a-toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-antiviral-immune-response
#17
Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Sheila López, Mariela Rivera, Eddy Ríos-Olivares, Luis Cubano, Nawal M Boukli
Aim: Intense interest remains in the identification of compounds to reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Coriolus versicolor 's polysaccharide peptide (PSP) has been demonstrated to possess immunomodulatory properties with the ability to activate an innate immune response through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) showing insignificant toxicity. This study sought to determine the potential use of PSP as an anti-HIV agent and whether its antiviral immune response was TLR4 dependent...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116753/protective-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-different-pathogen-infections-and-its-potential-clinical-application
#18
REVIEW
Yueshui Zhao, Ling Lin, Zhangang Xiao, Mingxing Li, Xu Wu, Wanping Li, Xiaobing Li, Qijie Zhao, Yuanlin Wu, Hanyu Zhang, Jianhua Yin, Lingling Zhang, Chi Hin Cho, Jing Shen
γδ T cells, a subgroup of T cells based on the γδ TCR, when compared with conventional T cells ( αβ T cells), make up a very small proportion of T cells. However, its various subgroups are widely distributed in different parts of the human body and are attractive effectors for infectious disease immunity. γδ T cells are activated and expanded by nonpeptidic antigens (P-Ags), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and lipids which are associated with different kinds of pathogen infections...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116714/-talaromyces-penicillium-marneffei-infection
#19
Qian Du, Chak Kwan Tong
A 41-year-old man from the emergency department presented with fever for 2 weeks, sore throat, dry cough and generalized umbilicated skin lesions (face (Fig. 1), and chest (Fig. 2)). HIV antibody was positive, CD4+ count was 2/μL. His skin swab, sputum and blood culture all yielded Talaromyces ( Penicillium ) marneffei (Fig. 3). Talaromyces marneffei is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed patients who live in or are from endemic areas especially Southeast Asia...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116697/an-update-on-the-global-epidemiology-of-syphilis
#20
Noah Kojima, Jeffrey D Klausner
Purpose of Review: Syphilis continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. While syphilis infection is easily identifiable and treatable, rates of syphilis infection continue to increase among select populations in high-income countries and remain at endemic levels in low- and middle-income counties. Recent findings: World Health Organization recommended strategies have led to the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV in several countries, however outbreaks among select populations need to be adequately addressed...
March 2018: Current Epidemiology Reports
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