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Alauddin, Swati Chaturvedi, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Zaiba Naseem, ChandanaVenkateswara Rao, Naresh Kumar Agarwal
AIMS: Ritonavir (RIT) is a human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) active against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among various adverse effects of PIs, hepatotoxicity is a very common adverse reaction of RIT which is concentration dependent. Red clover isoflavones are found to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that these isoflavones can be used to alleviate the side-effects of drugs. Hence, the present study was inquested to ascertain the effect of Formononetin (FMN) and Biochanin A (BCA) on RIT induced hepatotoxicity...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Jordan Thomas, Alessandra Ruggiero, Francesco A Procopio, Giuseppe Pantaleo, William A Paxton, Georgios Pollakis
HIV-1 infection cannot be cured due to the presence of the latent reservoir (LR). Novel cure or treatment strategies, such as "shock and kill" or therapeutic vaccination, aim to reduce or eradicate the LR. Cure strategies utilise robust DNA quantification assays to measure the change in the LR in low copy scenarios. No standard assay exists, which impedes the reliable comparison of results from different therapy and vaccine trials and HIV-1 total DNA quantification methods have not been previously compared...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Richard D'Aquila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Sung-Jae Lee, Dallas Swendeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Natsayi Chimbindi, Nondumiso Mthiyane, Isolde Birdthistle, Sian Floyd, Nuala McGrath, Deenan Pillay, Janet Seeley, Thembelihle Zuma, Jaco Dreyer, Dickman Gareta, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Justin Fenty, Kobus Herbst, Theresa Smit, Kathy Baisley, Maryam Shahmanesh
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) bear the brunt of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. 'DREAMS' aims to reduce HIV incidence through multi-level combination prevention. We describe HIV incidence and uptake of HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) by AGYW in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), prior to DREAMS. METHODS: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of women (15-24 year old) in a population-based HIV incidence cohort within a demographic surveillance site in KZN...
2018: PloS One
Michael T Caton, Nityanand Miskin, Hyewon Hyun
A 62-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on long-standing highly active antiretroviral therapy presented for F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of a pulmonary nodule. The examination showed unusual radiotracer distribution accumulating in the subcutaneous and visceral fat with low cerebral and skeletal muscle uptake. Imaging features were consistent with HIV-associated lipodystrophy, an unsuspected diagnosis that was later confirmed on physical examination. Recognition of HIV-associated lipodystrophy by the nuclear medicine physician is critical as altered biodistribution may affect diagnostic yield or be mistaken for infectious pathology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Nicolás Merchante, Blanca Figueruela, Miguel Rodríguez-Fernández, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo, Boris Revollo, Sofía Ibarra, María J Galindo, Esperanza Merino, Marta Montero, Francisco Téllez, Miguel García-Deltoro, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Marcial Delgado-Fernández, María J Ríos-Villegas, Koldo Aguirrebengoa, María A García, Joseba Portu, Francisco J Vera-Méndez, Marina Villalobos, Carlos Mínguez, Ignacio De Los Santos, Miguel A López-Ruz, Mohamed Omar, Carlos Galera, Juan Macías, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of ultrasound (US) surveillance for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The GEHEP-002 cohort recruits HCC cases diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 32 centers across Spain. The proportion of 'US lack of detection', defined as HCC diagnosed within the first 3 months after a normal surveillance US, and the proportion of 'surveillance failure', defined as cases in which surveillance failed to detect HCC at early stage, were assessed...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Olivier Lucar, Mariama Sadjo Diallo, Charles Bayard, Assia Samri, Nadine Tarantino, Patrice Debré, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, Sophie Matheron, Rémi Cheynier, Vincent Vieillard
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 and HIV-2 differ notably in their epidemiology, with worldwide HIV-1 spread and HIV-2 mainly confined to West Africa. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical antiviral effectors of the immune system; however, limited information is available about these innate effector cells during HIV-2 infection. METHOD: In this study, 24 untreated HIV-2-infected patients were analyzed and compared with 21 long-term nonprogressor and 10 controller HIV-1 patients, and healthy donors...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Suman Srinivasa, Kathleen V Fitch, Martin Torriani, Markella V Zanni, Christopher Defilippi, Robert Christenson, Patrick Maehler, Sara E Looby, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) well-treated on antiretroviral therapies remain at risk for ensuing arterial disease. We investigated the relationship between adipose depots and biomarkers of arterial injury and inflammation to gain insight into the link between body composition and CVD risk. DESIGNS/METHODS: 155 HIV-infected and 70 non-HIV-infected individuals were well-phenotyped for body composition. Adipose depots were assessed via single-slice abdominal CT...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Romain Palich, Jade Ghosn, Antoine Chaillon, Valérie Boilet, Marie-Laure Nere, Marie-Laure Chaix, Pierre Delobel, Jean-Michel Molina, Frédéric Lutch, Olivier Bouchaud, Véronique Rieux, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Yves Levy, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Daniel Lelievre
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the timing and level of HIV rebound in blood and seminal plasma and to characterize the HIV rebounding populations after antiretroviral treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected participants enrolled in a therapeutic vaccine trial. DESIGN: A twelve-week (W) ATI period was proposed at W36 to patients enrolled in the VRI02/ANRS149-LIGHT trial. Paired blood and semen samples were collected before (W32 or W36) and during ATI (W38, W40, W42, W44 and W48)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Carolyn A Fahey, Prosper F Njau, William H Dow, Ntuli Kapologwe, Sandra I McCoy
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity (FI) impedes antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We previously demonstrated that short-term cash and food incentives increased ART possession and retention in HIV services in Tanzania. To elucidate potential pathways that led to these achievements, we examined whether incentives also improved FI. DESIGN: Three-arm randomized controlled trial. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 805 food-insecure adult ART initiates (≤90 days) at three clinics were randomized to receive cash or food transfers (∼$11/month for ≤6 months, conditional on visit attendance) or standard-of-care (SOC) services...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Neta S Zuckerman, Zohar Mor, Efrat Bucris, Marina Wax, Ella Mendelson, Orna Mor
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise ∼30% of new HIV infections in Israel, a country with mixed Jewish and Arab populations. We molecularly characterized HIV-1 in the Arab and Jewish MSM (AMSM, JMSM) populations to reveal possible inter-ethnical connections. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS:: All Israeli-born, HIV-1-infected MSM diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 (n = 1143) were cross-matched with the National Civil Registry to identify religion (Jews/Muslim/Christian)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Lediya T Cheru, Kathleen V Fitch, Charles F Saylor, Michael Lu, Udo Hoffmann, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of mild renal impairment and coronary plaque in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: PLHIV and non-HIV controls with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL were investigated. eGFR (calculated by CKD-EPI formula) was related to coronary plaque indices obtained by CT angiography. RESULTS: 184 PLHIV (HIV viral load, 49 [47,49] copies/mL, CD4+ count, median 536 [370, 770] cells/mm, duration HIV, 15 ± 7 years) and 72 HIV-negative controls without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Emily A Kendall, Andrew S Azman, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Robert J Wilkinson, David W Dowdy, Molebogeng X Rangaka
OBJECTIVE: Both isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce tuberculosis risk in individuals living with HIV. We sought to estimate the broader, population-wide impact of providing a pragmatically-implemented 12-month IPT regimen to ART recipients in a high-burden community. DESIGN: Dynamic transmission model of a tuberculosis-HIV epidemic, calibrated to site-specific, historical epidemiologic and clinical trial data from Khayelitsha, South Africa...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
OBJECTIVE: Describe all-cause mortality associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) after a validated diagnosis of four non-communicable disease (NCD) diagnoses: 1) end-stage liver disease (ESLD); 2) end-stage renal disease (ESRD); 3) cancer; or 4) myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. DESIGN: We followed 4 cohorts of persons in continuity HIV care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic with a validated diagnosis of ESLD (n = 67), ESRD (n = 187), cancer (n = 424), and MI or stroke (n = 213) from 1996 through approximately 2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Héloïse M Delagreverie, Laurence Gerard, Antoine Chaillon, Marie Roelens, Lounes Djerroudi, Maud Salmona, Jérôme Larghero, Lionel Galicier, François Simon, Eric Oksenhendler, Hélène Moins-Teisserenc, Constance Delaugerre
OBJECTIVES: autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy (HDC/ASCT) is the prime model to study the impact of HDC in HIV-1-infected participants. We analyzed the impact of HDC/ASCT on the resurgent reservoir composition and origin. DESIGN: We included retrospectively a homogenous group of HIV-1-infected patients treated for high-risk lymphoma in a reference center with consistent chemotherapy regimen. METHODS: Thirteen participants treated with HDC/ASCT from 2012 to 2015 were included...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Anna Schultze, Carlo Torti, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Maurizio Zazzi, Helen Sambatakou, Andrea De Luca, Anna Maria Geretti, Anders Sonnerborg, Lidia Ruiz, Laura Monno, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Andrea Gori, Giuseppe Lapadula
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of primary resistance and selected polymorphic amino-acid substitutions in HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) on the CD4 count and viral load (VL) set point before the start of ART. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 6,180 individuals with a resistance test prior to starting ART accessing care in HIV clinics across Europe who had at least 1 VL and 1 CD4 test available were included in the analysis...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) DESIGN:: Seven observational studies across eight European countries of pregnancies in HIV-positive women METHODS:: Individual-level data were pooled on singleton pregnancies conceived off-ART in which a single combination ART regimen was initiated ≥2 weeks before delivery, and ending in a live birth in 2008-2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Daniela K van Santen, Jannie J van der Helm, Giota Touloumi, Nikos Pantazis, Roberto Muga, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, M John Gill, Eduard Sanders, Anthony Kelleher, Robert Zangerle, Kholoud Porter, Maria Prins, Ronald B Geskus
BACKGROUND: Most studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infection do not account for the order and duration of these two infections. We aimed to assess the effect of incident HCV infection, and its timing relative to HIV seroconversion (HIVsc) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) on their subsequent CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV-RNA viral load (VL) trajectories. METHODS: We included MSM with well-estimated dates of HIVsc from 17 cohorts within the CASCADE Collaboration...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Madeleine J Nichols, Thomas M Gates, James R Soares, Kirsten J Moffat, Caroline D Rae, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of evidence for the neurobiological underpinning of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI) and Mild Neurocognitive disorders (MND) in virally-suppressed HIV + persons. We hypothesized that such mild impairment would be associated with focal brain atrophy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: 85 virally-suppressed HIV + and 44 geographically, demographically, and lifestyle comparable HIV- men underwent anatomical MRI, neuropsychological evaluation, and HIV laboratory tests...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
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