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Yuki Takigawa, Keiichi Fujiwara, Takashi Saito, Takamasa Nakasuka, Taichi Ozeki, Sachi Okawa, Kenji Takada, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Hiroe Kayatani, Daisuke Minami, Ken Sato, Miki Nagao, Takuo Shibayama
A 66-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for pneumonia that was resistant to sulbactam/ampicillin and levofloxacin therapy. Chest computed tomography showed the rapidly progressive formation of multiple cavities. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated, and the patient was diagnosed with necrotizing pneumonia caused by community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). The MRSA strain had type IV staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec and genes encoding Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia with the PVL gene is rare; only three cases have been previously reported in Japan...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Emanuel José Saad, Diego Federico Baenas, Cecilia Soledad Boisseau, Mercedes Jesús García, Silvana Alejandra Nuñez, Domingo Cesar Balderramo, Daniela Hernandez, Juan Pablo Caeiro
Background: Bloodstream infections (BI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine epidemiological, microbiological and clinical features of community (CA-BI) and nosocomial bloodstream infections (N-BI). Methods: Bacteremia and fungemia events were retrospectively analyzed in two third-level hospitals between April 2009 and August 2013. Results: We identified 1150 events of bloodstream infections, 53...
September 17, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Y Y Wang, Y Q Han, S F Guo, Q Fu, J R Wang
Objective: To clarify distribution and drug resistance characteristics of anaerobes isolated from clinical infectious samples, and to provide experimental data for guiding on treatment of infections caused by anaerobes. Methods: The anaerobes, isolated from 1 057 different clinical specimens from inpatients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from March 2016 to November 2017, were identified by VITEK-2 anaerobes and corynebacterium (ANC) card and bacteroides fragilis isolates were further verified by 16S-rRNA sequencing...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
N Atac, O Kurt-Azap, I Dolapci, A Yesilkaya, O Ergonul, M Gonen, F Can
Escherichia coli ST131 is a cause for global concern because of its high multidrug resistance and several virulence factors. In this study, the contribution of acrAB-TolC efflux system of E. coli ST131 to fluoroquinolone resistance was evaluated. A total of nonrepetitive 111 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates were included in the study. Multilocus sequence typing was used for genotyping. Expressions of acrA, acrB, and TolC efflux pump genes were measured by RT-PCR. Mutations in marA, gyrA, parC, and aac(6')-lb-cr positivity were studied by Sanger sequencing...
December 2018: Current Microbiology
Kyoung-Ho Song, Sook-In Jung, Shinwon Lee, Sohee Park, Eu Suk Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park, Wan Beom Park, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Young Keun Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Yeon-Sook Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Sungmin Kiem, Hye-In Kim, Hong Bin Kim
Scarce information concerning the inoculum effect (InE) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) against broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics is available. We investigated the InE of MSSA against ceftriaxone, cefepime, meropenem, ampicillin/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam. The bacteraemic MSSA isolates were collected at ten Korean general hospitals from Sep 2013 to Mar 2015. The InE was defined if MICs of antibiotics at high inoculum (HI, ~5 × 107  CFU/ml) increased beyond the susceptible range compared to those at standard inoculum (SI, ~5 × 105  CFU/ml)...
September 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Youssef Sari
Studies on cannabinoids have reported contradictory findings, showing both aversion and rewarding outcomes in conditioned place preference (CPP). Various possibilities have been suggested to explain the aversive properties of cannabinoids, including the pharmacokinetics profile and dose selection. In this study, we have established a CPP method to investigate the effects of modulating astroglial glutamate transporters in cannabinoid dependence using a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) agonist, CP 55,940 (CP). Previous reports using CPP paradigm demonstrated the involvement of glutamatergic system in seeking behavior of several drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin and nicotine...
September 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Masatoshi Yamazoe, Hiromi Tomioka, Shuji Yamashita, Kazusa Egami, Kouji Oh
Mycoplasma hominis as a cause of empyema is rare. We report a case of empyema caused by M. hominis following a caesarean section. A 28-year-old woman at 39 weeks and one day of pregnancy was admitted to our hospital and underwent an emergency caesarean section because of premature rupture of membranes. On postoperative day 2, she developed a fever, and flomoxef was administered. A pleural effusion developed on the right side. A diagnosis of empyema was made, and sulbactam/ampicillin was administered. However, the patient's clinical condition did not improve...
November 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Hossein Khalili, Lida Shojaei, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Alireza Abdollahi, Mahsa Doomanlou
AIM: Efficacy of colistin and ampicillin-sulbactam have not been compared in treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to A. baumannii. Efficacy of colistin and ampicillin-sulbactam in combination with meropenem were compared in treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. METHOD: 47 patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia due to carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were randomized to receive meropenem/colistin or meropenem/ampicillin-sulbactam for 14 days...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Nahal Hadi, Zhaleh Mahmoodi, Amir Emami, Yalda Malekzadegan, Tahereh Valadbeygi
INTRODUCTION: Aeromonas spp. have recently emerged as opportunistic pathogens and only few studies are available regarding the isolation of these bacteria from burn wound infections. This study aimed at isolating Aeromonas as an infrequent cause of infection in this group of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A total of 300 samples were collected from the wounds of burn patients hospitalized in Gotbodin Shirazi Burn Center in a year. The samples were cultured on Aeromonas specific media...
September 3, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Mehmet Demirci, Bilun Gemicioglu, Suat Saribas, Zeynep Taner, Muzeyyen Mamal-Torun, Belma Karatoka, Linda Asik-Cagli, Ozlem Guven, Suleyman Demiryas, Bekir S Kocazeybek, Hrisi Bahar-Tokman
BACKGROUND: Parapneumonic effusions usually occur secondary to an infection and produce pus (empyema) that accumulates in the pleural space. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anerobes in patients with empyema and to assess their resistance patterns for seven antimicrobials. METHODS: Pleural fluid specimens from 236 patients were inoculated on Schaedler agar. Anaerobic bacteria were identified via API 20 A. Susceptibility testing for penicillin, ampicillin + sulbactam, amoxicillin + clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and imipenem were performed with the E-test...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Conor M Stack, Howard S Gold, Sharon B Wright, Linda M Baldini, Graham M Snyder
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the microbiology of hepatobiliary surgical site infections (SSIs) and to explore the relationship between specific antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens and the development of SSIs. DESIGN: Retrospective matched case-control study comparing patient, procedure, and antimicrobial prophylaxis characteristics among patients undergoing a hepatobiliary surgical procedure with and without an SSI. SETTING: A tertiary referral acute-care facility...
September 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Hsin-Yu Li, Cheng-Yen Kao, Wei-Hung Lin, Po-Xing Zheng, Jing-Jou Yan, Ming-Cheng Wang, Ching-Hao Teng, Chin-Chung Tseng, Jiunn-Jong Wu
Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas systems limit the acquisition of genetic elements and provide immunity against invasive bacteriophage. The characteristics of CRISPR-Cas systems in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are still unknown. Here, 97 K. pneumoniae genomes retrieved from the Integrated Microbial Genomes & Microbiomes genome database and 176 clinical isolates obtained from patients with bloodstream (BSI, n = 87) or urinary tract infections (UTI, n = 89) in Taiwan, were used for analysis. Forty out of ninety-seven genomes (41...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Roman Farooq Alvi, Bilal Aslam, Naveed Shahzad, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Muhammad Shafique
Antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, is associated with various nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat. This study is designed to find out the patterns of resistance against commonly used antibiotics in K. pneumoniae clinical isolates with special attention to fluoroquinolones. A total number of 200 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from various tertiary care hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan for a span of 1 year were investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and genetically using VITEK® system and species-specific PCR, respectively...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Helmut J F Salzer, Christiane Kuempers, Helen Pasternack, Jan Heyckendorf, Ralf Bialek, Emanuel Palade, Lukas Hundack, Barbara Kalsdorf, Christoph Lange
A 60-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with productive cough and yellowish sputum, severe fatigue, and weight loss of 4 kg over the past month; furthermore, he reported a slowly progressive shortness of breath on exertion over the past 6 months. Before admission, he received ampicillin/sulbactam (750 mg) orally twice daily for 7 days without significant clinical improvement.
July 2018: Chest
Flor Y Ramírez-Castillo, Adriana C Moreno-Flores, Francisco J Avelar-González, Francisco Márquez-Díaz, Josée Harel, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera
BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the main bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The rates of UPEC with high resistance towards antibiotics and multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased dramatically in recent years and could difficult the treatment. METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine multidrug-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance profile, virulence traits, and genetic background of 110 E. coli isolated from community (79 isolates) and hospital-acquired (31 isolates) urinary tract infections...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Yujie Hu, Yingying He, Yao Bai, Fengqin Li, Jin Xu
OBJECTIVE: Research were carried out to determine the antimicrobial resistance and mechanism of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013. METHODS: Broth microdilution method were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to obtain the minimal inhibitory concentration( MICs)against 11 antimicrobial compounds which belongs to 8 categories and 166 Salmonella strains isolated from 33 retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013 were tested...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Ekamjeet Randhawa, John Woytanowski, Kedesha Sibliss, Ian Sheffer
Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacteria, also known as group A streptococci, that causes a range of infections. The most common presentation is acute pharyngitis; however, it is also implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, and less commonly bacteremia, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Group A streptococci infections of the central nervous system are exceedingly rare in the antibiotic era. The mechanism of infection is typically contiguous spread from existing infection or via direct inoculation...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Sally Tohamy Tohamy, Khaled Mohamed Aboshanab, Hadir Ahmed El-Mahallawy, Mona R El-Ansary, Salwa Selim Afifi
Introduction: Bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are among the most frequent complications in immunocompromised cancer patients because of their considerable morbidity and mortality. Several guidelines on antimicrobial therapy have addressed empirical treatment for such serious infections; however, the emergence of microbial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide. Materials and methods: In this study, starting from November 2015 to October 2016, a total of 529 blood specimens were collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients at a tertiary care cancer hospital in Egypt...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Nurver Ulger Toprak, Alida C M Veloo, Edit Urban, Ingrid Wybo, Ulrik S Justesen, Helene Jean-Pierre, Trefor Morris, Oncu Akgul, Guven Kulekci, Guner Soyletir, Elisabeth Nagy
Knowledge about the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of different Prevotella species is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Prevotella species from different parts of Europe, Kuwait and Turkey. Activity of 12 antimicrobials against 508 Prevotella isolates, representing 19 species, were tested according to Etest methodology. EUCAST, CLSI and FDA guidelines were used for susceptibility interpretations. All Prevotella species were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline and metronidazole...
August 2018: Anaerobe
Micheal G Adondakis, John G Skedros, Bert K Lopansri, Stephen C Merrell
This case report describes a 38-year-old female presenting with a thigh abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens , Actinomyces sp., and α-hemolytic Streptococcus following an intramuscular vitamin B12 injection administered at an outpatient clinic. After failure to improve clinically with intravenous daptomycin and after visualization of the abscess with gas bubbles on CT scan, she was taken to the operating room for three separate surgical irrigation and debridement procedures. Treatment also included intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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