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Mridul Gupta, Radhika Annam, Joseph Bahgat, Margaret Eng
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It begins with an oropharyngeal infection, which spreads locally to involve the internal jugular vein causing thrombophlebitis, followed by distant spread and metastatic infections. Affected individuals are commonly young adults. Causative organisms are usually oropharyngeal flora, most commonly being the anaerobe Fusobacterium necrophorum . Porphyromonas asaccharolytica is a rare etiological agent with only three cases being reported in the literature...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Aurora Pop-Vicas, Stephen Johnson, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE: Current practice guidelines recommend cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, or ampicillin-sulbactam as first-line antibiotic prophylaxis in hysterectomy. We undertook this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether cefazolin, with limited antianaerobic spectrum, is as effective in preventing surgical site-infection (SSI) as the other first-choice antimicrobials that have more extensive antianaerobic activity. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) in any language up to January 23, 2018...
December 5, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Maryam Banar, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
OBJECTIVES: To describe the identity and antimicrobial resistance patterns of the causative agents of bacterial meningitis in children referred to Children's Medical Center (CMC) Hospital, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed at CMC Hospital during a six year period from 2011 to 2016. The microbiological information of the patients with a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was collected and the following data were obtained: patients' age, sex, hospital ward, the results of CSF and blood cultures, and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated organisms...
November 23, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Taro Noguchi, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toru Kanahashi, Michio Tanaka, Yasuhiro Tsuchido, Takuro Matsumura, Satoshi Nakano, Masaki Yamamoto, Miki Nagao, Satoshi Ichiyama
We investigated the epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of ampicillin-sulbactam-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli , focusing on the role of TEM-1 β-lactamase. We collected all non-duplicate E. coli clinical isolates at 10 Japanese hospitals during December 2014 and examined their antimicrobial susceptibility, β-lactamases, TEM-1 transferability, TEM-1 β-lactamase activity, outer membrane protein profile, membrane permeability, and clonal genotypes. Among the 329 isolates, 95 were ampicillin-sulbactam nonsusceptible...
November 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lianxin Liu, Yuxing Ni
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the value of organ-specific weighted incidence antibiogram (OSWIA) percentages for bacterial susceptibilities of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) collected from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) during SMART 2010-2014. METHODS: We retrospectively calculated the OSWIA percentages that would have been adequately covered by 12 common antimicrobials based on the bacterial compositions found in the appendix, peritoneum, colon, liver, gall bladder and pancreas...
November 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yewon Lee, Yukyung Choi, Soomin Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Sejeong Kim, Jimyeong Ha, Jeeyeon Lee, Hyemin Oh, Yujin Kim, Yohan Yoon
This study investigated the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood distribution channels, and the incidence of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant strains. One hundred sixty seven samples (126 fishery samples and 41 environmental samples) were collected from fishery auction markets, fish markets, and online markets in S. Korea from March to September, 2017. The samples were enriched in polymyxin broth and plated on CHROM agar Vibrio to isolate typical colonies. These were analyzed by PCR to identify V...
November 18, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Diego Faccone, Florencia Martino, Fernando Pasteran, Ezequiel Albornoz, Estefania Biondi, Miryam Vazquez, Melina Rapoport, Veronica Rodrigo, Denise De Belder, Sonia Gomez, Alejandra Corso
Acinetobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens being A. baumannii the most frequently identified in nosocomial settings. A. ursingii was mainly described as causing bacteremia and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units. Ten A. ursingii isolates were recovered from rectal swab screening for carbapenemase-producing bacteria between June 2013 and December 2015 from a children hospital in Argentina. All ten isolates were metallo-β-lactamase-producing, nine were positive for blaIMP-1 and one for blaNDM-1 . IMP-positive isolates were also positive for blaOXA-58 gene...
November 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tanya Strateva, Ivo Sirakov, Temenuga Stoeva, Alexander Stratev, Svetoslav Dimov, Encho Savov, Ivan Mitov
OBJECTIVES: A total of 226 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates was collected during 2014-2016 from in-patients aged 5-88 years in four Bulgarian university hospitals (H1-H4), to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility and to explore carbapenem resistance mechanisms, as well as the molecular epidemiology. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA sequencing, and electrotransformation experiments were performed...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Daisuke Kobayashi, Yuichiro Shindo, Ryota Ito, Mai Iwaki, Junya Okumura, Toshihiro Sakakibara, Ikuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Yagi, Tomohiko Ogasawara, Yasuteru Sugino, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hiroshi Saito, Hideo Saka, Takashi Kawamura, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Background: Appropriate initial antibiotic treatment and avoiding administration of unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotics are important for the treatment of pneumonia. To achieve this, assessment of risk for drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) at diagnosis is essential. Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a predictive rule for DRPs that we previously proposed (the community-acquired pneumonia drug-resistant pathogen [CAP-DRP] rule), comparing several other predictive methods...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Rajeev X Soman, Neha Gupta, Piyush Chaudhari, Ayesha Sunavala, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Background: The profile of Infective endocarditis (IE) has been evolving continuously. Like other infectious Diseases (ID) syndromes, IE has not escaped from antibiotic resistance issues. The aim of this study was to determine the implications for diagnosis and treatment by studying the clinical profile and outcome of patients admitted with IE in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai during the period from 2007-2015.. Methods: 53 patients having definite or possible IE as per Modified Duke's Criteria (MDC), that were referred to the ID division, were included in this study...
April 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sirous Faraji Hormozi, Narges Vasei, Mohammad Aminianfar, Mohammad Darvishi, Ali Asghar Saeedi
This study was performed to determine the trend of antibiotic resistance of the causative organisms among the patients suffering from nosocomial infections in Besat Hospital since 2013 to 2015. In this observational study that was performed as a retrospective cohort, 935 consecutive patients with nosocomial infection were enrolled in Besat Hospital since 2013 to 2015. The trend of antibiotic resistance of the causative organisms among them was determined and contributing factors were assessed. The finding of this study revealed that type of microorganisms had significant variation (p = 0...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
Hasan Ejaz, Azra Javeed, Muhammad Zubair
Objective: We determined the bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance profile of circulating Pakistani currency notes collected from hospital and community sources. Methods: This prospective study was organized from July to December 2015 in the Microbiology Department of The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health Lahore. It was done on one hundred currency notes of four different denominations collected from various groups of people in sterile polythene bags...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is a rare disease but is increasing in frequency, especially among older women. In addition, its mortality rate is higher than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK-group gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingela spp.). CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese woman with a history of alcohol abuse was admitted to our hospital because of a fever...
October 19, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Yuki Takigawa, Keiichi Fujiwara, Takashi Saito, Takamasa Nakasuka, Taichi Ozeki, Sachi Okawa, Kenji Takada, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Hiroe Kayatani, Daisuke Minami, Ken Sato, Miki Nagao, Takuo Shibayama
A 66-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for pneumonia that was resistant to sulbactam/ampicillin and levofloxacin therapy. Chest computed tomography showed the rapidly progressive formation of multiple cavities. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated, and the patient was diagnosed with necrotizing pneumonia caused by community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). The MRSA strain had type IV staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec and genes encoding Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia with the PVL gene is rare; only three cases have been previously reported in Japan...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Emanuel José Saad, Diego Federico Baenas, Cecilia Soledad Boisseau, Mercedes Jesús García, Silvana Alejandra Nuñez, Domingo Cesar Balderramo, Daniela Hernandez, Juan Pablo Caeiro
Background: Bloodstream infections (BI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine epidemiological, microbiological and clinical features of community (CA-BI) and nosocomial bloodstream infections (N-BI). Methods: Bacteremia and fungemia events were retrospectively analyzed in two third-level hospitals between April 2009 and August 2013. Results: We identified 1150 events of bloodstream infections, 53...
September 17, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Y Y Wang, Y Q Han, S F Guo, Q Fu, J R Wang
Objective: To clarify distribution and drug resistance characteristics of anaerobes isolated from clinical infectious samples, and to provide experimental data for guiding on treatment of infections caused by anaerobes. Methods: The anaerobes, isolated from 1 057 different clinical specimens from inpatients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from March 2016 to November 2017, were identified by VITEK-2 anaerobes and corynebacterium (ANC) card and bacteroides fragilis isolates were further verified by 16S-rRNA sequencing...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
N Atac, O Kurt-Azap, I Dolapci, A Yesilkaya, O Ergonul, M Gonen, F Can
Escherichia coli ST131 is a cause for global concern because of its high multidrug resistance and several virulence factors. In this study, the contribution of acrAB-TolC efflux system of E. coli ST131 to fluoroquinolone resistance was evaluated. A total of nonrepetitive 111 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates were included in the study. Multilocus sequence typing was used for genotyping. Expressions of acrA, acrB, and TolC efflux pump genes were measured by RT-PCR. Mutations in marA, gyrA, parC, and aac(6')-lb-cr positivity were studied by Sanger sequencing...
December 2018: Current Microbiology
Kyoung-Ho Song, Sook-In Jung, Shinwon Lee, Sohee Park, Eu Suk Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park, Wan Beom Park, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Young Keun Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Yeon-Sook Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Sungmin Kiem, Hye-In Kim, Hong Bin Kim
Scarce information concerning the inoculum effect (InE) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) against broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics is available. We investigated the InE of MSSA against ceftriaxone, cefepime, meropenem, ampicillin/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam. The bacteraemic MSSA isolates were collected at ten Korean general hospitals from Sep 2013 to Mar 2015. The InE was defined if MICs of antibiotics at high inoculum (HI, ~5 × 107  CFU/ml) increased beyond the susceptible range compared to those at standard inoculum (SI, ~5 × 105  CFU/ml)...
September 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Youssef Sari
Studies on cannabinoids have reported contradictory findings, showing both aversion and rewarding outcomes in conditioned place preference (CPP). Various possibilities have been suggested to explain the aversive properties of cannabinoids, including the pharmacokinetics profile and dose selection. In this study, we have established a CPP method to investigate the effects of modulating astroglial glutamate transporters in cannabinoid dependence using a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) agonist, CP 55,940 (CP). Previous reports using CPP paradigm demonstrated the involvement of glutamatergic system in seeking behavior of several drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin and nicotine...
September 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Masatoshi Yamazoe, Hiromi Tomioka, Shuji Yamashita, Kazusa Egami, Kouji Oh
Mycoplasma hominis as a cause of empyema is rare. We report a case of empyema caused by M. hominis following a caesarean section. A 28-year-old woman at 39 weeks and one day of pregnancy was admitted to our hospital and underwent an emergency caesarean section because of premature rupture of membranes. On postoperative day 2, she developed a fever, and flomoxef was administered. A pleural effusion developed on the right side. A diagnosis of empyema was made, and sulbactam/ampicillin was administered. However, the patient's clinical condition did not improve...
November 2018: Respirology Case Reports
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