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Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Julia Y Q Low, Robert L McBride, Kathleen E Lacy, Russell S J Keast
Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A)...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Senses
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Karinne Saucedo-Vence, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Octavio Dublán-García, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Hariz Islas-Flores, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Sandra García-Medina, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Sucralose (SUC) is an artificial sweetener that is now widely used in North American and Europe; it has been detected in a wide variety of aquatic environments. It is considered safe for human consumption but its effects in the ecosystem have not yet been studied in depth, since limited ecotoxicological data are available in the peer-reviewed literature. This study aimed to evaluate potential SUC-induced toxicological hazard in the blood, brain, gill, liver and muscle of Cyprinus carpio using oxidative stress biomarkers...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Senses
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
Laura T Rodriguez Furlán, Yanina Baracco, Javier Lecot, Noemi Zaritzky, Mercedes E Campderrós
The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Rafaela da Silva Andrade, Sabrina Carvalho Bastos, Sandra Bragança Coelho, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro
High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests...
September 13, 2016: Appetite
Johan Medina, Yuko Nakagawa, Masahiro Nagasawa, Anny Fernandez, Kazushige Sakaguchi, Tesuya Kitaguchi, Itaru Kojima
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is activated by various cations, cationic compounds and amino acids. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glucose on CaSR in HEK293 cells stably expressing human CaSR (HEK-CaSR cells). When glucose concentration in the buffer was raised from 3 to 25 mM, a rapid elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) was observed. This elevation was immediate and transient, and was followed by a sustained decrease in [Ca2+]c. The effect of glucose was detected at a concentration of 4 mM, and was the maximal at 5 mM...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nouf S Gadah, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Peter J Rogers
The vast majority of preload-test-meal studies that have investigated the effects on energy intake of disguised nutrient or other food/drink ingredient manipulations have used a cross-over design. We argue that this design may underestimate the effect of the manipulation due to carry-over effects. To test this we conducted comparable cross-over (n = 69) and parallel-groups (n = 48) studies testing the effects of sucrose versus low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in a drink preload on test-meal energy intake...
August 24, 2016: Appetite
Trina J Lapis, Michael H Penner, Juyun Lim
It is widely accepted that humans can taste mono- and disaccharides as sweet substances, but they cannot taste longer chain oligo- and polysaccharides. From the evolutionary standpoint, the ability to taste starch or its oligomeric hydrolysis products would be highly adaptive, given their nutritional value. Here, we report that humans can taste glucose oligomer preparations (average degree of polymerization 7 and 14) without any other sensorial cues. The same human subjects could not taste the corresponding glucose polymer preparation (average degree of polymerization 44)...
August 23, 2016: Chemical Senses
Melody J Bernot, Jesse C Becker, Jason Doll, Thomas E Lauer
We collaborated with 26 groups from universities across the United States to sample 42 sites for 33 trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water and sediments of lotic ecosystems. Our goals were 1) to further develop a national database of TOC abundance in United States lotic ecosystems that can be a foundation for future research and management, and 2) to identify factors related to compound abundance. Trace organic compounds were found in 93% of water samples and 56% of sediment samples. Dissolved concentrations were 10-1000× higher relative to sediment concentrations...
August 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Barkha P Patel, Jill K Hamilton, Shirley Vien, Scott G Thomas, G Harvey Anderson
Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Bo Lu, Joseph M Breza, Robert J Contreras
Temperature profoundly affects the perceived intensity of taste, yet we know little of the extent of temperature's effect on taste in the peripheral nervous system. Accordingly, we investigated the influence of temperature from 23 °C to 43 °C in 4 °C intervals on the integrated responses of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve to a large series of chemical stimuli representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes in C57BL/J6 mice. We also measured neural responses to NaCl, Na-gluconate, Na-acetate, Na-sulfate, and MSG with and without 5 µM benzamil, an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) antagonist, to assess the influence of temperature on ENaC-dependent and ENaC-independent response components...
August 6, 2016: Chemical Senses
Sneha Sehwag, Madhusweta Das
Whole jamun based functional confection (WJFC) was developed from an optimized blend (through response surface methodology) containing 26.585 % paste of jamun pulp with adhering skin, 2 % jamun seed powder, hydrocolloid mixture (2.289 % agar, 1.890 % pectin and 27.236 % polydextrose), antimicrobials (0.022 % benzoic acid and 0.085 % sorbic acid), and 40 % added water. The confection also contained 0.08 % sucralose, 0.06 % citric acid and 100 mg CaCl2.2H2O/g pectin. The confection was found to be rich in minerals like Ca, Mg, K, Na and P, with prebiotic activity and low glycemic index (48...
June 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Rongyan Li, Jiadong Zheng, Mingshan Jiang, Yuanli Liu, Xiaofa Qin, Xiuhong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Qiao-Ping Wang, Yong Qi Lin, Lei Zhang, Yana A Wilson, Lisa J Oyston, James Cotterell, Yue Qi, Thang M Khuong, Noman Bakhshi, Yoann Planchenault, Duncan T Browman, Man Tat Lau, Tiffany A Cole, Adam C N Wong, Stephen J Simpson, Adam R Cole, Josef M Penninger, Herbert Herzog, G Gregory Neely
Non-nutritive sweeteners like sucralose are consumed by billions of people. While animal and human studies have demonstrated a link between synthetic sweetener consumption and metabolic dysregulation, the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Here we use a diet supplemented with sucralose to investigate the long-term effects of sweet/energy imbalance. In flies, chronic sweet/energy imbalance promoted hyperactivity, insomnia, glucose intolerance, enhanced sweet taste perception, and a sustained increase in food and calories consumed, effects that are reversed upon sucralose removal...
July 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Yi-Hsing Hsiao, Chia-Hsien Hsu, Chihchen Chen
The human enteroendocrine L cell line NCI-H716, expressing taste receptors and taste signaling elements, constitutes a unique model for the studies of cellular responses to glucose, appetite regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and insulin secretion. Targeting these gut taste receptors may provide novel treatments for diabetes and obesity. However, NCI-H716 cells are cultured in suspension and tend to form multicellular aggregates, preventing high-throughput calcium imaging due to interferences caused by laborious immobilization and stimulus delivery procedures...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anne M Walk, Lauren B Raine, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Naiman A Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yun-Ya Yang, Gurpal S Toor, P Chris Wilson, Clinton F Williams
Septic systems, a common type of onsite wastewater treatment systems, can be an important source of micropollutants in the environment. We investigated the fate and mass balance of 17 micropollutants, including wastewater markers, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the drainfield of a septic system. Drainfields were replicated in lysimeters (1.5m length, 0.9m width, 0.9m height) and managed similar to the field practice. In each lysimeter, a drip line dispersed 9L of septic tank effluent (STE) per day (equivalent to 32...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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