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Auditory sensitivity

Lauren Strober, John DeLuca, Ralph Hb Benedict, Adam Jacobs, Jeffrey A Cohen, Nancy Chiaravalloti, Lynn D Hudson, Richard A Rudick, Nicholas G LaRocca
BACKGROUND: The need for more robust outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials has been a main priority of the field for decades. Dissatisfaction with existing measures has led to several consensus meetings and initiatives over the past few decades in hopes of defining and gaining acceptance of measures that are valid, reliable, sensitive to change and progression, and most importantly, relevant to those living with MS. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) was formed for this purpose...
October 18, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Katie L Barfoot, Gabrielle May, Daniel J Lamport, Jessie Ricketts, Patricia M Riddell, Claire M Williams
PURPOSE: Previous evidence suggests consumption of flavonoids, a sub-class of polyphenols, is associated with improved cognitive function across the lifespan. In particular, acute intervention of a flavonoid-rich wild blueberry (WBB) drink has been shown to boost executive function (EF), short-term memory and mood 2-6 h post-consumption in 7-10-year-old children. However, confirmation of the aspects of EF and memory susceptible to WBB ingestion is required, particularly during childhood, a critical period of neurological development...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Andrew D Brown, Victor Benichoux, Heath G Jones, Kelsey L Anbuhl, Daniel J Tollin
Sensory performance is constrained by the information in the stimulus and the precision of the involved sensory system(s). Auditory spatial acuity is robust across a broad range of sound frequencies and source locations, but declines at eccentric lateral angles. The basis of such variation is not fully understood. Low-frequency auditory spatial acuity is mediated by sensitivity to interaural time difference (ITD) cues. While low-frequency spatial acuity varies across azimuth and some physiological models predict strong medial bias in the precision of ITD sensitivity, human psychophysical ITD sensitivity appears to vary only slightly with reference ITD magnitude...
October 4, 2018: Hearing Research
Chelsea Sanker
This paper presents a set of auditory perception experiments testing the effects of lexical ambiguity, lemma frequency, and acoustic details. In an AX discrimination task with stimuli produced in isolation, lexically ambiguous phonologically matching forms (e.g., sun-sun, sun-son) were evaluated more slowly and identified as 'different' more often than lexically unambiguous forms (e.g., cat-cat). For stimuli extracted from meaningful sentences, pairs of homophone mates (sun-son) were evaluated more slowly than same pairs of such words (sun-sun), following from the greater acoustic distance between homophone mates in several measures...
October 15, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Virginia Carter Leno, Susie Chandler, Pippa White, Isabel Yorke, Tony Charman, Andrew Pickles, Emily Simonoff
Background: Many young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience emotional and behavioural problems. However, the causes of these co-occurring difficulties are not well understood. Perceptual processing atypicalities are also often reported in individuals with ASD, but how these relate to co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems remains unclear, and few studies have used objective measurement of perceptual processing. Methods: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to both standard and deviant stimuli (which varied in pitch) in an auditory oddball paradigm in adolescents (mean age of 13...
2018: Molecular Autism
Andrew C Katsis, Mzuri H Davies, Katherine L Buchanan, Sonia Kleindorfer, Mark E Hauber, Mylene M Mariette
Songbirds are important models for understanding the mechanisms and fitness consequences of imitative vocal learning. Although the effects of early-life environmental and social conditions on song learning are well-established, the impact of early sound exposure has received surprisingly little attention. Yet recent evidence hints at auditory sensitivity in songbird embryos, including in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a classic model species for song learning. Here, we tested whether prenatal exposure to incubation calls-highly rhythmic parental vocalisations produced on the nest-affected song learning in zebra finches...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carlo Cavaliere, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Orsini, Marco Aiello, Dario Grossi
The aim of the study is to investigate morphofunctional circuits underlying musical hallucinations (MH) in a 72-years old female that underwent a simultaneous 18fluoredeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and advanced magnetic resonance (MR) exam. This represents a particular case of MH occurred in an healthy subject, not displaying neurological or psychopathological disorders, and studied simultaneously with a multimodal approach. For the resting-state fMRI analysis a seed to seed approach was chosen...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, Björn Herrmann, Edward L Bartlett
Hearing impairment in older people is thought to arise from impaired temporal processing in auditory circuits. We used a systems-level (scalp recordings) and a microcircuit-level (extracellular recordings) approach to investigate how aging affects the sensitivity to temporal envelopes of speech-like sounds in rats. Scalp-recorded potentials suggest an age-related increase in sensitivity to temporal regularity along the ascending auditory pathway. The underlying cellular changes in the midbrain were examined using extracellular recordings from inferior colliculus neurons...
September 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Brian J Roach, Judith M Ford, Daniel H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: In 1999, Kwon et al. reported several electroencephalographic gamma band auditory steady-state response (ASSR) abnormalities in schizophrenia, spawning approximately 100 subsequent studies. While many studies replicated the finding of reduced 40-Hz ASSR power in schizophrenia and extended this by showing that 40-Hz phase synchrony (phase-locking factor [PLF]) was also reduced, none attempted to replicate the original phase delay finding of Kwon et al. Accordingly, we measured the 40-Hz ASSR phase-locking angle (PLA) to assess phase delay and examined its differential sensitivity to schizophrenia, relative to power and PLF measures...
August 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Marisa Giorgetti, Maria Luisa Lorusso
Short-term memory (STM) models distinguish between item and order memorization. The present study aims to explore how item and order STM are affected by the nature of the stimuli, the sequential versus simultaneous mode of presentation, the visual versus auditory presentation modality, the possibility of verbal recoding. A total of 20 children with dyslexia were matched one-by-one with 20 typically reading children on sex, age (8-14 years), and grade. Computerized STM tasks were administered while manipulating type (item vs...
October 11, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Shuyu Zhu, Ben Allitt, Anil Samuel, Leo Lui, Marcello G P Rosa, Ramesh Rajan
The pitch of vocalisations is a key communication feature aiding recognition of individuals and separating sound sources in complex acoustic environments. The neural representation of the pitch of periodic sounds is well defined. However, many natural sounds, like complex vocalisations, contain rich, aperiodic or not strictly periodic frequency content and/or include high frequency components, but still evoke a strong sense of pitch. Indeed, such sounds are the rule, not the exception but the cortical mechanisms for encoding pitch of such sounds are unknown...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Benjamin Ehrlich, Liyu Lin, Jack Jiang
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a program to concatenate acoustic vowel segments that were selected with the moving window technique, a previously developed technique used to segment and select the least perturbed segment from a sustained vowel segment. The concatenated acoustic segments were compared with the nonconcatenated, short, individual acoustic segments for their ability to differentiate normal and pathological voices. The concatenation process sometimes created a clicking noise or beat, which was also analyzed to determine any confounding effects...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Matthew K Pine, David E Hannay, Stephen J Insley, William D Halliday, Francis Juanes
Vessel slowdown may be an alternative mitigation option in regions where re-routing shipping corridors to avoid important marine mammal habitat is not possible. We investigated the potential relief in masking in marine mammals and fish from a 10 knot speed reduction of container and cruise ships. The mitigation effect from slower vessels was not equal between ambient sound conditions, species or vessel-type. Under quiet ambient conditions, a speed reduction from 25 to 15 knots resulted in smaller listening space reductions by 16-23%, 10-18%, 1-2%, 5-8% and 8% respectively for belugas, bowheads, bearded seals, ringed seals, and fish, depending on vessel-type...
October 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manuel S Malmierca, Blanca E Niño-Aguillón, Javier Nieto-Diego, Ángel Porteros, David Pérez-González, Carles Escera
A 'pattern alternation paradigm' has been previously used in human ERP recordings to investigate the brain encoding of complex auditory regularities, but prior studies on regularity encoding in animal models to examine mechanisms of adaptation of auditory neuronal responses have used primarily oddball stimulus sequences to study stimulus-specific adaptation alone. In order to examine the sensitivity of neuronal adaptation to expected and unexpected events embedded in a complex sound sequence, we used a similar patterned sequence of sounds...
October 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Chuanji Gao, Douglas H Wedell, Jessica J Green, Xi Jia, Xinrui Mao, Chunyan Guo, Svetlana V Shinkareva
This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time course of auditory, visual, and audiovisual affective processing. Stimuli consisted of naturalistic silent videos, instrumental music clips, or combination of the two, with valence varied at three levels for each modality and arousal matched across valence conditions. Affective ratings of the unimodal and multimodal stimuli showed evidence of visual dominance, congruency, and negativity dominance effects. ERP results for unimodal presentations revealed valence effects in early components for both modalities, but only for the visual condition in a late positive potential...
October 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
Mary H Patton, Jay A Blundon, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Cortical circuits are particularly sensitive to incoming sensory information during well-defined intervals of postnatal development called 'critical periods'. The critical period for cortical plasticity closes in adults, thus restricting the brain's ability to indiscriminately store new sensory information. For example, children acquire language in an exposure-based manner, whereas learning language in adulthood requires more effort and attention. It has been suggested that pairing sounds with the activation of neuromodulatory circuits involved in attention reopens this critical period...
October 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Frank Musiek, Stephanie Nagle
BACKGROUND: The middle latency response (MLR) first came to light as an auditory evoked potential in 1958. Since then, it has aroused substantial interest and investigation by clinicians and researchers alike. In recent history, its use and popularity have dwindled in tandem with various other auditory evoked potentials in audiology. One area for which MLR research and application has been overlooked is its potential value in measuring the neural integrity of the auditory thalamocortical pathway...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Amir Shufaniya, Inbal Arnon
Humans are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment via statistical learning (SL), an ability thought to play an important role in language learning and learning more generally. While much work has examined statistical learning in infants and adults, less work has looked at the developmental trajectory of SL during childhood to see whether it is fully developed in infancy or improves with age, like many other cognitive abilities. A recent study showed modality-based differences in the effect of age during childhood: While visual SL improved with age, auditory SL did not...
October 1, 2018: Cognitive Science
Steffen Wolter, Dorit Möhrle, Hannes Schmidt, Sylvia Pfeiffer, Dennis Zelle, Philipp Eckert, Michael Krämer, Robert Feil, Peter K D Pilz, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
Sensory axon T-like branching (bifurcation) in neurons from dorsal root ganglia and cranial sensory ganglia depends on the molecular signaling cascade involving the secreted factor C-type natriuretic peptide, the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B; also known as Npr2) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI, also known as PKGI). The bifurcation of cranial nerves is suggested to be important for information processing by second-order neurons in the hindbrain or spinal cord. Indeed, mice with a spontaneous GC-B loss of function mutation ( Npr2cn/cn ) display an impaired bifurcation of auditory nerve (AN) fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kaitlin Fitzgerald, Juanita Todd
The amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited following an unexpected sound reflects a pattern-violation signal that will increase with estimated precision. Precision is inversely related to environmental variance, and should be higher the longer that current regularities have been stable. However, MMN amplitude can be impacted by initial learning such that the relative probability of sounds when first encountered distorts the precision estimates later associated with those sounds. The present study tested the hypothesis that MMN to a pattern violation would be differentially sensitive to both local and global patterning within a sequence, depending on whether the sound was common or rare at sequence onset...
September 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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