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Xin Zhang, Rui Dai, Qunhui Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Yangyang Luo, Limiao Lin, Yingzuo Bi, Feng Chen
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been discovered in swine herds from three provinces in China, suggesting a wide distribution in China. This study reports the occurrence of three novel APPV strains in China. They were detected from newborn piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremors (CT) in Guangdong Province, China. The complete genomic sequences of three novel APPV strains exhibited only 80.5%-84.1% nucleotide sequences homology with other APPV reference sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel APPV strains formed independent branch from the American, German, Netherlandish, Australian and other Chinese strains...
December 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kelei Zhou, Hua Yue, Cheng Tang, Wenqiang Ruan, Qun Zhou, Bin Zhang
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causes congenital tremor (CT) in piglets and has a wide geographical distribution. In this study, we evaluated APPV prevalence using 165 piglet sera from southwest China. Viral RNA was detectable by qRT-PCR in 43.6 % (17/39, 95 % CI 27.8-60.4 %) of piglets with CT, while viral RNA was not detected in the sera of any healthy piglets. The seven complete APPV genomes were obtained from distinct farms and were 11 269-11 459 nucleotides in length. The genomes of the seven strains shared 82...
December 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Eliana F Castro, Juan J Casal, María J España de Marco, Leandro Battini, Matías Fabiani, Gabriela A Fernández, Ana M Bruno, Lucía V Cavallaro, Mariela Bollini
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus whose infection in cattle is globally distributed. The use of antivirals could complement vaccination as a tool of control and reduce economic losses. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the virus is essential for its genome replication and constitutes an attractive target for the identification of antivirals. With the aim of obtaining selective BVDV inhibitors, the crystal structure of BVDV RdRp was used to perform a virtual screening. Approximately 15,000 small molecules from commercial and in-house databases were evaluated and several structurally different compounds were tested in vitro for antiviral activity...
November 23, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Huawei Zhang, Wei Wen, Genxi Hao, Huanchun Chen, Ping Qian, Xiangmin Li
An atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causing congenital tremor type A-II in piglets was identified in China in 2016. An increased number of cases of APPV have been reported in various countries all over the world since 2015. This study aimed to develop an effective subunit vaccine against APPV based on the E2 protein, which is the main immunogenicity protein of APPV. In this study, E2 protein was successfully expressed by the baculovirus expression system. E2 protein was confirmed by Western blot assay, which showed that E2 protein possesses N-linked glycosylation sites...
November 28, 2018: Viruses
Shaoxiong Yu, Caixia Yin, Kun Song, Su Li, Guang-Lai Zheng, Lian-Feng Li, Jinghan Wang, Yongfeng Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of classical swine fever in pigs, is a member of the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. It has been proposed that CSFV infection is significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment. However, the exact engagement of cellular cholesterol in the life cycle of CSFV remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pretreatment of PK-15 cells with MβCD significantly decreased the cellular cholesterol level and resulted in the inhibition of CSFV infection, while replenishment of exogenous cholesterol in MβCD-treated cells recovered the cellular cholesterol level and restored the viral infection...
November 28, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Flávia Possatti, Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira, Raquel Arruda Leme, Everson Zotti, Alais Maria Dall Agnol, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Selwyn Arlington Headley, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in newborn piglets. Although the number of APPV-based studies is increasing, the associated pathologic findings in infected piglets are underreported. This study describes the histopathologic features of spontaneous APPV infection in CT-affected piglets and complements a previous report by our group. Four two-day-old piglets with CT were evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assay. The main histopathologic findings at the brain and spinal cord included neuronal necrosis, gliosis, neuronophagia, satellitosis, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and Purkinje cell necrosis...
December 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Hongbin He
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide spreading pestivirus affecting cattle and other ruminants; however, there have been few reports on epidemiologic investigation of BVDV in eastern China. In this study, bulk tank milk from 36 herds of dairy cattle in eastern China was submitted to serological investigations, 77.8% of herds was BVDV antibody positive. Individual animal status in two herds was further investigated collecting blood samples, the positive ratio was 49.74% and 24.64%, and the average positive ratio of calves, heifers, and lactating cows was 15...
November 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sébastien Lambert, Pauline Ezanno, Mathieu Garel, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont
Infectious diseases raise many concerns for wildlife and new insights must be gained to manage infected populations. Wild ungulates provide opportunities to gain such insights as they host many pathogens. Using modelling and data collected from an intensively monitored population of Pyrenean chamois, we investigated the role of stochastic processes in governing epidemiological patterns of pestivirus spread in both protected and hunted populations. We showed that demographic stochasticity led to three epidemiological outcomes: early infection fade-out, epidemic outbreaks with population collapse, either followed by virus extinction or by endemic situations...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuonan Pan, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
Emerging porcine pestivirus diseases frequently challenge prevention and control strategies in the swine industry. Over the past decade, a few novel pestiviruses have been identified in pigs. This article focuses on the recently emerging atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) that potentially threatens global swine herd health security. The virus was first identified in 2016, in the United States and thereafter, accumulated evidence shows that it is currently distributed in three continents. The clinical presentation of APPV-infected pigs is characterized by congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets, while adult pigs may become persistent carriers and shedders...
November 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Zhiqiang Wu, Bo Liu, Jiang Du, Junpeng Zhang, Liang Lu, Guangjian Zhu, Yelin Han, Haoxiang Su, Li Yang, Shuyi Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Qi Jin
Bats and rodents are widely distributed worldwide and can be native or intermediate reservoirs of many important zoonotic viruses. Pestiviruses are a group of virus species of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae that can infect a wide variety of artiodactylous hosts, including swine and ruminants. Two classic types of pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, are important causative agents of mild-to-severe disease in bovine and swine hosts, respectively, and cause tremendous economic losses in these industries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erin Harvey, Karrie Rose, John-Sebastian Eden, Nathan Lo, Thilanka Abeyasuriya, Mang Shi, Stephen L Doggett, Edward C Holmes
Understanding the microbiome of ticks in Australia is of considerable interest given the ongoing debate over whether Lyme disease, and its causative agent the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are present in Australia. The diversity of bacteria infecting Australian ticks has been studied using both culture and metagenomics based techniques. However, little is known about the virome of Australian ticks, including whether this includes viruses with the potential to infect mammals. We used a meta-transcriptomics approach to reveal the diversity and evolution of viruses from Australian ticks collected from two locations on the central-east coast of Australia, including metropolitan Sydney...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Fernando Merwaiss, Cecilia Czibener, Diego E Alvarez
After initiation of an infective cycle, spread of virus infection can occur fundamentally in two different ways: (i) viral particles can be released into the external environment and diffuse through the extracellular space until they interact with a new host cell, or (ii) virions can remain associated with infected cells promoting the direct passage between infected and uninfected cells that is referred to as direct cell-to-cell transmission. Although evidence for cell-associated transmission has accumulated for many different viruses, the ability of members of the genus pestivirus to use this mode of transmission has not been reported...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
M V Borca, L G Holinka, E Ramirez-Medina, G R Risatti, E A Vuono, K A Berggren, D P Gladue
Envelope glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is involved in several critical virus functions. To analyze the role of E2 in virus replication, a series of recombinant CSFVs harboring chimeric forms of E2 CSFV and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were created and tested for their ability to infect swine or bovine cell lines. Substitution of native CSFV E2 by BVDV E2 abrogates virus replication in both cell lines. Substitution of individual domains in CSFV Brescia E2 by the homologous from BVDV produces chimeras that efficiently replicate in SK6 cells with the exception of a chimera harboring BVDV E2 residues 93-168...
October 16, 2018: Virology
Daniele Araujo Pereira, Juliana Brigolin Peron, Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Thaís Gasparini Baraldi, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Hélio José Montassier, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus and can cause reproductive problems in cattle. However, there is still a lack of research to clarify its pathogenicity in different gestational periods of sows and its effects in neonates. In this study, 12 gilts divided into groups (G) were experimentally inoculated with the strain BVDV-2 (SV-253) oronasally at a dose of 106 ·85 TCID50; one group was inoculated 30 days before insemination (G0; n = 2), three groups were inoculated during gestation (first (G1; n = 2), second (G2; n = 3), third (G3; n = 3)), and a fourth was the control group (G4; n = 2)...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Shuonan Pan, Yulin Yan, Kaichuang Shi, Minmin Wang, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
As one of emerging porcine viruses, atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was found in three continents since it emerged in 2015. It is now thought as the causative agent for congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. At the end of 2017, two APPV strains were identified from piglets with congenital tremor in Guangxi and Yunnan, China. The genome of APPV GX04/2017 strain was so far determined to be 11,534 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein comprising 3,635 amino acids...
October 3, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Ju Ji, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey Zimmerman
The objective of this study was to describe oral fluid and serum antibody (IgG, IgA) responses against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 and Erns proteins in pigs (n = 60) inoculated with a moderately virulent field strain (ALD, n = 30) or a modified live virus vaccine strain (LOM, n = 30). Oral fluid (n = 1391) and serum (n = 591) samples were collected from individually-housed pigs between day post inoculation (DPI) -14 to 28. Testing revealed the synchronous appearance of E2- and Erns -specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and oral fluids over time, with E2 and Erns IgG ELISAs providing better diagnostic performance than the IgA ELISAs...
October 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Simone Silveira, Franciele M Siqueira, Ana Cristina S Mósena, Mariana S da Silva, Juliana C Olegário, Ana Paula M Varela, Thaís F Teixeira, Matheus V Bianchi, David Driemeier, Saulo P Pavarini, Fabiana Q Mayer, Paulo M Roehe, Cláudio W Canal
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, reclassified as Pestivirus A, causes an economically important cattle disease that is distributed worldwide. Pestivirus A may cause persistent infection in that calves excrete the virus throughout their lives, spreading the infection in the herd. Many persistently infected (PI) calves die in the first 2 years of life from mucosal disease (MD) or secondary infections, probably as a consequence of virus-induced immune depression. Here, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was applied for evaluation of the total virome in sera of (i) PI calves displaying clinically apparent MD (n = 8); (ii) PI calves with no signs of MD (n = 8); and (iii) control, Pestivirus A-free calves (n = 8)...
September 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Ludwig Haas, Michael Wendt
Congenital tremor (CT) or "shaking piglet" syndrome of newborn piglets is a well-known disease caused by different factors and resulting in different pathological alterations. In addition to non-infectious causes (like intoxication and genetic alterations), viral infections of the sow during gestation are of utmost importance. It has long time been known that classical swine fever virus, a virus belonging to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae , induces CT. Very recently, a novel porcine pestivirus was discovered, which is also capable to induce the disease and was designated as "atypical porcine pestivirus" (APPV)...
August 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
C A Evans, S R Lanyon, R M O'Handley, M P Reichel, P D Cockcroft
OBJECTIVE: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) are of the genus Pestivirus. They are known to cause significant reproductive and production losses, with BVDV acknowledged as a major source of economic loss to the Australian cattle industry. Very little is currently known about the prevalence and effect of pestiviruses in the Australian sheep industry. The present study aimed to examine the seroprevalence and effect of both BVDV and BDV in South Australian sheep flocks...
August 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Annie Bernier, Selena M Sagan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Through this activity, they are implicated in almost every cellular process investigated to date. Hence, it is not surprising that miRNAs play diverse roles in regulation of viral infections and antiviral responses. Diverse families of DNA and RNA viruses have been shown to take advantage of cellular miRNAs or produce virally encoded miRNAs that alter host or viral gene expression. MiRNA-mediated changes in gene expression have been demonstrated to modulate viral replication, antiviral immune responses, viral latency, and pathogenesis...
August 19, 2018: Viruses
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