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Lilla Dénes, Imre Biksi, Mihály Albert, Levente Szeredi, Dániel G Knapp, Anna Szilasi, Ádám Bálint, Gyula Balka
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a recently identified RNA virus within the Flaviviridae family, causing congenital tremor (CT) in the piglets of infected sows. We have investigated 25 cases of CT from 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2016-2018, originating from six different farms. RT-PCR has been performed on these samples and all of the affected piglets were positive to APPV. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that Hungarian strains show a high degree of variability and are clustered into five distinct lineages. Four strains originating from one farm have shown exceptional similarity (99...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Massimo Giangaspero, Kadir Yesilbag, Claudio Apicella
The bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 species is responsible for cosmopolitan diseases affecting cattle and other ruminants, with relevant impact on animal production. The species presents high genomic heterogeneity, with implications on control and prophylactic programs. Genomic traits of different genetic groups are often related to geographic origin. Atypical sequences have been reported from Pestivirus isolates originated from cattle in Turkey. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 5' untranslated region and Npro and secondary structure analysis of the 5'-UTR RNA, Turkish isolates have been segregated in two distinct genotypes...
July 26, 2018: Virus Research
J C Jardim, B P Amaral, M Martins, P Sebastian, M B Heinemann, A Cortez, R Weiblen, E F Flores
Hobi-like viruses (HobiPeV) comprise a novel, recently classified species of bovine pestiviruses, originally identified in commercial fetal bovine serum of Brazilian origin and, subsequently, isolated from diseased animals in several countries. Although frequently isolated from clinical cases, most HobiPeV isolates failed to reproduce overt disease in cattle upon experimental inoculation. Herein, we describe the outcome of experimental infection of four to six months-old seronegative calves with two Brazilian HobiPeV isolates...
July 21, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vanessa M Pfankuche, Kerstin Hahn, Rogier Bodewes, Florian Hansmann, André Habierski, Ann-Kathrin Haverkamp, Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Christine Baechlein, Alexander Postel, Eike Steinmann, Paul Becher, Albert Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Christina Puff
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a technique to determine potential correlations between viruses and lesions. The aim of the study was to compare ISH techniques for the detection of various viruses in different tissues. Tested RNA viruses include atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in the cerebellum of pigs, equine and bovine hepacivirus (EqHV, BovHepV) in the liver of horses and cattle, respectively, and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in the cerebrum of goats. Examined DNA viruses comprise canine bocavirus 2 (CBoV-2) in the intestine of dogs, porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in the spinal cord of pigs and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in cerebrum, lymph node, and lung of pigs...
July 20, 2018: Viruses
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Zhujin Jiao, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Reng Qiu, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
To data, small animal Pestivirus H infection models have not been established. In order to develop a new infection model, BALB/c mice were inoculated with Pestivirus H strain HN1507. The virus-inoculated mice displayed nasal discharge and fever clinical signs. Histopathological changes in Pestivirus H-infected mice included alveolar septa thickening and alveolar atrophy in the lungs from 1 to 11 days post-inoculation (PI). Furthermore, we observed tracheal epithelial cell abscission and inflammatory cell infiltration in the tracheas from 1 to 9 days PI, infiltration of eosinophils in the spleens from 1 to 9 days PI, intestinal villi abscission and lysis of epithelial cells in the intestines from 1 to 11 days PI...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Raquel A S Cruz, Wagner B Rodrigues, Simone Silveira, Victor H S Oliveira, Camila Gonçalves Campos, Ronaldo V Leite Filho, Fabiana M Boabaid, David Driemeier, Cláudio W Canal, Amauri A Alfieri, Caroline A Pescador, Edson M Colodel
A HoBi-like pestivirus was first described in 2004 in a Brazilian fetal bovine serum that was exported to Germany. Nevertheless, it is believed that the virus had been present since the 1990's, when it was detected in buffalos of Brazilian origin. Reproductive and respiratory diseases have been reported since 2001 in cattle, and more recently, diseases accompanied by a clinical presentation of mucosal disease-like (MD-like lesions have been reported as well. In the present study, the authors reported the oldest case of MD--like in cattle, associated with a HoBi-like pestivirus infection...
June 11, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
Natural Pestivirus H infections in cattle have been reported worldwide; however, only a few cases of Pestivirus H have been described in non-bovine ruminants such as goats. A new Pestivirus H HN1507 strain was isolated from an infected goat in 2015 and the genome sequence was determined. The full-length genome sequence was 12,556 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the complete genome and Npro fragments, revealed that the isolate belonged to Pestivirus H and was closely related to strains from Italy...
June 16, 2018: Virus Genes
Victor Riitho, Magdalena Larska, Rebecca Strong, S Anna La Rocca, Nicolas Locker, Stefan Alenius, Falko Steinbach, Lihong Liu, Åse Uttenthal, Simon P Graham
Atypical ruminant pestiviruses are closely related to the two bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. While there is evidence of cross-protective immune responses between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, despite antigenic differences, there is little information on the antigenic cross-reactivity with atypical ruminant pestiviruses. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the specificity of antibody and T cell responses induced by experimental infection of calves with BVDV-1 strain Ho916, Th/04_KhonKaen (TKK), an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus, or co-infection with both viruses...
July 16, 2018: Vaccine
SongSong Wu, Zhe Wang, WenBo Zhang, ShunZhou Deng
We report here the complete genome sequence of an atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). The virus strain JX-JM01-2018A01 was isolated from the Jiangxi Province, China, from a sucking piglet. This genome sequence will contribute to the understanding of APPV genetic divergence and promote future disease control and vaccine research and development in China.
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Laura Zani, Simone Leidenberger, Theresa Schwaiger, Kore Schlottau, Jens P Teifke, Charlotte Schröder, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains as one of the most important infectious diseases of swine. While prophylactic vaccination is usually prohibited in free countries with industrialized pig production, emergency vaccination is still foreseen. In this context, marker vaccines are preferred as they can reduce the impact on trade. The live-attenuated Suvaxyn® CSF Marker vaccine by Zoetis (based on pestivirus chimera "CP7_E2alf"), was recently licensed by the European Medicines Agency. Its efficacy for the individual animal had been shown in prior studies, but questions remained regarding protection against transplacental transmission...
July 5, 2018: Vaccine
Marina Lopes Mechler, Felipe Dos Santos Gomes, Karla Alvarenga Nascimento, Andressa de Souza-Pollo, Felipe Ferreira Barbosa Pires, Samir Issa Samara, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Congenital tremor in pigs involves several etiologies, including pestivirus, which may cause neurological injuries in different animal species. To evaluate whether bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an important pestivirus, is one of the etiological agents of congenital tremor in swine, gilts and the fetuses were challenged at 45 days of gestation with BVDV-2. Four pregnant gilts were inoculated oronasally, four gilts underwent fetal intrauterine inoculation, and two gilts constituted the control group. Antibody titers were determined by virus neutralization (VN), and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Carmela Lussi, Kay-Sara Sauter, Matthias Schweizer
The glycoprotein Erns plays a central role in the biology of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This soluble endonuclease mediates the escape from an interferon (IFN) response in the infected fetus, thereby permitting the establishment of persistent infection. Viral single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA act as potent IFN inducing signals and we previously showed that Erns efficiently cleaves these substrates, thereby inhibiting an IFN response that is crucial for successful fetal infection...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Silveira, S M Falkenberg, M J Elderbrook, K S Sondgeroth, R P Dassanayake, J D Neill, J F Ridpath, C W Canal
Pestiviruses including Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 and Border disease virus (BDV) have been reported in both sheep and cattle populations, together with the HoBi-like, an emerging group of pestiviruses. Pestivirus control programs in the United States have focused on the control of BVDV-1 and 2. The incidence of pestivirus infection in sheep in the United States and the risk of transmission between cattle and sheep populations are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform serological surveillance for pestivirus exposure in sheep from an important sheep producing state in the Unites States, Wyoming...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yun-Na Zhang, Ya-Yun Liu, Fu-Chuan Xiao, Chun-Chun Liu, Xiao-Dong Liang, Jing Chen, Jing Zhou, Abdul Sattar Baloch, Lin Kan, Bin Zhou, Hua-Ji Qiu
The members of Flaviviridae utilize several endocytic pathways to enter a variety of host cells. Our previous work showed that classical swine fever virus (CSFV) enters porcine kidney (PK-15) cells through a clathrin-dependent pathway that requires Rab5 and Rab7. The entry mechanism for CSFV into other cell lines remains unclear, for instance, porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/21 cells). More importantly, the trafficking of CSFV within endosomes controlled by Rab GTPases is unknown in 3D4/21 cells. In this study, entry and postinternalization of CSFV were analyzed using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant-negative (DN) mutants...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ueli Braun, Fredi Janett, Sandra Züblin, Michèle von Büren, Monika Hilbe, Reto Zanoni, Matthias Schweizer
BACKGROUND: This study examined various health variables in cows after artificial insemination with Border disease virus (BDV)-infected semen and the occurrence of persistent infection in ensuing fetuses. Five cows were inseminated (day 0) with BDV-infected semen as well as with semen from a fertile Eringer bull. One cow, inseminated with virus-free semen only, served as a control. Clinical examination, assessment of eating and rumination activities, measurement of intraruminal temperature and leukocyte count were used to monitor the health of the cows...
May 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Weiwei Li, Baixing Wu, Wibowo Adian Soca, Lei An
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the cause of classical swine fever (CSF). Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is a key enzyme initiating viral RNA replication by a de novo mechanism. It is also an attractive target for the development of anti-CSFV drugs. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of CSFV RNA synthesis, here, we solved the first crystal structure of CSFV NS5B. Our studies show that the CSFV NS5B RdRp contains the characteristic finger, palm, and thumb domains, as well as a unique N-terminal domain (NTD) that has never been observed...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Andreu Colom-Cadena, Johan Espunyes, Oscar Cabezón, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Rosa Rosell, Ignasi Marco
Border Disease Virus (BDV) causes health and economic impact on livestock and is also of importance in wildlife conservation as it causes high mortality outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). Pastoral practices are known as a main interspecies pathogen transmission. Hence, the presence of pestivirus in transhumant sheep flocks and sympatric chamois was assessed in areas with different epidemiological scenarios of chamois BDV infections. Moreover, the present study had also the goal to identify if inter-specific infections occurred and when they happened...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
A K Chakraborty, A Karam, P Mukherjee, L Barkalita, P Borah, S Das, R Sanjukta, K Puro, S Ghatak, I Shakuntala, I Sharma, R G Laha, A Sen
The present study focused on the detection and genetic characterisation of 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and E2 gene of classical swine fever virus (CSFV, family Flaviviridae , genus Pestivirus ) from bovine population of the northeastern region of India. A total of 134 cattle serum samples were collected from organised cattle farms and were screened for CSFV antigen with a commercial antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 10 samples were positive for CSFV antigen by ELISA, while all of them were positive in PCR for 5'UTR region...
March 2018: Virusdisease
Fanny G Dessureault, Martin Choinière, Chantale Provost, Carl A Gagnon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Shengwei Ji, Yuzi Luo, Tengteng Zhang, Lina Shao, Xing-Yu Meng, Yimin Wang, Yao Gao, Yongfeng Li, Su Li, Yuan Sun, Xin Jin, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF), which is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease of pigs. CSFV is genetically and serologically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a ruminant pestivirus. However, currently available ELISAs based on the full-length E2 protein of CSFV cannot discriminate anti-CSFV from anti-BVDV antibodies. In this study, a truncated CSFV E2 protein (amino acids 690 to 879) covering antigenic domains B/C/D/A (E2B/C/D/A ) was designed based on homologous modeling according to the crystal structure of the BVDV E2 protein...
July 2018: Archives of Virology
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