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Daniele Araujo Pereira, Juliana Brigolin Peron, Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Thaís Gasparini Baraldi, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Hélio José Montassier, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus and can cause reproductive problems in cattle. However, there is still a lack of research to clarify its pathogenicity in different gestational periods of sows and its effects in neonates. In this study, 12 gilts divided into groups (G) were experimentally inoculated with the strain BVDV-2 (SV-253) oronasally at a dose of 106 ·85 TCID50; one group was inoculated 30 days before insemination (G0; n = 2), three groups were inoculated during gestation (first (G1; n = 2), second (G2; n = 3), third (G3; n = 3)), and a fourth was the control group (G4; n = 2)...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Shuonan Pan, Yulin Yan, Kaichuang Shi, Minmin Wang, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
As one of emerging porcine viruses, atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was found in three continents since it emerged in 2015. It is now thought as the causative agent for congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. At the end of 2017, two APPV strains were identified from piglets with congenital tremor in Guangxi and Yunnan, China. The genome of APPV GX04/2017 strain was so far determined to be 11,534 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein comprising 3,635 amino acids...
October 3, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Ju Ji, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey Zimmerman
The objective of this study was to describe oral fluid and serum antibody (IgG, IgA) responses against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 and Erns proteins in pigs (n = 60) inoculated with a moderately virulent field strain (ALD, n = 30) or a modified live virus vaccine strain (LOM, n = 30). Oral fluid (n = 1391) and serum (n = 591) samples were collected from individually-housed pigs between day post inoculation (DPI) -14 to 28. Testing revealed the synchronous appearance of E2- and Erns -specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and oral fluids over time, with E2 and Erns IgG ELISAs providing better diagnostic performance than the IgA ELISAs...
October 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Simone Silveira, Franciele M Siqueira, Ana Cristina S Mósena, Mariana S da Silva, Juliana C Olegário, Ana Paula M Varela, Thaís F Teixeira, Matheus V Bianchi, David Driemeier, Saulo P Pavarini, Fabiana Q Mayer, Paulo M Roehe, Cláudio W Canal
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, reclassified as Pestivirus A, causes an economically important cattle disease that is distributed worldwide. Pestivirus A may cause persistent infection in that calves excrete the virus throughout their lives, spreading the infection in the herd. Many persistently infected (PI) calves die in the first 2 years of life from mucosal disease (MD) or secondary infections, probably as a consequence of virus-induced immune depression. Here, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was applied for evaluation of the total virome in sera of (i) PI calves displaying clinically apparent MD (n = 8); (ii) PI calves with no signs of MD (n = 8); and (iii) control, Pestivirus A-free calves (n = 8)...
September 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Ludwig Haas, Michael Wendt
Congenital tremor (CT) or "shaking piglet" syndrome of newborn piglets is a well-known disease caused by different factors and resulting in different pathological alterations. In addition to non-infectious causes (like intoxication and genetic alterations), viral infections of the sow during gestation are of utmost importance. It has long time been known that classical swine fever virus, a virus belonging to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae , induces CT. Very recently, a novel porcine pestivirus was discovered, which is also capable to induce the disease and was designated as "atypical porcine pestivirus" (APPV)...
August 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
C A Evans, S R Lanyon, R M O'Handley, M P Reichel, P D Cockcroft
OBJECTIVE: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) are of the genus Pestivirus. They are known to cause significant reproductive and production losses, with BVDV acknowledged as a major source of economic loss to the Australian cattle industry. Very little is currently known about the prevalence and effect of pestiviruses in the Australian sheep industry. The present study aimed to examine the seroprevalence and effect of both BVDV and BDV in South Australian sheep flocks...
August 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Annie Bernier, Selena M Sagan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Through this activity, they are implicated in almost every cellular process investigated to date. Hence, it is not surprising that miRNAs play diverse roles in regulation of viral infections and antiviral responses. Diverse families of DNA and RNA viruses have been shown to take advantage of cellular miRNAs or produce virally encoded miRNAs that alter host or viral gene expression. MiRNA-mediated changes in gene expression have been demonstrated to modulate viral replication, antiviral immune responses, viral latency, and pathogenesis...
August 19, 2018: Viruses
Gizem Alpay, Eda Baldan Toker, Kadir Yeşilbağ
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk of bovine viral diarrhea virus transport from imported live animals. For this purpose, two different groups of animals were sampled in this study. Group 1 consisted of pregnant heifers; group 2 consisted of male beef cattle imported during 2011-2012 and 2015, respectively. Blood samples were tested for pestivirus antigen using a commercial BVDV antigen ELISA. All the pregnant heifers were negative, but 9 out of 412 offspring and 5 of the 332 male cattle were BVDV antigen positive...
August 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Amy Jennings, Emily Gascoigne, Alastair Macrae, Elizabeth Burrough, James Patrick Crilly
Ovine pestiviruses have the potential to reduce productivity in the British sheep flock. However, their prevalence and impact are currently poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the exposure to pestiviruses in adult breeding ewe stock. Blood samples collected for metabolic profiling before lambing were tested using an ELISA that detected antibodies raised to both bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Border disease virus. A group of 15 animals were tested per flock. A total of 34 farms were tested, of which 13 had at least one seropositive animal...
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
George C Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Lilla Dénes, Imre Biksi, Mihály Albert, Levente Szeredi, Dániel G Knapp, Anna Szilasi, Ádám Bálint, Gyula Balka
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a recently identified RNA virus within the Flaviviridae family, causing congenital tremor (CT) in the piglets of infected sows. We have investigated 25 cases of CT from 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2016-2018, originating from six different farms. RT-PCR has been performed on these samples and all of the affected piglets were positive to APPV. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that Hungarian strains show a high degree of variability and are clustered into five distinct lineages. Four strains originating from one farm have shown exceptional similarity (99...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Massimo Giangaspero, Kadir Yesilbag, Claudio Apicella
The bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 species is responsible for cosmopolitan diseases affecting cattle and other ruminants, with relevant impact on animal production. The species presents high genomic heterogeneity, with implications on control and prophylactic programs. Genomic traits of different genetic groups are often related to geographic origin. Atypical sequences have been reported from Pestivirus isolates originated from cattle in Turkey. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 5' untranslated region and Npro and secondary structure analysis of the 5'-UTR RNA, Turkish isolates have been segregated in two distinct genotypes...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
J C Jardim, B P Amaral, M Martins, P Sebastian, M B Heinemann, A Cortez, R Weiblen, E F Flores
Hobi-like viruses (HobiPeV) comprise a novel, recently classified species of bovine pestiviruses, originally identified in commercial fetal bovine serum of Brazilian origin and, subsequently, isolated from diseased animals in several countries. Although frequently isolated from clinical cases, most HobiPeV isolates failed to reproduce overt disease in cattle upon experimental inoculation. Herein, we describe the outcome of experimental infection of four to six months-old seronegative calves with two Brazilian HobiPeV isolates...
October 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vanessa M Pfankuche, Kerstin Hahn, Rogier Bodewes, Florian Hansmann, André Habierski, Ann-Kathrin Haverkamp, Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Christine Baechlein, Alexander Postel, Eike Steinmann, Paul Becher, Albert Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Christina Puff
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a technique to determine potential correlations between viruses and lesions. The aim of the study was to compare ISH techniques for the detection of various viruses in different tissues. Tested RNA viruses include atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in the cerebellum of pigs, equine and bovine hepacivirus (EqHV, BovHepV) in the liver of horses and cattle, respectively, and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in the cerebrum of goats. Examined DNA viruses comprise canine bocavirus 2 (CBoV-2) in the intestine of dogs, porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in the spinal cord of pigs and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in cerebrum, lymph node, and lung of pigs...
July 20, 2018: Viruses
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Zhujin Jiao, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Reng Qiu, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
To data, small animal Pestivirus H infection models have not been established. In order to develop a new infection model, BALB/c mice were inoculated with Pestivirus H strain HN1507. The virus-inoculated mice displayed nasal discharge and fever clinical signs. Histopathological changes in Pestivirus H-infected mice included alveolar septa thickening and alveolar atrophy in the lungs from 1 to 11 days post-inoculation (PI). Furthermore, we observed tracheal epithelial cell abscission and inflammatory cell infiltration in the tracheas from 1 to 9 days PI, infiltration of eosinophils in the spleens from 1 to 9 days PI, intestinal villi abscission and lysis of epithelial cells in the intestines from 1 to 11 days PI...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Raquel A S Cruz, Wagner B Rodrigues, Simone Silveira, Victor H S Oliveira, Camila Gonçalves Campos, Ronaldo V Leite Filho, Fabiana M Boabaid, David Driemeier, Cláudio W Canal, Amauri A Alfieri, Caroline A Pescador, Edson M Colodel
A HoBi-like pestivirus was first described in 2004 in a Brazilian fetal bovine serum that was exported to Germany. Nevertheless, it is believed that the virus had been present since the 1990's, when it was detected in buffalos of Brazilian origin. Reproductive and respiratory diseases have been reported since 2001 in cattle, and more recently, diseases accompanied by a clinical presentation of mucosal disease-like (MD-like lesions have been reported as well. In the present study, the authors reported the oldest case of MD--like in cattle, associated with a HoBi-like pestivirus infection...
August 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
Natural Pestivirus H infections in cattle have been reported worldwide; however, only a few cases of Pestivirus H have been described in non-bovine ruminants such as goats. A new Pestivirus H HN1507 strain was isolated from an infected goat in 2015 and the genome sequence was determined. The full-length genome sequence was 12,556 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the complete genome and Npro fragments, revealed that the isolate belonged to Pestivirus H and was closely related to strains from Italy...
June 16, 2018: Virus Genes
Victor Riitho, Magdalena Larska, Rebecca Strong, S Anna La Rocca, Nicolas Locker, Stefan Alenius, Falko Steinbach, Lihong Liu, Åse Uttenthal, Simon P Graham
Atypical ruminant pestiviruses are closely related to the two bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. While there is evidence of cross-protective immune responses between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, despite antigenic differences, there is little information on the antigenic cross-reactivity with atypical ruminant pestiviruses. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the specificity of antibody and T cell responses induced by experimental infection of calves with BVDV-1 strain Ho916, Th/04_KhonKaen (TKK), an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus, or co-infection with both viruses...
July 16, 2018: Vaccine
SongSong Wu, Zhe Wang, WenBo Zhang, ShunZhou Deng
We report here the complete genome sequence of an atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). The virus strain JX-JM01-2018A01 was isolated from the Jiangxi Province, China, from a sucking piglet. This genome sequence will contribute to the understanding of APPV genetic divergence and promote future disease control and vaccine research and development in China.
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Laura Zani, Simone Leidenberger, Theresa Schwaiger, Kore Schlottau, Jens P Teifke, Charlotte Schröder, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains as one of the most important infectious diseases of swine. While prophylactic vaccination is usually prohibited in free countries with industrialized pig production, emergency vaccination is still foreseen. In this context, marker vaccines are preferred as they can reduce the impact on trade. The live-attenuated Suvaxyn® CSF Marker vaccine by Zoetis (based on pestivirus chimera "CP7_E2alf"), was recently licensed by the European Medicines Agency. Its efficacy for the individual animal had been shown in prior studies, but questions remained regarding protection against transplacental transmission...
July 5, 2018: Vaccine
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