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Early Initiation

Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Leslie Rocha, Isabel Amador-Martínez, Rosalba Pérez-Villalva, Rafael González, Cesar Cortés-González, Norma Uribe, Victoria Ramírez, Nathan Berman, Gerardo Gamba, Norma A Bobadilla
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is not as harmless as previously thought since it may lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because most of the time ischemic AKI occurs unexpectedly, it is difficult to prevent its occurrence and there are no specific therapeutic approaches to prevent the AKI to CKD transition. We aimed to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor blockade (MRB) in the first days after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) can prevent progression to CKD. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats were included: sham and three groups of bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min, one without treatment and the other two receiving spironolactone for 5 or 10 days, starting 24 h after IR...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Steven F Koch
We present a revised method for estimating equivalence scales. Such scales are used to adjust household welfare to account for the size of the household, and are used extensively in the application of the World Health Organization's (WHO) methodology for the evaluation of catastrophic health payments. Applications of the WHO method are underpinned by early estimates that do not control for household income, and, therefore, are likely to overstate equivalence. Thus, in addition to revising the method, we update the scale estimates for one country, South Africa, using more recent data...
August 10, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Mark Laske, Niek J M Opdam, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Jozé C C Braspenning, Wil J M van der Sanden, Marie Charlotte D N J M Huysmans, Josef J Bruers
Contemporary minimally invasive treatment concepts for restorative treatment of primary caries lesions include both delayed intervention and smaller-sized preparations restricted to removal of carious tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these concepts have resulted in a trend towards a more conservative choice made by dentists regarding treatment thresholds and restorative techniques. The results from previously conducted, precoded questionnaires developed by Espelid and Tveit, as well as from a recent Dutch questionnaire, were collected and analysed...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Kristina Lukacova, Johan Van Audekerke, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
The first months of life are characterized by massive neuroplastic processes that parallel the acquisition of skills and abilities vital for proper functioning in later life. Likewise, juvenile songbirds learn the song sung by their tutor during the first months after hatching. To date, most studies targeting brain development in songbirds exclusively focus on the song control and auditory pathways. To gain a comprehensive insight into structural developmental plasticity of the entire zebra finch brain throughout the different subphases of song learning, we designed a longitudinal study in a group of male (16) and female (19) zebra finches...
August 11, 2018: NeuroImage
J E Childerhose, I Eneli, K E Steele
Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective intervention to treat severe obesity and related comorbidities in adolescents. No qualitative studies have explored the perspectives of US adolescent weight-loss patients on their bariatric surgery motivations, decision-making or experiences. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to explore the perspectives of adolescent patients seeking bariatric surgery while enrolled in a medical weight management programme. Eligible participants 13-21 years old were recruited through a weight management programme at a tertiary care children's hospital in the US Midwest...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Obesity
Alejandro J Estudillo, Jürgen M Kaufmann, Markus Bindemann, Stefan R Schweinberger
Seeing a face being touched in spatial and temporal synchrony with the own face produces a bias in self-recognition, whereby the other face becomes more likely to be perceived as the self. The present study employed event-related potentials to explore whether this enfacement effect reflects initial face encoding, enhanced distinctiveness of the enfaced face, modified self-identity representations, or even later processing stages that are associated with the emotional processing of faces. Participants were stroked in synchrony or asynchrony with an unfamiliar face they observed on a monitor in front of them, in a situation approximating a mirror image...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jihun Jang, Jin Ho Chang
Although transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging is widely used for screening and diagnosing prostate cancer, prostate cancer is often not found on TRUS images, depending on its stage, size, and location. Additionally, due to the weak echo signal and the low contrast of TRUS images, it is difficult to diagnose early-stage prostate cancers and distinguish malignant tumors from benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this reason, TRUS image-guided biopsy is mandatory to confirm the malignancy of the suspicious tumor, but the diagnostic accuracy of initial biopsy is only 20 to 30%, so that the patients inevitably undergo repeated biopsies...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Satyanarayana Tatineni, Jeff Alexander, Adarsh K Gupta, Roy French
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), distinct members in the family Potyviridae, are economically important wheat-infecting viruses in the Great Plains region. Previously, we reported that co-infection of wheat by WSMV and TriMV cause disease synergism with increased concentration of both viruses. The mechanisms of synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV and the effects of prior infection of wheat by either of these 'synergistically interacting partner' (SIP) viruses on the establishment of local and systemic infection by the other SIP virus are not known...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Eric Macnaughton, Geoffrey Nelson, S Kathleen Worton, Sam Tsemberis, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Julian Hasford, Jino Distasio, Paula Goering
The scaling out of Housing First (HF) programs was examined in six Canadian communities, in which a multi-component HF training and technical assistance (TTA) was provided. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What were the outcomes of the TTA in terms of the development of new, sustained, or enhanced programs, and fidelity to the HF model? (b) How did the TTA contribute to implementation and fidelity? and (c) What contextual factors facilitated or challenged implementation and fidelity? A total of 14 new HF programs were created, and nine HF programs were sustained or enhanced...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Jennifer Abe, Cheryl Grills, Negin Ghavami, Ghia Xiong, Carlene Davis, Carrie Johnson
This study describes a conceptual tool, labeled the "culture cube," developed to identify and articulate the cultural underpinnings of prevention and early intervention projects in five priority populations (i.e., African American, Asian Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning), participating in the California Reducing Disparities Project Phase 2 (CRDP Phase 2). The culture cube was developed for evaluation of these practice-based evidence services (PBEs) for three purposes: (a) to focus attention on revealing and articulating more fully the operative worldview and culturally grounded frameworks underlying PBEs, explicitly identifying the links between cultural beliefs and values, community needs, and intervention design; (b) to guide the methods used to assess and evaluate PBEs so that the outcome indicators and process measures are conceptually consistent, community defined, and culturally centered; and (c) to invite communities to use their own indigenous epistemological frameworks to establish credible evidence...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Xu Hou, Samuel O Adeosun, Xueying Zhao, Rosanne Hill, Baoying Zheng, Reveena Reddy, Xiao Su, Jeffrey Meyer, Thomas Mosley, Jun Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: Estrogen therapy (ET), an effective treatment for perimenopausal depression, often fails to ameliorate symptoms when initiated late after the onset of menopause. Our previous work has suggested that alternative splicing of RNA might mediate these differential effects of ET. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with estradiol (E2) or vehicle 6 days (early ET) or 180 days (late ET) after ovariectomy (OVX). We investigated the differential expression of RNA splicing factors and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) protein using a customized RT2 Profiler PCR Array, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitation and behaviour changes in clinically relevant early and late ET...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Carmen Simone Grilo Diniz, Daphne Rattner, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Janaína Marques de Aguiar, Denise Yoshie Niy
Brazil is a middle-income country with universal maternity care, mostly by doctors. The experience of normal birth often includes rigid routines, aggressive interventions, and abusive, disrespectful treatment. In Brazil, this has been referred to as dehumanised care and, more recently, as obstetric violence. Since the early 1990s, social movements (SM) have struggled to change practices, public policies and provider training. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the role of SM in promoting change in maternity care, and in provider training...
August 14, 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
Augusto Llamas-Olier, Diana Isabel Cuéllar, Giancarlo Buitrago
BACKGROUND: Patients with excellent response to initial therapy have a low rate of tumor recurrence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of early tumor recurrence in patients with intermediate- risk papillary thyroid cancer who had an excellent response to initial treatment and identify risk factors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 217 patients with American Thyroid Association (ATA) intermediate-risk papillary thyroid cancer who had a documented excellent response to initial treatment (total thyroidectomy and adjuvant therapy with 100 -150 mCi [3...
August 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Manish Mishra, Arul J Duraisamy, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Renu Kowluru
AIMS: Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina, and dysfunctions their mitochondria, accelerating capillary cell apoptosis. A 66kDa adaptor protein, p66Shc, is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, a progressive disease, ROS production by activation of a small molecular weight G-protein (Rac1)-Nox2 signaling precedes mitochondrial damage. Rac1 activation is facilitated by guanine exchange factors (GEFs), and p66Shc increases Rac1-specific GEF activity of Son of Sevenless (Sos1)...
August 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Catherine G Fischer, Laura D Wood
Pancreatic cancer arises from non-invasive precursor lesions, including pan creatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), which are curable if detected early enough. Recently, these types of precursor lesions have been extensively characterized at the molecular level, defining the timing of critical genetic alterations in tumorigenesis pathways. The results of these studies deepen our understanding of tumorigenesis in the pancreas, providing novel insights into tumor initiation and progression...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Bettina Hafen, Susanne Wiesner, Katrin Schlegelmilch, Alexander Keller, Lothar Seefried, Regina Ebert, Heike Walles, Franz Jakob, Norbert Schütze
Multipotent adult stem cells/precursor cells, especially of the mesenchymal and endothelial lineage, may have great potential for bone tissue engineering. Although their potential is highly recognized, not much is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that initiate the regeneration process, connect osteogenesis, and angiogenesis and, finally, orchestrate renewal of bone tissue. Our study addressed these questions by generating two in vitro cell culture models to examine the changes in the global gene expression patterns of endothelial precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells after 24 hours of either humoral (conditioned medium) or direct cell-cell interaction (co-culture)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hong-Kui Yu, Bei Xia, Xiao Liu, Chunxi Han, Weiling Chen, Zhihui Li
Three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a new imaging modality used for quantitative analysis of left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this study is to assess the value of 3D STE in early detection of subclinical myocardial involvement in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Fifty-six children with DMD (mean age, 8.8 ± 1.9 years) and 31 age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were subdivided into two groups by age: ≤ 8 or > 8 years. Standard echocardiography examinations were performed to measure LV size and ejection fraction (EF)...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Cande V Ananth, Alexander M Friedman, Robert L Goldenberg, Jason D Wright, Anthony M Vintzileos
Importance: Preterm and postterm deliveries have declined since 2005 in the United States, but the association between these changes and neonatal mortality remains unknown. Objective: To estimate changes in the gestational age distribution among spontaneous and clinician-initiated deliveries between 2006 and 2013 and associated changes in neonatal mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 22 million singleton live births without major malformations in the United States from 2006 to 2013...
August 13, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Y Shimamura, C M Walsh, S Cohen, M Aronson, U Tabori, P P Kortan, C A Durno
Background and study aims : Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, also known as biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (BMMRD) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that has a high mortality due to malignancy in childhood and early adulthood. The small bowel phenotype in CMMRD is not well described and surveillance protocols for small bowel cancer have not been well established. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and clinical impact of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) for small bowel surveillance...
August 2018: Endoscopy International Open
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