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Early Initiation

Frederic Sampedro, Juan Marín-Lahoz, Saul Martínez-Horta, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky
The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers such as CSF α-synuclein and CSF tau in predicting cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) continues to be inconsistent. Here, using a cohort of de novo PD patients with preserved cognition from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI), we show that the SNCA rs356181 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) modulates the effect of these CSF biomarkers on cortical thinning. Depending on this SNP's genotype, cortical atrophy was associated with either higher or lower CSF biomarker levels...
October 18, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Brenna M G Gormally, Rory Fuller, Mitch McVey, L Michael Romero
Corticosterone does not change in consistent ways across species and contexts, making it challenging to use as an indicator of chronic stress. We assessed DNA damage as a potential metric that could be a more integrative stress measurement with direct links to health. We captured free-living house sparrows, took an immediate blood sample, and transferred them to the laboratory, exposing them to the chronic stress of captivity. Biweekly blood and weight samples were then taken for 4 weeks. We immediately assessed DNA damage in red blood cells using the comet assay and later quantified corticosterone...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Mizuki Nishibatake Kinoshita, Tatsuya Minami, Ryosuke Tateishi, Taijiro Wake, Ryo Nakagomi, Naoto Fujiwara, Masaya Sato, Koji Uchino, Kenichiro Enooku, Hayato Nakagawa, Yoshinari Asaoka, Shuichiro Shiina, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It remains controversial whether direct-acting antivirals (DAA) accelerate the recurrence of hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative therapy. This study aimed to evaluate HCC recurrence after DAA treatment of chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: We enrolled patients with a history of successful radiofrequency ablation treatment for hepatitis C-related HCC who received antiviral therapy with DAA (DAA group: 147 patients) or with interferon (IFN)-based therapy (IFN group: 156 patients)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Tomasz Madej, Joanna Flak-Nurzyńska, Ewa Dutkiewicz, Anna Ciechomska, Jerzy Kowalczyk, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic process of bone tumors, including malignant ones, is based on conventional radiological methods, such as radiography and computed tomography, and with precise assessment of local advancement in magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasonography is not included in the diagnostic algorithms as a tool suitable to detect this type of pathology. More and more frequent usage of musculoskeletal ultrasound in children as the first imaging method or, in some cases, as the only diagnostic method, makes it necessary to be familiar with sonographic presentation of bone tumors to suggest this diagnosis early enough and, after its verification, start treatment without a significant delay...
2018: Journal of Ultrasonography
Jiefeng Xu, Qijiang Chen, Xiaohong Jin, Chunshuang Wu, Zilong Li, Guangju Zhou, Yongan Xu, Anyu Qian, Yulin Li, Mao Zhang
Rapid induction of hypothermia early after resuscitation can be an effective strategy against post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). Preliminary data suggested that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) might be an efficient method to rapidly induce hypothermia. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of cooling induced by CRRT and its effects on the outcomes of PCAS in a porcine model.Thirty-two male domestic pigs weighing 36 ± 2 kg were randomized into 4 groups: sham control (n = 5), normothermia (n = 9), surface cooling (SC, n = 9), and CRRT (n = 9)...
October 17, 2018: Shock
Chris J James, Chadlia Karoui, Marie-Laurence Laborde, Benoît Lepage, Charles-Édouard Molinier, Marjorie Tartayre, Bernard Escudé, Olivier Deguine, Mathieu Marx, Bernard Fraysse
OBJECTIVE: Normal-hearing subjects listening to acoustic simulations of cochlear implants (CI) can obtain sentence recognition scores near 100% in quiet and in 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) noise with acute exposure. However, average sentence recognition scores for real CI listeners are generally lower, even after months of experience, and there is a high degree of heterogeneity. Our aim was to identify the relative importance and strength of factors that prevent CI listeners from achieving early, 1-mo scores as high as those for normal-hearing-listener acoustic simulations...
October 17, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Shigeki Kubota, Tetsuya Abe, Hideki Kadone, Yukiyo Shimizu, Toru Funayama, Hiroki Watanabe, Aiki Marushima, Masao Koda, Yasushi Hada, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) is a wearable exoskeleton robot that assists walking and lower limb movements via real-time actuator control. Our aim was to clarify the safety and feasibility of using the HAL robotic suit for rehabilitation in patients with severe thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL). DESIGN: Uncontrolled case series; pre- and post-intervention measurement. SETTING: In-patient rehabilitation unit...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Aliakbar Sabermoghaddam, Mahsa Sardabi, Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Saeed Shokoohi-Rad
Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit is a rare complication that may occur in different situations. The most common cause is blunt trauma to the head region. The victims are usually young boys and the common site is usually orbital roof. There is no uniform approach in the literature in the management of subperiosteal hematoma. Conservative management has been recommended in cases with intact visual function. If conservative management is planned, complete resorption of hematoma may last several months, and the patients must tolerate diplopia and varying degrees of proptosis in this relatively long period of time...
October 18, 2018: Orbit
Kristina Granger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Nataşa Ganea, Kristelle Hudry, Angélina Vernetti, Leslie Tucker, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
A fundamental question about the development of communication behavior in early life is how infants acquire adaptive communication behavior that is well-suited to their individual social environment, and how the experience of parent-child communication affects this development. The current study investigated how infants develop communication skills when their parents are visually impaired and cannot see their infants' eye gaze. We analyzed 6-min video recordings of naturalistic interaction between 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBP) with (a) their blind parent, and (b) a sighted experimenter...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Rachela Bleuel, Bernadette Eberlein
Affecting 0.5 % of the world's population, vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder that poses major challenges in terms of dermatological care. Characterized by patchy depigmentation, the disease is frequently associated with cosmetic disfigurement and considerable psychological distress. The primary pathophysiological causes for the loss of functional melanocytes are thought to include genetic predisposition, autoimmune mechanisms, and oxidative stress. The present article highlights treatment recommendations contained in the European guidelines as well as those provided by recent reviews on vitiligo...
October 18, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Yi Liu, Jianrong Yao, Xinghui Liu, Biru Luo, Xiufang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the most important nutrition for premature babies, but mothers of premature infants have difficulty in initiating and sustaining lactation. Breastfeeding infants who are separated with mothers have decreased morbidity. Nevertheless, such decrease is limited due to insufficient milk supply resulting from mother-baby separation during lac. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention methods based on the health belief model on promoting the secretion of milk among mothers who were separated with their babies...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alexia D'Andréa, Damien L Peillet, Christine Serratrice, Pierre-Augute Petignat, Virginie Prendki, Jean-Luc Reny, Jacques Serratrice
RATIONALE: Eosinophilic pleural effusion in elderly patients is most commonly due to malignancies and infections. PATIENT CONCERNS: In rare cases, pleural eosinophilia is associated with connective tissue disease. DIAGNOSES: Presence of Hargraves cells, also called lupus erythematosus (LE) cells (polynuclear cells that have engulfed denatured nuclear material), was a key point of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) until 1997...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Songsong Yu, Qiuhong Fang, Yinjuan Li
Acute exacerbations (AE) affect the prognosis of hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pneumonia further affects their prognosis and early diagnosis of pneumonia in AECOPD is important to initiate treatments. This study aimed to examine the differences between hospitalized AECOPD patients with and without pneumonia in order to identify risk factors of pneumonia among hospitalized patients with AECOPD.This was a retrospective case-control study of patients with COPD hospitalized at the respiratory ward of Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from October 2010 to October 2013...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joel Milam, Sonia Jain, Michael P Dubé, Eric S Daar, Xiaoying Sun, Katya Corado, Eric Ellorin, Jill Blumenthal, Richard Haubrich, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
BACKGROUND: A public health concern regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is sexual risk compensation (i.e., increased unsafe sex among PrEP users that may undermine prevention efforts). METHODS: This demonstration study (NCT#01761643; initiated in 2013) included 398 men who have sex with men (MSM) who initiated PrEP and were followed over 48 weeks at 4 sites in Southern California. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared prior 30-day number of sex partners and condomless insertive and receptive anal sex acts (CIAS and CRAS, respectively) at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 to baseline...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yu-Bin Liu, Song-Jian Li, Li Zhao, Bo Yu, Da-Hang Zhao
Background and purpose - There are still controversies as to the age for beginning treatment with the Ponseti method. We evaluated the clinical outcome with different age at onset of Ponseti management for clubfoot. Patients and methods - 90 included children were divided into 3 groups in terms of age at start of treatment. The difference in treatment-related and prognosis-related variables including presentation age, initial Pirani and Dimeglio score, casts required, relapse rates, final Dimeglio score, and international clubfoot study group score (ICFSG) was analyzed...
October 18, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Stephan Lobitz, Paul Telfer, Elena Cela, Bichr Allaf, Michael Angastiniotis, Carolina Backman Johansson, Catherine Badens, Celeste Bento, Marelle J Bouva, Duran Canatan, Matthew Charlton, Cathy Coppinger, Yvonne Daniel, Marianne de Montalembert, Patrick Ducoroy, Elena Dulin, Ralph Fingerhut, Claudia Frömmel, Marina García-Morin, Béatrice Gulbis, Ute Holtkamp, Baba Inusa, John James, Marina Kleanthous, Jeannette Klein, Joachim B Kunz, Lisa Langabeer, Claudine Lapouméroulie, Ana Marcao, José L Marín Soria, Corrina McMahon, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Jean-Marc Périni, Frédéric B Piel, Giovanna Russo, Laura Sainati, Markus Schmugge, Allison Streetly, Leon Tshilolo, Charles Turner, Donatella Venturelli, Laura Vilarinho, Rachel Yahyaoui, Jacques Elion, Raffaella Colombatti
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is an increasing global health problem and presents significant challenges to European health care systems. Newborn screening (NBS) for SCD enables early initiation of preventive measures and has contributed to a reduction in childhood mortality from SCD. Policies and methodologies for NBS vary in different countries, and this might have consequences for the quality of care and clinical outcomes for SCD across Europe. A two-day Pan-European consensus conference was held in Berlin in April 2017 in order to appraise the current status of NBS for SCD and to develop consensus-based statements on indications and methodology for NBS for SCD in Europe...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Zhen-Li Li, Wen-Tao Yan, Jin Zhang, Yi-Jun Zhao, Wan Yee Lau, Xian-Hai Mao, Yong-Yi Zeng, Ya-Hao Zhou, Wei-Min Gu, Hong Wang, Ting-Hao Chen, Jun Han, Hao Xing, Han Wu, Chao Li, Ming-Da Wang, Meng-Chao Wu, Feng Shen, Tian Yang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence and predictive factors of actual 10-year survival following liver resection of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: A Chinese multicenter database of patients undergoing curative hepatectomy of HBV-related HCC was reviewed. Patients who survived ≥ 10 years and patients who died < 10 years after surgery were compared and analyzed...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
S Foller, H Oppel-Heuchel, M-O Grimm
In contrast to chemotherapy, treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors occasionally results in an unconventional pattern of response. Besides an early partial or complete response or tumor progression, a so-called pseudoprogression, a "mixed response" or late responses can also be observed. Treatment beyond radiographically defined progression may therefore be appropriate in selected cases. For these treatment decisions, the clinical evaluation of the patient (performance status, symptoms, etc...
October 17, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Sandra E Kurtin, Jean A Ridgeway, Sara Tinsley
CASE STUDY A male patient aged 67 years with a 2-year history of refractory anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del(5q) started lenalidomide (Revlimid) treatment as a participant in the MDS-001 trial (List et al., 2005). At the time of the study, this patient had been transfusion-dependent since 2001, and at study entry he had received a total of 12 units of red blood cells (RBCs). The patient started lenalidomide at 25 mg daily for 21 days of each 28-day cycle on April 2, 2002. (Please note that as a result of subsequent trials, the approved starting dose for lenalidomide in patients with del[5q] MDS is 10 mg...
November 2017: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
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