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Graphene apoptosis

Gaurav Chauhan, Vianni Chopra, Amit Tyagi, Goutam Rath, Rakesh K Sharma, Amit K Goyal
Nano-graphene oxide (GO) nanometal composite (specifically nanogold and nanosilver) have shown to be a promising material for anticancer therapeutics. Owing to their high drug loading capacity, photothermal and synergizing effects, it is very important to exploit them for targeted chemo-thermal cancer therapeutics. In this work, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were selected as the composite metal, folic acid (FA) was taken as GO surface functionalization moiety for active tumor targeting of model anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox)...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xinxin Yan, Wen Yang, Zengwu Shao, Shuhua Yang, Xianzhe Liu
Carbon nanomaterials are increasingly significant in the biological and medical fields, especially becoming promising candidates in treating difficult and complicated disease. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotubes (G/SWCNT) hybrids is 3D structure which has been constructed by combining 1D single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and 2D graphene. However, the effects of the nanomaterial on biological systems are limited. In this study, we report a systematic investigation of the cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution of G/SWCNT hybrids on osteosarcoma cells (HOS and U2OS)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Jessica Campos-Delgado, Kelly L S Castro, Jose G Munguia-Lopez, Ana K González, Martin E Mendoza, Benjamin Fragneaud, Raphael Verdan, Joyce R Araujo, Francisco J González, Hugo Navarro-Contreras, Ivan N Pérez-Maldonado, Antonio de León-Rodríguez, Carlos A Achete
BACKGROUND: Driven by the potential biological applications of graphene, many groups have studied the response of cells exposed to graphene oxide (GO). In particular, investigations of bacteria indicate that there are 2 crucial parameters, which so far have only been investigated separately: GO size and exposure methodology. Our study took into account both parameters. We carefully characterized the samples to catalog sizes and structural properties, and tested different exposure methodologies: exposure in saline solution and in the presence of growth media...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Mi-Hee Lim, In Cheul Jeung, Jinyoung Jeong, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jongjin Park, Yu-Seon Kang, Hansu Lee, Young-Jun Park, Hee Gu Lee, Seon-Jin Lee, Baek Soo Han, Nam Woong Song, Sang Chul Lee, Jang-Seong Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Jeong-Ki Min
Despite the rapid expansion of the biomedical applications of graphene oxide (GO), safety issues related to GO, particularly with regard to its effects on vascular endothelial cells (ECs), have been poorly evaluated. To explore possible GO-mediated vasculature cytotoxicity and determine lateral GO size relevance, we constructed four types of GO: micrometer-sized GO (MGO; 1089.9 ± 135.3 nm), submicrometer-sized GO (SGO; 390.2 ± 51.4 nm), nanometer-sized GO (NGO; 65.5 ± 16.3 nm), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs)...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kasturi Muthoosamy, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Renu Geetha Bai, Hwei-San Loh, Sivakumar Manickam
Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fengyang Wang, Qianqian Sun, Bing Feng, Zhiai Xu, Junying Zhang, Jie Xu, Linlin Lu, Haijun Yu, Mingwei Wang, Yaping Li, Wen Zhang
Breast cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in the female population, and cancer metastasis is the main reason for cancer-caused mortality. A novel nanoplatform is herein presented integrating polydopamine-functionalized nanosized reduced graphene oxide (NRGO), gold nanostars (GNS), and doxorubicin (DOX) (denoted as NRGO-GNS@DOX) for combinational treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Upon localized near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, the NRGO-GNS@DOX nanocomposites induce significant cytotoxicity in 4T1 breast cancer cells due to a cumulative therapy effect of NRGO-GNS-elicited hyperthermia and DOX-induced cytotoxicity...
September 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Wei Liu, Cheng Sun, Chunyang Liao, Lin Cui, Haishan Li, Guangbo Qu, Wenlian Yu, Naining Song, Yuan Cui, Zheng Wang, Wenping Xie, Huiming Chen, Qunfang Zhou
Graphene has promising applications in food packaging, water purification, and detective sensors for contamination monitoring. However, the biological effects of graphene are not fully understood. It is necessary to clarify the potential risks of graphene exposure to humans through diverse routes, such as foods. In the present study, graphene, as the model nanomaterial, was used to test its potential effects on the cell proliferation based on multiple representative cell lines, including HepG2, A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cells...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ting-jian Wang, Sha-li Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on hematopoietic system in rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, high dose group (10 mg/kg · d), low dose group (5 mg/kg · d), The rats in experimental group were intravenous injected with GQDs for 28 days and those in control group were injected with normal saline at the same volume. Routine blood and the function of liver and kidney were detected by instrument analysis...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Chaoxiu Ren, Xiangang Hu, Xueyan Li, Qixing Zhou
Over the past decade, the safety of nanomaterials has attracted attention due to their rapid development. The relevant health threat of these materials remains largely unknown, particularly at environmentally or biologically relevant ultra-trace concentrations. To address this, we first found that graphene oxide (GO, a carbon nanomaterial that receives extensive attention across various disciplines) at concentrations of 0.01 μg/L-1 μg/L induced Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in zebrafish larvae. In this model, zebrafish showed a loss of more than 90% of dopamine neurons, a 69-522% increase in Lewy bodies (α-synuclein and ubiquitin) and significantly disturbed locomotive activity...
July 2016: Biomaterials
Wei Xu, Zhenhua Xie, Chunyi Tong, Lan Peng, Changhui Xiao, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu, Bin Liu
As a waste-management endonuclease, DNase I has been suggested to be one of the deoxyribonucleases responsible for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. We report here an alternative fluorescence method for DNase I assay with high accuracy and sensitivity by applying a DNA/GO (graphene oxide) probe. The method with a detection limit of 1 U mL(-1) was then applied to investigate the effects of external factors including antibiotics and heavy metal ions on DNase I. The results demonstrated that gentamicin sulfate was a strong inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0...
May 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Merajuddin Khan, Mujeeb Khan, Abdulhadi H Al-Marri, Abdulrahman Al-Warthan, Hamad Z Alkhathlan, Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui, Vadithe Lakshma Nayak, Ahmed Kamal, Syed F Adil
Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yun-Jung Choi, Eunsu Kim, JaeWoong Han, Jin-Hoi Kim, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
Graphene oxide (GO) is a monolayer of carbon atoms that form a dense honeycomb structure, consisting of hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the two accessible sides and carboxylic groups at the edges. In contrast, graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb lattice. Graphene has great potential for use in biomedical applications due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this study, we report a facile and environmentally friendly approach for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using uric acid (UA)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jinjin Shi, Binghua Wang, Zhaoyang Chen, Wei Liu, Jingjing Pan, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
PURPOSE: To develop a multi-functional theranostic nanoplatform with increased tumor retention, improving antitumor efficacy and decreased side effects of chemotherapy drugs. METHODS: GO@Gd nanocomposites was synthesized via decorating gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles (GdNP) onto graphene oxide (GO), and then functionalized by polyethylene glycol (PEG2000), folic acid (FA), a widely used tumor targeting molecule, was linked to GO@Gd-PEG, finally, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto GO@Gd-PEG-FA and obtained a tumor-targeting drug delivery system (GO@Gd-PEG-FA/DOX)...
June 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Abhilash Sasidharan, Siddharth Swaroop, Parwathy Chandran, Shantikumar Nair, Manzoor Koyakutty
Despite graphene being proposed for a multitude of biomedical applications, there is a dearth in the fundamental cellular and molecular level understanding of how few-layer graphene (FLG) interacts with human primary cells. Herein, using human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells as model of vascular transport, we investigated the basic mechanism underlying the biological behavior of graphene. Mechanistic toxicity studies using a battery of cell based assays revealed an organized oxidative stress paradigm involving cytosolic reactive oxygen stress, mitochondrial superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione oxidation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, enhanced calcium efflux, all leading to cell death by apoptosis/necrosis...
July 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Shiwei Zhou, Yingying Wang, Jun-Jie Zhu
B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) are often used to monitor the apoptosis of tumor cells and evaluate cancer drug effect. In this work, a novel sandwich-type dual-signal-marked electrochemical biosensor was fabricated for simultaneous detection of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers were used as substrate to immobilize Bcl-2 and Bax antibodies for further capturing target antigens. CdSeTe@CdS quantum dots (QDs) and Ag nanoclusters (NCs) with antibody modification and mesoporous silica amplification were used as signal probes, which were proportional to the amount of Bcl-2 and Bax antigens...
March 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lu Yan, Bingxin Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Xuan Li, Chao Zeng, Haiyan Shi, Xiaoxue Xu, Tong Lin, Liming Dai, Yong Liu
The damage of optic nerve will cause permanent visual field loss and irreversible ocular diseases, such as glaucoma. The damage of optic nerve is mainly derived from the atrophy, apoptosis or death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Though some progress has been achieved on electronic retinal implants that can electrically stimulate undamaged parts of RGCs or retina to transfer signals, stimulated self-repair/regeneration of RGCs has not been realized yet. The key challenge for development of electrically stimulated regeneration of RGCs is the selection of stimulation electrodes with a sufficient safe charge injection limit (Q(inj), i...
March 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanchun Wei, Feifan Zhou, Da Zhang, Qun Chen, Da Xing
Subcellular organelles play critical roles in cell survival. In this work, a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug delivery and phototoxicity on/off nano-system based on graphene oxide (NGO) as the carrier is developed to implement subcellular targeting and attacking. To construct the nanodrug (PPa-NGO-mAb), NGO is modified with the integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for tumor targeting. Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) conjugated with polyethylene-glycol is used to cover the surface of the NGO to induce phototoxicity...
February 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Khaled Habiba, Joel Encarnacion-Rosado, Kenny Garcia-Pabon, Juan C Villalobos-Santos, Vladimir I Makarov, Javier A Avalos, Brad R Weiner, Gerardo Morell
The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy due to its synergistic effects. In this work, PEGylated silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs) were tested as a platform to deliver a chemotherapy drug and a photosensitizer, simultaneously, in chemo-photodynamic therapy against HeLa and DU145 cancer cells in vitro. Ag-GQDs have displayed high efficiency in delivering doxorubicin as a model chemotherapy drug to both cancer cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xiali Zhu, Yingjie Zhang, Heqing Huang, Huijuan Zhang, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
PURPOSE: A functionalized graphene oxide-based thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with docetaxel for intratumoral delivery was designed to enhance therapeutic efficacy and alleviate system toxicity. METHODS: First, graphene oxide was functionalized with chitosan to acquire high stability in physiological solutions. And then docetaxel-graphene oxide/chitosan gel was formed by mixed docetaxel-graphene oxide/chitosan suspension with hydrogel which was made from Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188...
March 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
S C Reshma, S Syama, P V Mohanan
Graphene and its derivatives have garnered significant scientific interest and have potential use in nano-electronics as well as biomedicine. However the undesirable biological consequence, especially upon inhalation of the particle, requires further investigations. This study aimed to elucidate the nano-biointeractions of PEGylated reduced graphene oxide (PrGO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with that of lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both nanomaterials showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability and alteration of cell morphology after 24h...
April 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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