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Abdominal pain children

Samuel N Grief, Julie K Loza
Pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory infection, accounting for more than 800,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Presenting symptoms of pneumonia are typically cough, pleuritic chest pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Children and the elderly have different presenting features of pneumonia, which include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and absence of one or more of the prototypical symptoms. Knowledge of local bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles is the key for effective pharmacologic selection and treatment of pneumonia...
September 2018: Primary Care
Doralina L Anghelescu, Andy Guo, Kyle J Morgan, Michael Frett, Hasmukh Prajapati, Robert Gold, Sara M Federico
PURPOSE: The use of celiac plexus block (CPB) for abdominal pain has been extensively reported in adults. However, pediatric literature is limited to three single case reports and a series of three cases. This study evaluated the effectiveness of CPB in children and young adults (aged 8-20 years) with abdominal malignancies. METHODS: Pain outcomes after CPB were evaluated in four children and young adults with cancer. Mean daily pain score (PS, 0-10) and morphine consumption (intravenous morphine equivalent daily [MED], mg/kg/day) before and after CPB were used to assess effectiveness...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Hiran Thabrew, Karolina Stasiak, Sarah E Hetrick, Stephen Wong, Jessica H Huss, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Long-term physical conditions affect 10% to 12% of children and adolescents worldwide; these individuals are at greater risk of developing psychological problems, particularly anxiety and depression. Access to face-to-face treatment for such problems is often limited, and available interventions usually have not been tested with this population. As technology improves, e-health interventions (delivered via digital means, such as computers and smart phones and ranging from simple text-based programmes through to multimedia and interactive programmes, serious games, virtual reality and biofeedback programmes) offer a potential solution to address the psychological needs of this group of young people...
August 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Syunsuke Yamanaka, Erik D Skarsgard, Ran D Goldman
Question A 10-year-old girl who was seen in my office last week with acute-onset abdominal pain and fever was referred to an emergency department, was diagnosed with appendicitis, and was treated conservatively with antibiotics, without surgery. Has the paradigm for treating appendicitis changed, and which is the preferred treatment of appendicitis in children: antibiotics or appendectomy? Answer For more than 100 years, surgical management was the principal treatment of acute appendicitis. Potential adverse events associated with appendectomy include bleeding, surgical site infection, and ileus, as well as stress for children and their parents...
August 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Rabia Miray Kisla Ekinci, Sibel Balcı, Okkes Ozgur Mart, Gokhan Tumgor, Sibel Yavuz, Halil Celik, Dilek Dogruel, Derya Ufuk Altintas, Mustafa Yilmaz
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), the most common childhood vasculitis is characterized by non-thrombocytopenic palpable purpura, arthritis/arthralgia, abdominal pain and renal involvement. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are heterogeneous disease spectrum with unclear etiology and include the most common subtypes: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain and functional constipation. Formerly, FGIDs were known as non-organic disorders; however, recent advances revealed that low-grade inflammation may also play a role...
August 12, 2018: Rheumatology International
Laurie Malia, Jesse J Sturm, Sharon R Smith, R Timothy Brown, Brendan Campbell, Henry Chicaiza
Ultrasound (US) and laboratory testing are initial diagnostic tests for acute appendicitis. A diagnostic dilemma develops when the appendix is not visualized on US. OBJECTIVE: To determine if specific US findings and/or laboratory results predict acute appendicitis when the appendix is not visualized. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on children (birth-18 yrs) presenting to the pediatric emergency department with suspected acute appendicitis who underwent right lower quadrant US...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chiara Ossella, Floriana DellʼOmo, Elena Zanetti, Isabella Ferdinanda Pestalozza, Pierluigi Galizia, Salvatore Tripodi
BACKGROUND: Belly dancer syndrome is a rare condition consisting of involuntary, repetitive, often rhythmic contractions of the diaphragm, causing undulating movements of the abdomen that recall those of a belly dancer. It is frequently associated with pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen or lower chest, but clinical symptoms are highly variable often resulting in late diagnosis. Very few pediatric cases have been reported, all of which were secondary to other conditions, and to our knowledge, no idiopathic cases of Belly Dancer Syndrome have been reported in children...
August 8, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ruben J Colman, Neal Bryan S Rosario, Analydia Gutierrez Bonilla, Gabriela Benavidez Alvarez, Joel Benavidez Alvarez, Vincent P Uy, Paulo R Pina, David H Rubin
AIM: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (such as functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia) are a common cause of chronic GI symptoms in children. Prior studies demonstrated a high comorbidity of functional GI disorders (FGIDs) among patients with asthma. However, data exploring specific disease characteristics within the US populations are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidities of FGIDs among pediatric asthma patients at a university-affiliated urban community hospital...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Hans D Ochs, Isaac Melamed, Michael Borte, James N Moy, Barbara Pyringer, Ai Lan D Kobayashi, Alan P Knutsen, William Smits, Anna Pituch-Noworolska, Roger H Kobayashi
AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% preparation (Panzyga® ; Octapharma AG, Lachen, Switzerland) in predominantly antibody-deficient children with primary immunodeficiency disease. METHODS: Data from two prospective, open-label and noncontrolled multicenter Phase III studies of IVIG 10% that included 25 patients <16 years of age were analyzed for efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety. RESULTS: The rate of serious bacterial infections was 0...
August 8, 2018: Immunotherapy
Vivekanand Singh, Meenal Singh, Jennifer V Schurman, Craig A Friesen
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects a significant number of children presenting with chronic abdominal pain. A high proportion of these children undergo endoscopy to obtain mucosal biopsies which, by standard criteria, generally do not identify a clear explanation for symptoms. We undertook this study of children diagnosed with FD to elucidate the histopathological changes of gastroduodenal mucosa and to describe mast cell and eosinophil densities...
August 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Jessica Green, Will Carroll, Francis J Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive genetic disorder in white populations. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) is an important morbidity in cystic fibrosis. It is the result of the accumulation of viscid faecal material within the bowel which combines with thick, sticky mucus produced in the intestines of people with cystic fibrosis. The intestine may be completely blocked (complete DIOS) or only partially blocked (incomplete DIOS)...
August 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jonathan S Schiffman
BACKGROUND: Rare causes of abdominal pain include abnormalities of the urachus, including patent urachus and urachal cyst with or without infection. However, reviews discussing etiology of abdominal pain, even in children, may completely omit mention of urachal remnants. OBJECTIVES: Determine the incidence of symptomatic urachal remnants in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), including common presenting findings and method of diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients presenting to the ED with abdominal pain who were diagnosed with urachal remnants, including patent urachus or urachal cyst or abscess over a period of 11 years and 7 months in one hospital...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Roberta Grimaldi, Glenn R Gibson, Jelena Vulevic, Natasa Giallourou, Josué L Castro-Mejía, Lars H Hansen, E Leigh Gibson, Dennis S Nielsen, Adele Costabile
BACKGROUND: Different dietary approaches, such as gluten and casein free diets, or the use of probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested in autistic spectrum disorders in order to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. GI symptoms are of particular interest in this population due to prevalence and correlation with the severity of behavioural traits. Nowadays, there is lack of strong evidence about the effect of dietary interventions on these problems, particularly prebiotics. Therefore, we assessed the impact of exclusion diets and a 6-week Bimuno® galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS®) prebiotic intervention in 30 autistic children...
August 2, 2018: Microbiome
Honglei Chen, Yanan Liu, Liping Fu, Xutao Lin, Dejun Fan, Chujun Li
AIM: Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a useful tool for the evaluation and treatment of small bowel disease. Limited clinical data are available regarding the indications, clinical findings and safety associated with the use of DBE in children. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility and safety of DBE in children. METHODS: A total of 72 DBE procedures were performed on 61 children at the Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, between 1 April 2013 and 31 December 2017...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Evandro Brandelero, Bibiana Paula Dambrós, Elenice Messias do Nascimento Gonçalves, Vera Lucia Pagliusi Castilho, Amarildo Moro Ribas, Maribel Emília Gaio
OBJECTIVE: To describe an uncommon case of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in a 4-month-old child and to highlight the importance of early diagnosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a male child from the city of Videira, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, who was born preterm by Cesarean-section, weighing 1,655 g, and stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit for 20 days. At four months of age, the child started presenting blood in stools and the possibility of cow's milk protein allergy was considered, given the symptoms and the use of infant formula in his 1st semester of life, which was then replaced by infant formula with hydrolyzed protein...
July 26, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Fabio Cisarò, Alida Andrealli, Pierluigi Calvo, Riccardo Guanà, Michele Pinon, Claudio Barletti
To obtain optimal visualization of the colonic mucosa during gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures, an adequate bowel preparation is mandatory, but a standardized protocol is still lacking for pediatric patients. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is currently the most used laxative, but the amount of liquid to be taken orally is a large volume for the pediatric population and it may not be well tolerated. The aim of our preliminary trial was to evaluate efficacy, tolerability, and safety of sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPMC) used as bowel preparation before colonoscopy in children...
July 2018: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
Douglas B Mogul, Simon C Ling, Karen F Murray, Sara J Schwarzenberg, Erin R Rudzinski, Kathleen B Schwarz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatricians and liver specialists in the United States and Canada continue to encounter hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in high-risk populations, including unvaccinated children, adopted children, and immigrants. Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a known complication of HBV, there exists a paucity of data regarding the clinical presentation of HBV-associated HCC in children in these countries. METHODS: Investigators at four medical centers with large numbers of HBV-positive children queried their pathology and/or oncology databases to identify all cases of HBV-infected children <18 years old presenting with HCC between 1990 and 2015...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Katarzyna Jobs, Magda Rakowska, Aleksandra Paturej
Urolithiasis, a condition in which calculi are found in the urinary tract, has been known for centuries. Although the disease was considered casuistic in the pediatric population, its prevalence is rising among both children and infants. The occurrence of the disease is greater in developed countries, therefore urolithiasis should be considered a lifestyle disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not yet been well understood. Kidney stone formation is influenced by factors such as climate, eating habits, profession, fluid intake, genetic predisposition, urinary tract infections and malformations of the urinary tract...
2018: Developmental Period Medicine
C Salvador, A Entenmann, R Salvador, A Niederwanger, R Crazzolara, G Kropshofer
BACKGROUND: Lipemic alterations are commonly seen in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with corticosteroids and L-asparaginase. OBJECTIVE: In these children, hypertriglyceridemia rarely causes symptoms and mostly responds well to a low-fat diet. Only few patients demand further therapy, which is not clearly approved in the literature to date. Therefore, it may be important to compile generally accepted standard procedures for lipid-lowering therapy in the pediatric ALL population...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jens Tilma, Jørgen Tilma, Karen Tilma
AIM: This study assessed the prevalence, clinical presentation and outcome of lymphocytic colitis (LC) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) in children with severe, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), by describing the predominant symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment options. METHODS: We performed a retrospective follow-up study at a Danish regional hospital by reviewing the histology reports of the children who had undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy for RAP...
July 27, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
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