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Mitochondria fission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329063/lysosomal-proteolysis-is-associated-with-exercise-induced-improvement-of-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-aged-hippocampus
#1
Li Luo, Jia-Ru Dai, Shan-Shan Guo, A-Ming Lu, Xiao-Fang Gao, Yan-Rong Gu, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Hai-Dong Xu, Yan Wang, Zhou Zhu, Lisa J Wood, Zheng-Hong Qin
Exercise improves cognitive function in older adults, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Both lysosomal degradation and mitochondrial quality control decline with age. We hypothesized that exercise ameliorates age-related cognitive decline through the improvement of mitochondrial quality control in aged hippocampus, and this effect is associated with lysosomal proteolysis. Sixteen to eighteen-month old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent swim exercise training for 10 weeks. The exercise regimen prevented cognitive decline in aged rats, reduced oxidative stress, and rejuvenated mitochondria in the aged hippocampus...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326730/-influences-of-vibration-on-rapid-osteogenic-response-of-osteoblasts
#2
Zhu Zhuoli, Zhang Ling, Ma Ruiyang, Gan Xueqi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the rapid response of osteoblasts, which were derived from low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV). Refractory period-derived memory response was also observed. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated and received LMHFV stimulation (0.49 g, 40 Hz) for 30 min. After application of LMHFV, mRNA levels of earlier osteogenic differentiation markers Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), collagen typeⅠ(Col-Ⅰ), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were immediately detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the absence or presence of antioxidant...
February 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324645/three-dimensional-analysis-of-somatic-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-fission-deficient-injured-motor-neurons-using-fib-sem
#3
Hiromi Tamada, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroki Hosokawa, Keisuke Ohta, Naotada Ishihara, Masatoshi Nomura, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Kiyama
Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324492/detection-of-hypoxia-induced-and-iron-depletion-induced-mitophagy-in-mammalian-cells
#4
Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki
Mitochondrial quality and quantity are not only regulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission but also by mitochondria degradation. Mitophagy, an autophagy specific for damaged or unnecessary mitochondria, is believed to be an important pathway for mitochondrial homeostasis. To date, several stimuli are known to induce mitophagy. Some of these stimuli, however, including hypoxia, iron depletion, and nitrogen starvation, induce mild mitophagy, which is difficult to detect through decreased mitochondrial mass...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315370/control-of-mitochondrial-physiology-and-cell-death-by-the-bcl-2-family-proteins-bax-and-bok
#5
Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H M Prehn
Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca(2+). Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca(2+) overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventually lead to Ca(2+)-dependent cell death...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314909/localization-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-its-potential-role-in-lamellipodia-formation
#6
Youhwa Jo, Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun, Jae Ryun Ryu
Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) plays an essential role in mitochondrial fission: Cytosolic Drp1 is translocated to the mitochondria upon stimulus, and oligomerized Drp1 constricts mitochondria by aid of actin filaments. Drp1 completes the fission process with GTP hydrolysis by its own GTPase activity. The importance of actin filament and its interaction with Drp1 in the mitochondrial fission process have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that Drp1 is enriched in the actin-rich leading edge of lamellipodia of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) wherein mitochondria or peroxisomes are absent...
March 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314612/a-simple-imagej-macro-tool-for-analyzing-mitochondrial-network-morphology-in-mammalian-cell-culture
#7
Andrew J Valente, Lucas A Maddalena, Ellen L Robb, Fereshteh Moradi, Jeffrey A Stuart
Mitochondria exist in a dynamic cycle of fusion and fission whose balance directly influences the morphology of the 'mitochondrial network', a term that encompasses the branched, reticular structure of fused mitochondria as well as the separate, punctate individual organelles within a eukaryotic cell. Over the past decade, the significance of the mitochondrial network has been increasingly appreciated, motivating the development of various approaches to analyze it. Here, we describe the Mitochondrial Network Analysis (MiNA) toolset, a relatively simple pair of macros making use of existing ImageJ plug-ins, allowing for semi-automated analysis of mitochondrial networks in cultured mammalian cells...
March 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302504/mitochondrial-nudix-hydrolases-a-metabolic-link-between-nad-catabolism-gtp-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#8
Aaron Long, Nina Klimova, Tibor Kristian
NAD(+) catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD(+) catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#9
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283188/targeted-cytoplasmic-irradiation-and-autophagy
#10
Jinhua Wu, Bo Zhang, Yen-Ruh Wuu, Mercy M Davidson, Tom K Hei
The effect of ionizing irradiation on cytoplasmic organelles is often underestimated because the general dogma considers direct DNA damage in the nuclei to be the primary cause of radiation induced toxicity. Using a precision microbeam irradiator, we examined the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with α-particles. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation led to activation of autophagy, which degraded dysfunctional mitochondria in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282614/inhibition-of-drp1-protects-against-senecionine-induced-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-primary-hepatocytes-and-in-mice
#11
Xiao Yang, Hua Wang, Hong-Min Ni, Aizhen Xiong, Zhengtao Wang, Hiromi Sesaki, Wen-Xing Ding, Li Yang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice...
March 2, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276029/assessing-mitochondrial-selective-autophagy-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Konstantinos Palikaras, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Eukaryotic cells heavily depend on ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within mitochondria. Besides being the main suppliers of cell's energy, mitochondria also provide an additional compartment for a wide range of cellular processes and metabolic pathways. Mitochondria constantly undergo fusion/fission events and form a mitochondrial network, which is a highly dynamic, tubular structure allowing for rapid and continuous exchange of genetic material, as well as, targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation through mitochondrial selective autophagy (mitophagy)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276024/new-imaging-tools-to-analyze-mitochondrial-morphology-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Saroj G Regmi, Stéphane G Rolland
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly fuse and divide. This process is essential as several neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with defects in mitochondrial fusion or fission. Several tools have been developed over the years to visualize mitochondria in organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. Combining these tools with the powerful genetics of C. elegans has led to the discovery of new regulators of mitochondrial morphology. In this chapter, we present additional tools to further characterize mitochondrial morphology as well as regulators of mitochondrial morphology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273447/dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-changes-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-regulate-insulin-action
#14
Beatrice M Filippi, Mona A Abraham, Pamuditha N Silva, Mozhgan Rasti, Mary P LaPierre, Paige V Bauer, Jonathan V Rocheleau, Tony K T Lam
Mitochondria undergo dynamic changes to maintain function in eukaryotic cells. Insulin action in parallel regulates glucose homeostasis, but whether specific changes in mitochondrial dynamics alter insulin action and glucose homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we report that high-fat feeding in rodents incurred adaptive dynamic changes in mitochondria through an increase in mitochondrial fission in parallel to an activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brain. Direct inhibition of Drp1 negated high-fat-feeding-induced mitochondrial fission, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and insulin resistance in the DVC and subsequently restored hepatic glucose production regulation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272266/lack-of-activation-of-mitophagy-during-endurance-exercise-in-human
#15
Céline Schwalm, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
PURPOSE: To determine whether fission and mitophagy are activated by acute endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle and to investigate if this activation is dependent upon the nutritional state. METHODS: Trained athletes (n = 7) cycled for 2 h at 70% VO2 peak in a fed or fasted state. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, before, immediately after and 1 h after exercise. Protein and mRNA markers for mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, fission and fusion were analyzed using qRT-PCR and Western blot...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265681/ischemia-induced-drp1-and-fis1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-and-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Lian Tian, Monica Neuber-Hess, Jeffrey Mewburn, Asish Dasgupta, Kimberly Dunham-Snary, Danchen Wu, Kuang-Hueih Chen, Zhigang Hong, Willard W Sharp, Shelby Kutty, Stephen L Archer
Right ventricular (RV) function determines prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesize that ischemia causes RV dysfunction in PAH by triggering dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission. RV function was compared in control rats (n = 50) versus rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH (MCT-PAH; n = 60) both in vivo (echocardiography) and ex vivo (RV Langendorff). Mitochondrial membrane potential and morphology and RV function were assessed before or after 2 cycles of ischemia-reperfusion injury challenge (RV-IR)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251677/mitochondrial-dna-and-primary-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Maria Pia Giannoccaro, Chiara La Morgia, Giovanni Rizzo, Valerio Carelli
In 1979, it was observed that parkinsonism could be induced by a toxin inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory complex I. This initiated the long-standing hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This hypothesis evolved, with accumulating evidence pointing to complex I dysfunction, which could be caused by environmental or genetic factors. Attention was focused on the mitochondrial DNA, considering the occurrence of mutations, polymorphic haplogroup-specific variants, and defective mitochondrial DNA maintenance with the accumulation of multiple deletions and a reduction of copy number...
March 2, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247434/melatonin-protects-against-lipid-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hepatocytes-and-inhibits-stellate-cell-activation-during-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
Nabanita Das, Ashok Mandala, Shamreen Naaz, Suresh Giri, Mukul Jain, Debasish Bandyopadhyay, Russel J Reiter, Sib Sankar Roy
Lipid generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in consequence to mitochondrial fission followed by inflammation in propagating hepatic fibrosis. The interaction of SIRT1/Mitofusin2 is critical for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and functioning, which is disrupted upon excess lipid infiltration during the progression of steatohepatitis. The complex interplay between hepatic stellate cells and steatotic hepatocytes is critically regulated by extracellular factors including increased circulating free fatty acids during fibrogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242326/therapeutic-hypothermia-attenuates-global-cerebral-reperfusion-induced-mitochondrial-damage-by-suppressing-dynamin-related-protein-1-activation-and-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-a-cardiac-arrest-rat-model
#19
Jingjing Fan, Shenquan Cai, Hao Zhong, Liangbin Cao, Kangli Hui, Miaomiao Xu, Manlin Duan, Jianguo Xu
Therapeutic hypothermia is effective to attenuate brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury after cardiac arrest, and multiple mechanisms have been proposed. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPases of dynamin superfamily, predominantly controls mitochondrial fission and is related to IR-induced Cyt C release and apoptosis. However, the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on Drp1 and mitochondrial fission after cardiac arrest remains still unclear. In this study, non-cardiac arrest and post-cardiac arrest rats received 6-h normothermia (37-38°C) or therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C), and the hippocampus was harvested at 6h and 72h after cardiac arrest...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238799/inhibition-of-drp1-hyper-activation-is-protective-in-animal-models-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Fucheng Luo, Karl Herrup, Xin Qi, Yan Yang
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a leading neurological disorder of young adults, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs), demyelination, inflammation and neuronal degeneration. Here we show that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, is activated in primary OL cells exposed to TNF-α induced inflammation or oxidative stress, as well as in EAE-immunized and cuprizone toxicity-induced demyelinating mouse models. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation by the selective inhibitor P110 abolishes Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and stems necrosis in primary OLs exposed to TNF-α and H2O2...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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