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Mitochondria fission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518143/calcium-sensing-receptor-protects-high-glucose-induced-energy-metabolism-disorder-via-blocking-gp78-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#1
Yuehong Wang, Ping Gao, Can Wei, Hongzhu Li, Li Zhang, Yajun Zhao, Bo Wu, Ye Tian, Weihua Zhang, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Changqing Xu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and fatal cause of the patients with diabetes. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and so on. In our previous study, we found that CaSR expression, intracellular calcium levels and cardiac function were all significantly decreased in DCM rats; however, the exact mechanism are not clear yet. The present study revealed the protective role of CaSR in myocardial energy metabolism disorder induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanism...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513170/a-phospholipid-biomimetic-fluorescent-mitochondrial-probe-with-ultrahigh-selectivity-enables-in-situ-and-high-fidelity-tissue-imaging
#2
Ruoyao Zhang, Yuming Sun, Minggang Tian, Ge Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Xuechen Li, Lifang Guo, Xiaoqiang Yu, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiuquan He
In-situ and directly imaging mitochondria in tissues instead of isolated cells can offer more native and accurate information. Particularly, in the clinical diagnose of mitochondrial diseases such as mitochondrial myopathy, it is a routine examination item to directly observe mitochondrial morphology and number in muscle tissues from patients. However, it's still a challenging task because the selectivity of available probes is inadequate for exclusively tissue imaging. Inspired by the chemical structure of amphiphilic phospholipids in mitochondrial inner membrane, we synthesized a phospholipid-biomimetic amphiphilic fluorescent probe (Mito-MOI) by modifying a C18-alkyl chain to the lipophilic side of carbazole-indolenine cation...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512263/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#3
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504877/illuminating-superoxide-anion-and-ph-enhancements-in-apoptosis-of-breast-cancer-cells-induced-by-mitochondrial-hyperfusion-using-a-new-two-photon-fluorescence-probe
#4
Wen Zhang, Xin Wang, Ping Li, Haibin Xiao, Wei Zhang, Hui Wang, Bo Tang
Mitochondrial morphology regulated by fusion and fission processes determines mitochondrial function and cell fate. Some studies showed hyperfused mitochondria could induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but the relevant molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Superoxide (O2•-) and pH play vital roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore if there is an intimate relationship between mitochondrial hyperfusion and simultaneous changes in O2•- and pH levels, which will be helpful to uncover relevant detailed mechanism...
May 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504273/legionella-effector-lpg1137-shuts-down-er-mitochondria-communication-through-cleavage-of-syntaxin-17
#5
Kohei Arasaki, Yumi Mikami, Stephanie R Shames, Hiroki Inoue, Yuichi Wakana, Mitsuo Tagaya
During infection of macrophages, the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila secretes effector proteins that induce the conversion of the plasma membrane-derived vacuole into an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like replicative vacuole. These ER-like vacuoles are ultimately fused with the ER, where the pathogen replicates. Here we show that the L. pneumophila effector Lpg1137 is a serine protease that targets the mitochondria and their associated membranes. Lpg1137 binds to and cleaves syntaxin 17, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein that is known to participate in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 in fed cells and in autophagy through interaction with Atg14L and other SNAREs in starved cells...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503736/hydrogen-sulfide-pretreatment-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-myocardial-hypertrophy-via-a-sirt3-dependent-manner
#6
Guoliang Meng, Jieqiong Liu, Shangmin Liu, Qiuyi Song, Lulu Liu, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signal molecule with anti-oxidative ability. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is closely associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. The study was to investigate whether and how H2 S improved myocardial hypertrophy via a SIRT3-dependent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with NaHS (50 μM) for 4 h followed by angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nM) for 24 h. SIRT3 was silenced with siRNA technology. SIRT 3 promoter activity and expression, cell surface, hypertrophic gene mRNA expression, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and membrane potential were measured...
May 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501614/shaping-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-role-of-camp-signalling
#7
Giulietta Di Benedetto, Andrea Gerbino, Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis
In recent years, our idea of mitochondria evolved from "mere" energy and metabolite producers to key regulators of many cellular functions. In order to preserve and protect their functional status, these organelles engage a number of dynamic processes that allow them to decrease accumulated burden and maintain their homeostasis. Indeed, mitochondria can unite (fusion), divide (fission), position themselves strategically in the cell (motility/trafficking) and if irreversibly damaged or dysfunctional eliminated (mitophagy)...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495578/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-fundc1-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#8
Gongyu Xu, Zhenzhen Li, Jinwen Xiao, Fangqing Li, Weiyuan Ye, Haobin Zhao, Qingchun Zhou, Xueping Zhong
Fundc1 is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and plays important roles in mitochondria fission and hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells. However, there is no relevant report of fundc1 in fish. In the present study, we cloned a 942bp fundc1 cDNA from rare minnow. The cDNA, designated as Grfundc1 cDNA, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 459bp which encodes a polypeptide of 152 amino acid residues. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that Grfundc1 was highly homologous with those of other vertebrates...
May 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492551/haploinsufficiency-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-chchd4-reduces-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#9
Yanyan Sun, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Kai Zhou, Juan Rodriguez, Wei Han, Xiaoyang Wang, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Mitochondria contribute to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by releasing potentially toxic proteins into the cytosol. CHCHD4 is a mitochondrial intermembrane space protein that plays a major role in the import of intermembrane proteins and physically interacts with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CHCHD4 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and brain injury after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. CHCHD4(+/-) and wild-type littermate mouse pups were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI on postnatal day 9...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492550/txnip-regulates-mitophagy-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-under-high-glucose-conditions-implications-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#10
Takhellambam Swornalata Devi, Mallika Somayajulu, Renu Anjan Kowluru, Lalit Pukhrambam Singh
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy. However, the role of TXNIP in the removal of damaged mitochondria (MT) via mitophagy, a process of macroautophagy, remains unexplored. Here we investigate the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mitophagy in retinal cells under diabetic conditions. For this, we maintained a rat Müller cell line (rMC1) under high-glucose (25 mM, HG) or low-glucose (5.5 mM, LG) condition for 5 days...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486920/mitochondria-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
Shikun Yang, Yachun Han, Jun Liu, Panai Song, Xiaoxuan Xu, Li Zhao, Chun Hu, Li Xiao, Fuyou Liu, Hao Zhang, Lin Sun
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic microvascular complication, and it is becoming the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Unfortunately, there are no effective therapies to treat established DN. Therefore, new therapeutic targets are urgently required. Accumulating studies indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of DN, such as elevated oxidative stress induced by disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex and mitochondrial dynamic disorders...
May 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486121/mitochondrial-homeostasis-how-do-dimers-of-mitofusins-mediate-mitochondrial-fusion
#12
Oliver Daumke, Aurélien Roux
Mitochondria have high fusion and fission rates to maintain their size and number throughout the cell cycle. How is fusion mediated? New structural studies propose mechanisms by which the dynamin-like mitofusin proteins promote fusion of mitochondria.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484497/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cell-reprogramming-as-it-is-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Javier Prieto, Josema Torres
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent cellular state similar to that of embryonic stem cells. Given the significant physiological differences between the somatic and pluripotent cells, cell reprogramming is associated with a profound reorganization of the somatic phenotype at all levels. The remodeling of mitochondrial morphology is one of these dramatic changes that somatic cells have to undertake during cell reprogramming. Somatic cells transform their tubular and interconnected mitochondrial network to the fragmented and isolated organelles found in pluripotent stem cells early during cell reprogramming...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483668/doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-role-of-mitofusin-2
#14
Han Tang, Aibin Tao, Jia Song, Qian Liu, Hao Wang, Tao Rui
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-tumor agent that is widely used in clinical setting for cancer treatment. The application of the DOX, however, is limited by its cardiac toxicity which can induce heart failure through an undefined mechanism. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a mitochondrial GTPase fusion protein that is located on the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM). The Mfn2 plays an important role in mitochondrial fusion and fission. The aim of this study is to identify the role of the Mfn2 in DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461171/connecting-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-life-or-death-events-via-bcl-2-family-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Abdel Aouacheria, Stephen Baghdiguian, Heather M Lamb, Jason D Huska, Fernando J Pineda, J Marie Hardwick
The morphology of a population of mitochondria is the result of several interacting dynamical phenomena, including fission, fusion, movement, elimination and biogenesis. Each of these phenomena is controlled by underlying molecular machinery, and when defective can cause disease. New understanding of the relationships between form and function of mitochondria in health and disease is beginning to be unraveled on several fronts. Studies in mammals and model organisms have revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and function appear to be subject to regulation by the same proteins that regulate apoptotic cell death...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460043/cell-free-mitochondrial-fusion-assay-detected-by-specific-protease-reaction-revealed-ca2-as-regulator-of-mitofusin-dependent-mitochondrial-fusion
#16
Naotada Ishihara, Maki Maeda, Tadato Ban, Katsuyoshi Mihara
Mitochondrial dynamic by frequent fusion and fission have important roles in various cellular signaling processes and pathophysiology in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial fusion, especially in mammalian cells, are not well understood. Accordingly, we developed a novel biochemical cell-free mitochondrial fusion assay system using isolated human mitochondria. We used a protease and its specific substrate that are essential for yeast autophagy; Atg4 protease is required for maturation and the de-conjugation of the ubiquitin-like modifier Atg8...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455958/csfv-induced-mitochondrial-fission-and-mitophagy-to-inhibit-apoptosis
#17
Hongchao Gou, Mingqiu Zhao, Hailuan Xu, Jin Yuan, Wencheng He, Mengjiao Zhu, Hongxing Ding, Lin Yi, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which causes typical clinical characteristics in piglets, including hemorrhagic syndrome and immunosuppression, is linked to hepatitis C and dengue virus. Oxidative stress and a reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential are disturbed in CSFV-infected cells. The balance of mitochondrial dynamics is essential for cellular homeostasis. In this study, we offer the first evidence that CSFV induces mitochondrial fission and mitophagy to inhibit host cell apoptosis for persistent infection...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450119/role-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-compensatory-hypertrophied-myocardium-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#18
Siting Hong, Xin Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, Wenxiu Liu, Yu Fu, Yue Liu, Zhiyu Shi, Jinyu Chi, Meng Zhao, Xinhua Yin
Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mediates pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Mitochondria maintain their function through fission and fusion and disruption of mitochondrial dynamic is linked to various cardiac diseases. This study examined how inhibition of CaSR by the inhibitor Calhex231 affected the mitochondrial dynamics in a hypertensive model in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used in this study. Cardiac function and blood pressure was evaluated at the end of the study...
April 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448495/dysregulation-of-inf2-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-in-spop-mutated-prostate-cancer
#19
Xiaofeng Jin, Jie Wang, Kun Gao, Pingzhao Zhang, Longfang Yao, Yan Tang, Lisha Tang, Jian Ma, Jiantao Xiao, Enceng Zhang, Jie Zhu, Bin Zhang, Shi-Min Zhao, Yao Li, Shancheng Ren, Haojie Huang, Long Yu, Chenji Wang
Next-generation sequencing of the exome and genome of prostate cancers has identified numerous genetic alternations. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ Protein) was one of the most frequently mutated genes in primary prostate cancer, suggesting SPOP is a potential driver of prostate cancer development and progression. However, how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis remains poorly understood. SPOP acts as an adaptor protein of the CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that generally recruits substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438530/ferulic-acid-attenuates-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-damage-caused-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-punctate-mitochondria-dependent-mitophagy
#20
Jun-Li Chen, Wen-Jun Duan, Si Luo, Shi Li, Xiao-Hui Ma, Bo-Nan Hou, Shu-Yi Cheng, Shu-Huan Fang, Qi Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Yun-Bo Chen
Ferulic acid (FA) has an important effect on scavenging free radicals, which is related to the alleviation of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies about its effects on vascular dementia. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of FA on oxidative damage of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) which underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 hours. Our data showed that FA significantly reversed the oxidative stress state of OGD-treated BMECs and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
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