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Oral breathing in children

Wioletta Pawlukowska, Monika Rychert, Ewa Urbanowicz, Hanna Romanowska, Iwona Rotter, Maria Giżewska
RATIONALE: Existing research into the effects of teat application has mainly focused on its negative and positive influence on the development of the oral cavity. Our work demonstrates that apart from changing the setting of the articulatory organs, the teat can also affect the quality of breathing, eating and sleeping. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We described the cases of 2 children: a 19-month-old girl and a 2.5-month-old boy, who had breathing disorders due to withdrawal of the tongue and impaired food intake...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Janet M Simsic, Christina Phelps, Kristin Kirchner, Kirby-Rose Carpenito, Robin Allen, Holly Miller-Tate, Karen Texter, Mark Galantowicz
OBJECTIVE: Interstage readmissions are common in infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease undergoing staged surgical palliation. We retrospectively examined readmissions during the interstage period. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: The Heart Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. PATIENTS: Newborns undergoing hybrid stage 1 palliation from January 2012 to December 2016 who survived to hospital discharge and were followed at our institution...
July 18, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Emil Korporowicz, Dariusz Gozdowski, Agnieszka Lecka-Ambroziak, Mieczysław Szalecki
OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of changes in the saliva in the etiology of gingivitis and tooth wear in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 80 (2.8-18 years old; 39 girls and 41 boys): 40 in PWS group (mean age 8.0 ± 4.24 years) and 40 in control group (mean age 7.9 ± 4.12 years). General condition, oral para-functional habits, tooth wear (modified TWI), oral hygiene and gingival status (Plaque Index (PLI) and Gingival Index (GI)), localization of gingivitis, and salivary characteristics were assessed...
July 14, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Mark Daniel DeBoer, James A Platts-Mills, Rebecca J Scharf, Joann M McDermid, Anne W Wanjuhi, Jean Gratz, Erling Svensen, Jon R Swann, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Samwel Jatosh, Eric R Houpt, Estomih Mduma
INTRODUCTION: In many developing areas in the world, a high burden of enteric pathogens in early childhood are associated with growth deficits. The tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway has been linked to enteric inflammatory responses to intestinal infections. However, it is not known in these settings whether scheduled antimicrobial intervention to reduce subclinical enteric pathogen carriage or repletion of the tryptophan-kynurenine-niacin pathway improves linear growth and development...
July 7, 2018: BMJ Open
Paolo Montuschi, Vincenzina Lucidi, Debora Paris, Enza Montemitro, Rugia Shohreh, Nadia Mores, Dominique Melck, Giuseppe Santini, Fabio Majo, Andrea Motta
15-F2t -Isoprostane, a reliable biomarker of oxidative stress, has been found elevated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive technique for sampling of airway secretions, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Azithromycin has antioxidant properties in experimental models of CF, but its effects on oxidative stress in CF patients are largely unknown. Primary objective of this pilot, proof-of-concept, prospective, parallel group, pharmacological study, was investigating the potential antioxidant effects of azithromycin in CF patients as reflected by EBC 15-F2t -isoprostane...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rebecca Normansell, Ben Sayer, Samuel Waterson, Emma J Dennett, Manuela Del Forno, Anne Dunleavy
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects over 300 million adults and children worldwide. It is characterised by wheeze, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Symptoms typically are intermittent and may worsen over a short time, leading to an exacerbation. Asthma exacerbations can be serious, leading to hospitalisation or even death in rare cases. Exacerbations may be treated by increasing an individual's usual medication and providing additional medication, such as oral steroids...
June 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Luisa Maria Bellussi, Maria Pia Villa, Giulia Degiorgi, Francesco Maria Passali, Melania Evangelisti, Ilaria Innocenti Paganelli, Marilisa Montesano, Desiderio Passali
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc administered as a nasal spray in children affected by recurring infections of the upper airways, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). METHODS: Prospective study on 42 children with SDB. Anamnestic and general examination data were collected using the 'Sleep Clinical Record' (SCR) questionnaire during the first inspection and after three months of treatment with Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc nasal spray...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
N D Azevedo, J C Lima, R M M M Furlan, A R Motta
The tongue plays an important role in oral functions. Reduced tongue strength is often noted among children with mouth-breathing behaviour. The purposes of this study were to measure the tongue pressure in children with mouth-breathing behaviour, to compare these values to those of children with nasal-breathing behaviour and to analyse the relationship between age and tongue pressure in children with a mouth-breathing pattern and in children with a nasal-breathing pattern. In this cross-sectional analytical observational study, we enroled 40 children aged 5-12 years who either exhibited mouth-breathing behaviour (n = 20) or nasal-breathing behaviour (gender- and age-matched [±2 years] controls; n = 20)...
August 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Bruno César Ladeira Vidigal, Carolina Morsani Mordente, Paula Loureiro Cheib, Flávio Ricardo Manzi, Letícia Paiva Franco, Helena Maria Gonçalves Becker, Bernardo Quiroga Souki
INTRODUCTION: Imaging studies have hystorically been used to support the clinical otorhinolaryngological evaluation of the upper respiratory tract for the diagnosis of obstructive causes of oral breathing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare 3D volumetric measurements of nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx of obstructed mouth-breathing children with measurements of non-obstructed mouth-breathing children. METHODS: This retrospective study included 25 mouth-breathing children aged 5-9 years evaluated by otorhinolaryngological clinical examination, flexible nasoendoscopy and full-head multi-slice computed tomography...
March 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Mohammed Karaoui, Varshini Varadaraj, Beatriz Munoz, Megan E Collins, Leyla Ali Aljasim, Esam Al Naji, Karam Hamweyah, Mohammed Al Shamrani, Earl Randy Craven, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To determine safety and efficacy of oral chloral hydrate sedation (CHS) for outpatient pediatric ophthalmic procedures. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Setting: King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital. SUBJECTS: Children aged 1 month to 5 years undergoing CHS for ocular imaging/evaluation. PROCEDURES: Details on chloral hydrate dose administered, sedation achieved, vital signs, and adverse events were recorded...
August 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Issei Saitoh, Emi Inada, Yasutaka Kaihara, Yukiko Nogami, Daisuke Murakami, Naoko Kubota, Kaoru Sakurai, Yoshito Shirazawa, Tadashi Sawami, Miyuki Goto, Maki Nosou, Katsuyuki Kozai, Haruaki Hayasaki, Youichi Yamasaki
OBJECTIVE: Mouth breathing syndrome (MBS) is defined as a set of signs and symptoms that may be completely or incompletely present in subjects who, for various reasons, replace the correct pattern of nasal breathing with an oral or mixed pattern. It is important to identify the relevant factors affecting MBS in order to diagnose its cause since breathing obstructions can result from multiple factors. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relevant factors and the interrelationships between factors affecting MBS among children...
August 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Silvia Müller-Hagedorn, Cornelia Wiechers, Jörg Arand, Wolfgang Buchenau, Margit Bacher, Michael Krimmel, Siegmar Reinert, Christian F Poets
BACKGROUND: Infants and children with syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS), such as Apert-, Crouzon- or Pfeiffer syndrome, are prone to sleep disordered breathing (SDB) including obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome (OSAS, UARS), potentially leading to tracheostomy. We modified the Tübingen Palatal Plate (TPP), an oral appliance with a velar extension effectively treating airway obstruction in Robin sequence, by attaching a tube to its velar extension to bridge the narrow pharyngeal airway in SCS patients...
April 23, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Joseph Samba Diouf, Bay Karim Diallo, Khady Diop-Ba, Alpha Badiane, Papa Ibrahima Ngom, Ousmane Sonko, Falou Diagne
INTRODUCTION: The role of obstructive tonsils in ventilatory disorders and abnormal lip posture is widely discussed in the literature but remains controversial. The data reported on the probable relationship between obstructive tonsils and an existing breathing disorder or lip incompetence were subjective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the obstructive character of the tonsils and the type of ventilation and lip posture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed in children aged from 6 to 12 years old...
June 2018: International Orthodontics
Paul D Robinson, Sooky Lum, Courtney Moore, Kate M Hardaker, Nick Benseler, Paul Aurora, Peter Cooper, Dominic Fitzgerald, Renee Jensen, Reginald McDonald, Hiran Selvadurai, Felix Ratjen, Sanja Stanojevic
BACKGROUND: Different interfaces (mouthpiece/nose clip vs. facemask) are used during multiple breath washout (MBW) tests in young children. METHODS: We investigated the effect of interface choice and breathing modalities on MBW outcomes in healthy adults and preschool children. RESULTS: In adults (n = 26) facemask breathing significantly increased LCI, compared to mouthpiece use (mean difference (95% CI) 0.4 (0.2; 0.6)), with results generalizable across sites and different equipment...
July 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
C Pavoni, E Cretella Lombardo, R Lione, P Bollero, F Ottaviani, P Cozza
The purpose of this cephalometric study was to evaluate the craniofacial changes induced by functional treatment of mandibular advancement with special regard to pharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions, tongue and hyoid bone position in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and dentoskeletal Class II malocclusions compared with an untreated Class II control group. 51 subjects (24 female, 27 male; mean age 9.9 ± 1.3 years) with Class II malocclusion and SDB consecutively treated with a functional appliance (Modify Monobloc, MM) were compared with a control group of 31 subjects (15 males, 16 females; mean age 10...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Mehdi Bakhshaee, Sara Jafari Ashtiani, Mana Hossainzadeh, Samineh Sehatbakhsh, Mona Najaf Najafi, Maryam Salehi
Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be overdocumented in cases of dental caries because of controversies in the literature This study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between AR and dental caries in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 296 children were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were evaluated using the decay-missing-filled (DMF) index, and their AR status was evaluated by physical examination and through a standard questionnaire...
November 2017: Dental Research Journal
Lai-Ying Zhang, Laurie Zhong, Michael David, Anders Cervin
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has challenged the practice of tonsillectomy in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Tonsillotomy (subtotal/partial/intracapsular tonsillectomy) has been proposed as an alternative with equivalent effectiveness and decreased post-operative morbidity, thus improving cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature comparing clinical efficacy, post-operative morbidity, and cost-effectiveness of tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in paediatric (<16yo) patients with sleep-disordered breathing...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Li Qiang, Yunfei Di, Zhilan Jiang, Juanjuan Xu
Childhood pneumonia has been considered as a major cause of child morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of resveratral in synergizing with oral amoxicillin to improve the treatment outcome of oral amoxicillin administration against childhood fast breathing pneumonia. 647 children diagnosed fast breathing pneumonia were recruited and randomized to receive oral amoxicillin plus either resveratrol (AX + RV) or placebo (AX + placebo). The primary outcome was defined as treatment failure up to day 3, while the secondary outcome was defined as treatment failure at day 6 and 12 upon follow up...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fares S Al-Sehaibany
Objective: To determine occurrence of oral habits among Saudi preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare it with healthy preschool children. Methods: This study was conducted over a 14-months period in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of two groups; a study group (SG) of 150 ASD children, and a control group (CG) of age- and gender-matched 150 healthy children. The parents of the children in both the groups were administered a questionnaire that included questions about the children's demographic information and previous or persistent oral habits...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Jennifer F Ha, Lynn Driver, David A Zopf
OBJECTIVES: Significant advances in laryngotracheal reconstruction over the last few decades have revolutionised the management of paediatric patients with complex congenital or acquired airway stenosis. The primary aim of laryngotracheal reconstruction has focused primarily on airway and surgery specific outcomes, often at the expense of voice, as well as swallowing function, which are all intricately related. There is currently a paucity of data on swallowing outcome. The goal of this paper is to review and discuss the existing research on the impact of laryngotracheal on swallowing...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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