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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812893/%C3%AE-sulfinyl-benzoates-as-precursors-to-li-and-mg-carbenoids-for-the-stereoselective-iterative-homologation-of-boronic-esters
#1
Giorgia Casoni, Murat Kucukdisli, James M Fordham, Matthew Burns, Eddie L Myers, Varinder K Aggarwal
The stereoselective reagent-controlled homologation of boronic esters is one of a small number of iteratable synthetic transformations that if automated could form the basis of a veritable molecule-making machine. Recently, α-stannyl triisopropylbenzoates and α-sulfinyl chlorides have emerged as useful building blocks for the iterative homologation of boronic esters. However, α-stannyl benzoates need to be prepared using stoichiometric amounts of the (+)- or (-)-enantiomer of the scarcely available and expensive diamine sparteine; also, these building blocks, together with the byproducts that are generated during homologation, are perceived as being toxic...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812737/human-exposure-and-sensitivity-to-globally-extreme-wildfire-events
#2
David M J S Bowman, Grant J Williamson, John T Abatzoglou, Crystal A Kolden, Mark A Cochrane, Alistair M S Smith
Extreme wildfires have substantial economic, social and environmental impacts, but there is uncertainty whether such events are inevitable features of the Earth's fire ecology or a legacy of poor management and planning. We identify 478 extreme wildfire events defined as the daily clusters of fire radiative power from MODIS, within a global 10 × 10 km lattice, between 2002 and 2013, which exceeded the 99.997th percentile of over 23 million cases of the ΣFRP 100 km(-2) in the MODIS record. These events are globally distributed across all flammable biomes, and are strongly associated with extreme fire weather conditions...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812611/divergent-demographic-strategies-of-plants-in-variable-environments
#3
Jenni L McDonald, Miguel Franco, Stuart Townley, Thomas H G Ezard, Kim Jelbert, Dave J Hodgson
One of the best-supported patterns in life history evolution is that organisms cope with environmental fluctuations by buffering their most important vital rates against them. This demographic buffering hypothesis is evidenced by a tendency for temporal variation in rates of survival and reproduction to correlate negatively with their contribution to fitness. Here, we show that widespread evidence for demographic buffering can be artefactual, resulting from natural relationships between the mean and variance of vital rates...
January 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812561/widespread-maintenance-of-genome-heterozygosity-in-schmidtea%C3%A2-mediterranea
#4
Longhua Guo, Shasha Zhang, Boris Rubinstein, Eric Ross, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Loss of heterozygosity through inbreeding or mitotic errors leads to reductions in progeny survival and fertility. Loss of heterozygosity is particularly exacerbated in geographically isolated populations, which are prone to inbreeding depression and faster rates of extinction. The regenerative capacities of the hermaphroditic biotype of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea allowed us to perform a systematic genetic test of Mendelian segregation and study the loss of heterozygosity in the Spiralian superclade in general and planarians in particular...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812202/diagnosis-of-inguinal-hernia-by-prone-vs-supine-position-computed-tomography
#5
A Miyaki, K Yamaguchi, S Kishibe, A Ida, T Miyauchi, Y Naritaka
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prone-position computed tomography (CT) for detecting and classifying inguinal hernia relative to supine-position CT before laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients who underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients diagnosed with inguinal hernia by physical examination underwent abdominal CT in the supine and prone positions for preoperative assessment...
August 10, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812179/a-hybrid-co-culture-model-with-endothelial-cells-designed-for-the-hepatic-tissue-engineering
#6
Xiaoning Yang, Xin Wang, Xiaobo Huang, Ruiqiang Hang, Xiangyu Zhang, Bin Tang
The cultured hepatic cells in vitro are prone to losing their characteristic morphologies and biological functions. To avoid this problem, a hybrid co-culture system was proposed to elucidate the effect of cellular communication on the phenotype of hepatic cells. A monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) was co-cultured on the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold embedded with HepG2 cells. In this hybrid co-culture system, the growth of encapsulated hepatic cells is barely influenced by the co-cultured ECs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812038/should-patients-with-frozen-shoulder-be-screened-for-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Ori Safran, Madi El-Haj, Gil Leibowitz, Shaul Beyth, Zohar Furman, Charles Milgrom, Leonid Kandel
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic frozen shoulder (nontraumatic) is commonly encountered in patients between the ages of 35 and 60 years in general orthopaedic practice. While the prevalence of frozen shoulder among the general population is estimated to be between 2% and 4%, a significantly higher prevalence of 10% to 22% has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. Since diabetic patients are more prone to develop frozen shoulder than nondiabetics, the question arises as to whether patients diagnosed as having idiopathic frozen shoulder are at greater risk to develop diabetes mellitus and should be routinely screened for this condition...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812002/image-guided-thermal-ablation-with-mr-based-thermometry
#8
REVIEW
Mingming Zhu, Ziqi Sun, Chin K Ng
Thermal ablation techniques such as radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and laser have been used as minimally invasive strategies for the treatment of variety of cancers. MR thermometry methods are readily available for monitoring thermal distribution and deposition in real time, leading to decrease of incidents of normal tissue damage around targeted lesion. HIFU and laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) are the two widely accepted tumor ablation techniques because of their compatibility with MR systems...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811695/pai-1-study-in-thalassemia-major-patients-receiving-multiple-blood-transfusion
#9
Ashwini Kumar, H S Batra, Mithu Banerjee, S Bandyopadhyay, T K Saha, Pratibha Misra, Vivek Ambade
Thalassemia is a congenital hemolytic disease which is treated by repeated blood transfusion. Chronic iron overload is currently considered to be the primary cause of mortality in β-thalassemia, mainly due to the induction of left-sided cardiac failure. Iron overload results from a number of mechanisms associated with the disease itself. In addition to chronic iron overload thalassemic patients are more prone for procoagulant status which in turn lead to clinical thrombotic events. The hypercoagulable state in thalassemia is due to multiple elements, a combination of which is often the drive behind a clinical thromboembolic events...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#10
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810757/encapsulation-of-epitaxial-silicene-on-zrb2-with-nacl
#11
F B Wiggers, Y Yamada-Takamura, A Y Kovalgin, M P de Jong
Silicene and other two-dimensional materials, such as germanene and stanene, have chemically reactive surfaces and are prone to oxidation in air, and thus require an encapsulation layer for ex situ studies or integration in an electronic device. In this work, we investigated NaCl as an encapsulation material for silicene. NaCl was deposited on the surface of epitaxial silicene on ZrB2(0001) thin films near room temperature and studied using synchrotron-based high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. The deposition of NaCl resulted in dissociative chemisorption, where the majority of epitaxial silicene reacted to form Si-Clx species...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810557/role-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-in-autophagy-and-the-neurodegenerative-process-using-a-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-model
#12
Yanyong Wang, Qinying Ma, Xiaowei Ma, Zhongxia Zhang, Na Liu, Mingwei Wang
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is an inhibitor of autophagy, which is an intracellular system involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that the steady incline in mTOR function during aging may be associated with the cognitive decline related to aging and may also promote development of Tau pathology. At present, the senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is an experimental model that has been proposed for the study of age-related neurodegenerative changes associated with aging...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810497/shame-and-emotion-regulation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-effects-on-psychosocial-functioning
#13
Inês A Trindade, Cláudia Ferreira, José Pinto-Gouveia
Although patients with inflammatory bowel disease seem to be prone to high levels of shame, the mechanisms behind the impact of chronic illness-related shame on patients' functioning have not been explored yet. This study aims to address these gaps using a sample of 161 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who completed self-report measures on an online survey. The results from path analyses showed that chronic illness-related shame presented direct and indirect effects on psychological health ( R(2) = ...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809930/declining-survival-across-invasion-history-for-microstegium-vimineum
#14
Chelsea E Cunard, Richard A Lankau
Many alien species become invasive because they lack coevolutionary history with the native community; for instance, they may lack specialized enemies. These evolutionary advantages may allow the invader to establish and persist when rare within a community and lead to its monodominance through positive frequency dependence, i.e. increasing per capita population growth rate with increasing frequency of conspecifics. However, this advantage could degrade through time due to evolutionary and ecological changes in the invasive and native plant and microbial communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809695/looking-beyond-the-simple-scenarios-combining-learners-and-optimizers-in-3d-temporal-tracking
#15
David Joseph Tan, Nassir Navab, Federico Tombari
3D object temporal trackers estimate the 3D rotation and 3D translation of a rigid object by propagating the transformation from one frame to the next. To confront this task, algorithms either learn the transformation between two consecutive frames or optimize an energy function to align the object to the scene. The motivation behind our approach stems from a consideration on the nature of learners and optimizers. Throughout the evaluation of different types of objects and working conditions, we observe their complementary nature-on one hand, learners are more robust when undergoing challenging scenarios, while optimizers are prone to tracking failures due to the entrapment at local minima; on the other, optimizers can converge to a better accuracy and minimize jitter...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809441/design-and-fabrication-of-temperature-sensitive-nanogels-with-controlled-drug-release-properties-for-enhanced-photothermal-sterilization
#16
Luoyuan Li, Limin Fu, Jing Zhou, Xicheng Ai, Jianping Zhang
Excessive free radicals can cause normal protein metamorphic, and further damage healthy cells, while the damaged cells are more prone to infection with pathogenic bacteria. For better removing excessive free radicals and deleterious bacteria from human body, it is urgently needed to develop synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Herein, we designed novel temperature-sensitive, curcumin (Cur)-loaded nanogels to scavenge reactive oxygen species and kill pathogenic bacteria. Photothermal sterilization, different from traditional antibiotics, is a promising and effective treatment for inactivation of pathogenic bacteria...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808695/resolving-multicopy-duplications-de-novo-using-polyploid-phasing
#17
Mark J Chaisson, Sudipto Mukherjee, Sreeram Kannan, Evan E Eichler
While the rise of single-molecule sequencing systems has enabled an unprecedented rise in the ability to assemble complex regions of the genome, long segmental duplications in the genome still remain a challenging frontier in assembly. Segmental duplications are at the same time both gene rich and prone to large structural rearrangements, making the resolution of their sequences important in medical and evolutionary studies. Duplicated sequences that are collapsed in mammalian de novo assemblies are rarely identical; after a sequence is duplicated, it begins to acquire paralog specific variants...
May 2017: Research in Computational Molecular Biology: ... Annual International Conference, RECOMB ...: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808551/evolutionary-responses-to-a-changing-climate-implications-for-reindeer-population-viability
#18
Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
If we want to understand how climate change affects long-lived organisms, we must know how individuals allocate resources between current reproduction and survival. This trade-off is affected by expected environmental conditions, but the extent to which density independent (DI) and density dependent (DD) processes interact in shaping individual life histories is less clear. Female reindeer (or caribou: Rangifer tarandus) are a monotocous large herbivore with a circumpolar distribution. Individuals that experience unpredictable and potentially harsh winters typically adopt risk averse strategies where they allocate more resources to building own body reserves during summer and less to reproduction...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808051/error-prone-dna-repair-targets-the-h3k36me3-chromatin-of-active-genes
#19
(no author information available yet)
Carcinogen-associated error-prone DNA repair increases the mutation rate of active genes in cancer.
August 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807608/benefits-of-flu-vaccination-for-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#20
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, T T van Sloten, L Slobbe, C Mathieu, P van Genderen, Walter E P Beyer, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Diabetes mellitus imposes a significant and increasing burden on society, with major consequences for human health, welfare and the economy worldwide. Persons with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing severe complications after influenza virus infection and guidelines advise vaccination. The present evidence for influenza vaccine effectiveness in persons with diabetes mellitus is mainly based on observational studies with clinical endpoints like hospitalization and death, indicating a beneficial reduction of morbidity and mortality...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
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