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Interal Medicine

Xiunan Jiang, Yiting Shen, Haixing Wang, Caihong Wang, Xiaoxia Ye, Zheng Xiang
Kaurenoic acid (KA), a kaurane diterpene found in several medicinal plants, is an active ingredient with potential anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antitumor activities. In this work, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS) was firstly developed and validated to quantify kaurenoic acid in rat plasma. Rhein was chosen as the internal standard (IS) and the plasma was processed with one-step acetonitrile protein precipitation; the chromatographic separation was achieved on a HSS T3 (2...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Zhijun Wang, Chen Xie, Steven Yeung, Jeffrey Wang, Moses S Chow
Streptomycin is the first discovered aminoglycoside antibiotic. Streptomycin has been widely applied in veterinary medicine for prevention and treatment of bacterial infection. However, the current detection methods are not satisfactory in terms of sensitivity and sample process which made them not suitable for a pharmacokinetic study. A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method employing positive electrospray ionization was developed and validated for the determination of streptomycin concentration in mice plasma...
October 15, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Adrian G Santini, Melanie L Korndorffer, Matthew J Barraza, Hillary R Johnson, Jamie L Kaplan, Christopher G DuCoin, Emma K Satchell, James R Korndorffer
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify program-specific critical factors in a student's path to general surgery and how different factors contribute to our high rate of matriculation. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews were conducted focusing on critical factors in student's decision processes to pursue general surgery. Three investigators independently evaluated the transcripts and identified recurring themes based on phenomenological qualitative methods until saturation was achieved...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Shiyu Song, Haiyan Min, Mengyuan Niu, Lei Wang, Yongzheng Wu, Bin Zhang, Xiufang Chen, Qiao Liang, Yanting Wen, Yong Wang, Long Yi, Hongwei Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: S1PR1-STAT3 inter-regulatory loop was initially suggested to be oncogenic in several cancer cells. However, the clinical relevance of this mechanism in tumor progression, disease prognosis and drug response was not established. METHODS: The correlations between S1PR1 transcription, overall survival and chemotherapy response of GC patients were tested using a large clinical database. The relevance of S1PR1 expression and STAT3 activation in both tumor tissues and cancer cell lines was also tested...
October 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
The term planetary health - denoting the interconnections between the health of person and place at all scales - emerged from the environmental and holistic health movements of the 1970-80s; in 1980, Friends of the Earth expanded the World Health Organization definition of health, stating: "health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and ecological well-being and not merely the absence of disease - personal health involves planetary health". By the 1990s, the concept of planetary health was part of the fabric of integrative medicine; more recently, after the 2015 Lancet Commission on Planetary Health report, the concept has penetrated mainstream academic and medical discourse...
September 11, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Milene C Almeida, Ediedia S Pina, Camila Hernandes, Sonia M Zingaretti, Silvia H Taleb-Contini, Fátima R G Salimena, Svetoslav N Slavov, Simone K Haddad, Suzelei C França, Ana M S Pereira, Bianca W Bertoni
BACKGROUND: The genus Lippia comprises 150 species, most of which have interesting medicinal properties. Lippia sidoides (syn. L. origanoides) exhibits strong antimicrobial activity and is included in the phytotherapy program implemented by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Since species of Lippia are morphologically very similar, conventional taxonomic methods are sometimes insufficient for the unambiguous identification of plant material that is required for the production of certified phytomedicines...
October 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Leijiane F Sousa, Christina N Zdenek, James S Dobson, Bianca Op den Brouw, Francisco Coimbra, Amber Gillett, Tiago H M Del-Rei, Hipócrates de M Chalkidis, Sávio Sant'Anna, Marisa M Teixeira-da-Rocha, Kathleen Grego, Silvia R Travaglia Cardoso, Ana M Moura da Silva, Bryan G Fry
Lancehead pit-vipers ( Bothrops genus) are an extremely diverse and medically important group responsible for the greatest number of snakebite envenomations and deaths in South America. Bothrops atrox (common lancehead), responsible for majority of snakebites and related deaths within the Brazilian Amazon, is a highly adaptable and widely distributed species, whose venom variability has been related to several factors, including geographical distribution and habitat type. This study examined venoms from four B...
October 11, 2018: Toxins
Erika R Larson, Becky Kinkead, Sherry A Edwards, Pamela J Schettler, Boadie W Dunlop, Jeffrey J Rakofsky, Mark H Rapaport
Background The Protocol Training and Assessment Model (Model) was developed through collaboration between Emory University School of Medicine and Atlanta School of Massage to minimize intra- and inter-therapist variability for two research massage therapist (rMT) applied intervention arms in the Massage for Cancer-Related Fatigue (MCRF) early-phase study. The Model was followed to maintain and assess protocol integrity for the study's manualized Swedish massage therapy (SMT) and light touch (LT) interventions...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Sonia Zaibet, Charles Vauchier, Nihel Khoudour, Matthieu Roulleaux Dugage, Virginie Korb-Savoldelli, Jérôme Alexandre, Benoit Blanchet, François Goldwasser, Audrey Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey Bellesoeur
Oral targeted therapies are a growing class of medication. After clinical trials conducted on a selected population, these molecules are usually approved at a fixed dose. However, oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors are characterized by a large intra and inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability, and a narrow therapeutic index. Hence, their prescription is hazardous and unsafe in non-selected people from daily clinical practice. The increasing number of available targeted therapies point out new challenges. These challenges should especially concern prescription for out of the ordinary patients, rules for dose adjustment according to factors of frailty...
October 8, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
M J Nishanth, S A Sheshadri, Sudarshan Singh Rathore, S Srinidhi, Bindu Simon
Catharanthus roseus is a commercial source for anti-cancer terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs: vincristine and vinblastine). Inherent levels of these TIAs are very low, hence research studies need to focus on enhancing their levels in planta. Since primary metabolism provides precursors for specialized-metabolism, elevating the former can achieve higher amounts of the latter. Cell Wall Invertase (CWIN), a key enzyme in sucrose-metabolism catalyses the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which serve as carbon-skeleton for specialized-metabolites...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Tsoli, Carol Wadham, Mark Pinese, Tim Failes, Swapna Joshi, Emily Mould, Julia X Yin, Velimir Gayevskiy, Amit Kumar, Warren Kaplan, Paul G Ekert, Federica Saletta, Laura Franshaw, Jie Liu, Andrew Gifford, Martin A Weber, Michael Rodriguez, Richard J Cohn, Greg Arndt, Vanessa Tyrrell, Michelle Haber, Toby Trahair, Glenn M Marshall, Kerrie McDonald, Mark J Cowley, David S Ziegler
Pediatric high grade gliomas (HGG) are primary brain malignancies that result in significant morbidity and mortality. One of the challenges in their treatment is inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity. Precision medicine approaches have the potential to enhance diagnostic, prognostic and/or therapeutic information. In this case study we describe the molecular characterization of a pediatric HGG and the use of an integrated approach based on genomic, in vitro and in vivo testing to identify actionable targets and treatment options...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Mingyue Xu, Zhanling Xu, Qingxuan Xu, Hongyue Zhang, Mingyang Liu, Fang Geng, Ning Zhang
Xiaoyao Powder (XYP), a common Chinese medicine, comprises eight traditional Chinese herbs and has been widely used clinically to treat liver damage and mental disorders. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 14 compounds (albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, atractylenolide III, ligustilide, atractylenolide II, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, saikosaponin c, glycyrrhizic acid, and saikosaponin a) in XYP...
September 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Masaki Kumondai, Akio Ito, Eiji Hishinuma, Aoi Kikuchi, Takahiro Saito, Masamitsu Takahashi, Chiharu Tsukada, Sakae Saito, Jun Yasuda, Masao Nagasaki, Naoko Minegishi, Masayuki Yamamoto, Akira Kaneko, Isao Teramoto, Masatsugu Kimura, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Genetic polymorphisms contribute to inter-individual variability in the metabolism of multiple clinical drugs, including warfarin, thiopurines, primaquine, and aminoglycosides. A rapid and sensitive clinical assessment of various genome biomarkers is, therefore, required to predict the individual responsiveness of each patient to these drugs. In this study, we developed a novel genotyping method for the detection of nine pharmacogene variants that are important in the prediction of drug efficiency and toxicity...
August 22, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Giorgia Santarelli, Jesús Talavera López, Josefa Fernández Del Palacio
Two-dimensional (2-D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a relatively new imaging technique, introduced in veterinary medicine to aid the assessment of left ventricular (LV) myocardial function. Among other indices, LV longitudinal strain and strain rate (SR) can be measured with this modality, and in dogs they are usually obtained from the left apical four-chamber (LAp4Ch) view. However, in this species, a good quality right parasternal four-chamber (RP4Ch) view can generally be attained, and the aim of this study was therefore to determine its feasibility and reliability for longitudinal strain and SR assessment, and to establish whether the two projections can be used interchangeably...
October 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Yueting Li, Jing Sun, Huixia Huo, Yao Liu, Wenjing Liu, Qian Zhang, Yunfang Zhao, Yuelin Song, Jun Li
Herbal medicines (HMs) have been widely demonstrated to be extremely complicated chemical pools, notably the occurrences of isomers that usually possess similar chromatographic and spectrometric behaviors, and the complexity will be further boosted in HMs-treated biological samples. Hence, there is a technical barrier regarding identity confirmation towards the acquisition of reliable quantitative information for those compounds-of-interest in biological matrices, although tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a favored tool because of the advantages in terms of specificity and selectivity, in particular being hyphenated with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Giuseppe Lippi, Mario Plebani
Owing to their virtually incomparable olfactory apparatus and the mutual loving relationship with man, the use of dogs for assisting humans in many activities has become commonplace. Dogs have been used for long for livestock herding, hunting and pulling. More recently, they have been employed for servicing or assisting people with disabilities, for rescuing, for pet therapy and, last but not least, for detecting a vast array of volatile organic compounds related to drugs, narcotics, explosives and foods. Although cancer detection seems the most distinguished use of "man's best friends" in science and medicine, increasing emphasis is being placed on their capacity to perceive chemical changes or human expressions associated with harmful, even life-threating, blood glucose variations...
September 29, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Nidaa A Bajow, Wajdan I AlAssaf, Ameera A Cluntun
IntroductionUnacceptable practices of health care providers during disasters have been observed because they work outside the scope of their daily practices and have inadequate training. A greater need for the involvement of health professionals in disaster management has been noted in Saudi Arabia. This study evaluates the efficacy of a training course in prehospital major incident management for health care providers in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An interactive course for general principles in prehospital major incident management was developed with domains and core competencies...
September 28, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Reena Khanna, Niels Vande Casteele
The conventional drug development paradigm consists of a rigorous step-wise process that takes place over many years. Although this approach results in access to safe and effective new products, it is both costly and inefficient. Therefore, interest has emerged in clinical pharmacology, specifically an understanding of the inter- and intra-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, to increase the efficiency of drug development in inflammatory bowel disease. A firm understanding of clinical pharmacology would benefit both drug development and clinical practice by allowing stratification of patients at baseline who would respond favorably to drugs with a certain mechanism of action and by identifying patients who may benefit from an accelerated dosing regimen or combination therapy...
September 25, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Kim A Bjorklund, Nicole Sommer, Michael W Neumeister, Steven J Kasten
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe an operative performance rating system for plastic surgery residents and provide validity evidence for the instrument. METHODS: Three plastic surgery residents (PGY levels 1, 5, and 6) from Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIUSOM) performed a carpal tunnel release with audio video recording. The 3 videos were reviewed by 8 expert hand surgeons and 3 SIUSOM faculty using the operative performance rating system instrument to assess resident operative performance...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Daria V Zhernakova, Trang H Le, Alexander Kurilshikov, Biljana Atanasovska, Marc Jan Bonder, Serena Sanna, Annique Claringbould, Urmo Võsa, Patrick Deelen, Lude Franke, Rudolf A de Boer, Folkert Kuipers, Mihai G Netea, Marten H Hofker, Cisca Wijmenga, Alexandra Zhernakova, Jingyuan Fu
Despite a growing body of evidence, the role of the gut microbiome in cardiovascular diseases is still unclear. Here, we present a systems-genome-wide and metagenome-wide association study on plasma concentrations of 92 cardiovascular-disease-related proteins in the population cohort LifeLines-DEEP. We identified genetic components for 73 proteins and microbial associations for 41 proteins, of which 31 were associated to both. The genetic and microbial factors identified mostly exert additive effects and collectively explain up to 76...
September 24, 2018: Nature Genetics
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