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Isaac Vidaña
We review the role and properties of hyperons in finite and infinite nuclear systems. In particular, we present different production mechanisms of hypernuclei, as well as several aspects of hypernuclear γ -ray spectroscopy, and the weak decay modes of hypernuclei. Then we discuss the construction of hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions on the basis of the meson-exchange and chiral effective field theories. Recent developments based on the so-called V low  k approach and lattice quantum chromodynamics will also be addressed...
September 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Zizhu Wang, Miguel Navascués
We study the properties of the set of marginal distributions of infinite translation-invariant systems in the two-dimensional square lattice. In cases where the local variables can only take a small number d of possible values, we completely solve the marginal or membership problem for nearest-neighbours distributions ( d  = 2, 3) and nearest and next-to-nearest neighbours distributions ( d  = 2). Remarkably, all these sets form convex polytopes in probability space. This allows us to devise an algorithm to compute the minimum energy per site of any TI Hamiltonian in these scenarios exactly...
September 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Takayuki Hiraoka, Hang-Hyun Jo
Spreading dynamics has been considered to take place in temporal networks, where temporal interaction patterns between nodes show non-Poissonian bursty nature. The effects of inhomogeneous interevent times (IETs) on the spreading have been extensively studied in recent years, yet little is known about the effects of correlations between IETs on the spreading. In order to investigate those effects, we study two-step deterministic susceptible-infected (SI) and probabilistic SI dynamics when the interaction patterns are modeled by inhomogeneous and correlated IETs, i...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caitlin M Quinn, Mingzhang Wang, Matthew P Fritz, Brent Runge, Jinwoo Ahn, Chaoyi Xu, Juan R Perilla, Angela M Gronenborn, Tatyana Polenova
The host factor protein TRIM5α plays an important role in restricting the host range of HIV-1, interfering with the integrity of the HIV-1 capsid. TRIM5 triggers an antiviral innate immune response by functioning as a capsid pattern recognition receptor, although the precise mechanism by which the restriction is imposed is not completely understood. Here we used an integrated magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulations approach to characterize, at atomic resolution, the dynamics of the capsid's hexameric and pentameric building blocks, and the interactions with TRIM5α in the assembled capsid...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shiping Zhao, Zhixuan Lv, Xuelin Guo, Chaoqian Liu, Hualin Wang, Weiwei Jiang, Shimin Liu, Nan Wang, Yunxian Cui, Wanyu Ding, Bing Han, Dongying Ju
Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is one of the ideal candidates for transparent conductive cathode in methylammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells. Thus, the diffusion of methyl group in ITO film is inevitable, which could deteriorate the optical-electrical property of ITO film. In this study, ITO films with and without (100) preferred orientation were bombarded by the low-energy methyl group beam. After the bombardment, the optical-electrical property of ITO film without (100) preferred orientation deteriorated...
October 16, 2018: Materials
Alcione Roberto Jurelo, Renan Augusto Pontes Ribeiro, Sergio Ricardo de Lazaro, João Frederico Haas Leandro Monteiro
The crystal/electronic structure and vibrational properties of the CuxTiSe2 intercalation compounds were studied combining experimental and theoretical techniques. The Cu added into the TiSe2 matrix was characterized as an intercalant atom into van der Waals gaps from Raman spectroscopy analysis. Theoretical and experimental data indicate the Cu-intercalation effect on the crystalline structure as a local disorder affecting [TiSe6] clusters from SeSe layers, which results in a volume expansion. A significant charge transfer from Cu atoms to the host lattice results in a change from Ti4+ to Ti3+ species, narrowing the band-gap and increasing the superconductivity of the material...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maxim Varenik, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Gregory Leitus, Nimrod Yavo, Raanan Carmieli, Ellen Wachtel, Xin Guo, Igor Lubomirsky
The magnetic properties of undoped, bulk CeO2 are not fully understood. In contrast to nanocrystalline ceria that exhibits paramagnetism attributed to Ce3+ at grain surfaces, bulk ceria is weakly paramagnetic, despite the absence of magnetic ions. In the present work, the magnetic susceptibility of bulk ceria ceramics doped with Lu3+, which has neither spin nor orbital angular momentum, was measured in order to assess the relative contributions of the crystal lattice, residual Ce3+ and oxygen vacancies to the overall bulk magnetization...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
H Rojas-Chávez, H Cruz-Martínez, E Flores-Rojas, J M Juárez-García, J L González-Domínguez, N Daneu, J Santoyo-Salazar
A fundamental understanding of the Ostwald ripening effect (ORE) during the mechanochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures is presented. The ripening process involves the coarsening of larger particles from those of smaller size; this phenomenon was systematically evaluated at different stages of milling by microscopy analyses (AFM, TEM, STEM and HRTEM). At the early stage of milling, smaller particles and quantum dots are eventually dissolved to lower the total energy assciated with their surfaces. The ripening process - during milling - involves short-range mass transfer among particles...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
L Heskin, V Cahill, G Filobbos, P Regan, S T O'Sullivan, K Bryan
INTRODUCTION: The importance of postoperative drain fixation cannot be overemphasised. There are numerous described techniques for drain fixation. However, to our knowledge, there is no evidence-based comparison between the various techniques of drain fixation used in postoperative management. We describe a new method and compare its reliability with four other commonly used methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five methods were chosen for testing based on current trends in clinical practice: centurion sandal with plastic locking ties, centurion sandal or lattice method, centurion sandal with half-inch Steristrips®, double and multiple looped methods...
October 17, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Hongcheng Lu, Hiroshi Kageyama
We hydrothermally synthesized a layered PbFePO4F2 (P21/n). Fe3+ cations (S = 5/2) within the layer are connected via F- and (PO4)3- anions to give a novel (distorted) 1/6th bond depleted triangular lattice. The χ(T) suggests strong antiferromagnetic interactions with a Weiss constant of -125 K, but geometrical frustration and low dimensionality appear to prohibit a long-range order down to 23 K.
October 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fajun Yu, Li Li, Shuo Feng
A few of discrete integrable coupling systems(DICSs) of previous papers are linear discrete integrable couplings(LDICS). We take a special matrix Lie algebra system(non-semisimple) to construct the Lax pairs, and establish a method for deriving the nonlinear discrete integrable coupling systems(NDICS). From the Lax pairs of the generalized Toda(G-Toda) spectral problem, we can derive a novel NDICS, which is a real NDICS. For the obtained lattice integrable coupling equation, we establish a Darboux transformation (DT) with 4 × 4 Lax pairs, and apply the gauge transformation to a specific equation, then the explicit solutions of the lattice integrable coupling equation are given, which contains discrete soliton solution, breather solution and rogue wave solution...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mariia Novikova, Lucas J Adams, Juan Fontana, Anna T Gres, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Dennis C Winkler, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Ferri Soheilian, Stefan G Sarafianos, Alasdair C Steven, Eric O Freed
Late in the HIV-1 replication cycle, the viral structural protein Gag is targeted to virus assembly sites at the plasma membrane of infected cells. The capsid (CA) domain of Gag plays a critical role in the formation of the hexameric Gag lattice in the immature virion, and, during particle release, CA is cleaved from the Gag precursor by the viral protease and forms the conical core of the mature virion. A highly conserved Pro-Pro-Ile-Pro (PPIP) motif (CA residues 122 to 125) [PPIP(122-125)] in a loop connecting CA helices 6 and 7 resides at a 3-fold axis formed by neighboring hexamers in the immature Gag lattice...
October 16, 2018: MBio
László Vanyorek, Gábor Muranszky, Emőoke Sikora, Xénia Pénzeli, Ádám Prekob, Adrienn Kiss, Béla Fiser, Béla Viskolcz
Nitrogen-doped bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes (N-BCNT) were synthesized from butylamine using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process. The carbon source was nitrogen content organic molecules, namely butylamine. Reaction conditions such as temperature, amount of carbon source and catalyst were optimized to produce high quality N-BCNT samples. The nitrogen content was measured by CHNS element analysis, while the butylamine conversion was calculated based on the weight of deposited carbon materials...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Dandan Zhang, Gang Liu, Hong Lu, Shaodan Wang, Qiang Wei
The preparation conditions are important for the structure and properties of black TiO₂. In this paper, the black rutile TiO₂ with a particle size of approximately 5 nm was prepared in vacuum by the infrared nano-second laser sputtering deposition method. The study results indicated that the prepared black TiO₂ exhibited high light absorption from UV to near-infrared region. The lattice distortion and Ti3+ were responsible for the upward shift in the valance band, and the oxygen vacancy states were determined to be located about 0...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Rongqiao Wan, Linhao Guo, Tao Li, Lingxing Xiong, Siyuan Xu, Junhui Li, Wenhui Zhu, Liancheng Wang
Although much progress has been made on lattice plasmon mode (LPM), there is still a lack of systematic studies on LPM generation; questions remain unanswered on topics such as high-order LPM generation, LPM generation from near-coupling complex elements, and modulation of incidence energy. Here, we systematically evaluated the properties of multiple high-order LPM, energy flow modulation of incident polarization, element, angle of incidence, and hybrid of dual lattice using the finite-difference time-domain method...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ruyi Wang, Xiaodong Li, Lu Wang, Xirui Zhao, Guangcheng Yang, Aidong Li, Congping Wu, Qing Shen, Yong Zhou, Zhigang Zou
ZnO/CdS-based nanorod arrays (NRs) are an excellent class of photoanode materials, which possess high photoelectric response for solar-driven water splitting. A highly efficient photoanode system consisting of Al-doped ZnO NRs as effective electron-transfer layers and CdS as a light harvesting layer was rationally designed. Al doping increased the conductivity of ZnO NRs and simultaneously coarsened the surface of ZnO due to expansion of ZnO lattice. The rough surface favoured the growth of a CdS coating layer on it through a successive ionic layer adsorption reaction...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Liyang Jia, Gehong Su, Qiang Yuan, Xueqian Zhang, Tao Zhou
The difference in the micro-dynamics mechanism between aromatic nylon and aliphatic nylon during water absorption was studied to explore the reason for the significantly smaller decline of barrier performance of poly(m-xylene adipamide) (MXD6) film than that of polyamide 6 (PA6) film under high humidity. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR, combined with scaling moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy (scaling-MW2D) and generalized 2D correlation analysis, was used. The scaling-MW2D confirmed that the water absorption of MXD6 comprises two processes, designated process I (2...
October 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Michael D Multerer, Lucas D Wittwer, Anna Stopka, Diana Barac, Christine Lang, Dagmar Iber
Morphogenesis, the process by which an adult organism emerges from a single cell, has fascinated humans for a long time. Modeling this process can provide novel insights into development and the principles that orchestrate the developmental processes. This chapter focuses on the mathematical description and numerical simulation of developmental processes. In particular, we discuss the mathematical representation of morphogen and tissue dynamics on static and growing domains, as well as the corresponding tissue mechanics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Meng Xu, Haihu Liu
Immiscible two-phase flow in porous media is commonly encountered in industrial processes and environmental issues, such as enhanced oil recovery and the migration of fluids in an unsaturated zone. To deepen the current understanding of its underlying mechanism, this work focuses on the factors that influence the relative permeability and specific interfacial length of a two-phase flow in porous media, i.e., fluid saturation, viscosity ratio and contact angle. The lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is adopted for pore-scale investigations, and the main findings are obtained as follows...
October 18, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Wiesław Kurzątkowski, Ümit Kartoğlu, Paulina Górska, Małgorzata Główka, Katarzyna Woźnica, Aleksandra A Zasada, Grażyna Szczepańska, Grzegorz Trykowski, Marianna Gniadek, Mikołaj Donten
Accidental freezing of aluminum-based vaccines occurs during their storage and transportation, in both developed and developing countries. Freezing damages the freeze-sensitive aluminum adjuvanted vaccines, through separation of lattice between aluminum adjuvant and antigen, leading to formation of aluminum aggregates, and loss of potency. In this study, we examined Alhydrogel™ ([AlO(OH)]xnH2 O, aluminum hydroxide, hydrated for adsorption) stored under recommended conditions, and exposed to freezing temperature until solid-frozen...
October 12, 2018: Vaccine
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