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Hooi Geok See, Yan Ru Tan, Kwan Leong Au-Yeung, Michael H Bennett
BACKGROUND: Nutritional assessment and support is essential for wound management. The hyperbaric oxygen clinic is a unique outpatient service where chronically unwell patients present daily for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) over several weeks, allowing time for effective nutritional intervention. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of those at risk of malnutrition in a cohort of hyperbaric medical patients. METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken over six months...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Nikolaos Settas, Rebecca Persky, Fabio R Faucz, Nicole Sheanon, Antonis Voutetakis, Maya Lodish, Louise A Metherell, Constantine A Stratakis
Context: Multiple autosomal recessive genes have been etiologically linked to Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (PAI). Recently, SGPL1 gene mutations were recognized as causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome type 14 (NPHS14), a sphingolipidosis with multisystemic manifestations including PAI. Interestingly, this is the only monogenetic form of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and the sole sphingolipidosis causing adrenal disease. Objective: To understand if SGPL1 mutations are involved in the pathogenesis of PAI in patients who do not exhibit NS...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Qing Peng, Carrie A Karvonen-Gutierrez, John F Randolph, Bin Nan, Daniel McConnell, Siobán D Harlow
Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but whether they develop MetS earlier than women without PCOS is unknown. Understanding the impact of PCOS on the timing of MetS onset is important for screening and clinical care in this population. Design: Women with PCOS-like status ("PCOSp") were identified from participants of the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study based upon history of irregular menstrual cycles, high free-androgen index and high levels of anti-müllerian hormone...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lucas Helal, Filipe Ferrari, Ricardo Stein
Young competitive athletes (≤ 35 years old) with or without a previous diagnosis of cardiovascular disease may suddenly die in competitive activities, potentially leading to an impact in society through the media. Although the relative risk for sudden death (SD) in athletes is twice as high as for their counterparts, the absolute incidence is low. While there is consensus among medical societies worldwide that early detection of causal factors is highly desirable, there is debate among different screening schemes to that end...
December 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Younoh Kim, Vlad Radoias
Hypertension is a rapidly growing problem in developing countries. At the same time, due to its asymptomatic nature, the afflicted population is largely unaware of being hypertensive. Due to a lack of resources, routine medical exams are very rare in developing countries and many sick individuals remain undiagnosed. Using a large sample of hypertensive individuals from Indonesia, we show the importance of being diagnosed. Diagnosed individuals exhibit lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and overall lower probability of remaining hypertensive than undiagnosed individuals...
2018: PloS One
Maria Yousuf, Nimra Naveed Shaikh, Zaheer Ul-Haq, M Iqbal Choudhary
Identification of hotspot drug-receptor interactions through in-silico prediction methods (Pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, 3DQSAR, etc), is considered as a key approach in drug designing and development process. In the current design study, advanced in-silico based computational techniques were used for the identification of lead-like molecules against the targeted receptor β-glucuronidase. The binding pattern of a potent inhibitor in the ligand-receptor X-ray co-crystallize complex was used to identify and extract the structure-base Pharmacophore features...
2018: PloS One
Arnold Y L Wong, Dino Samartzis, Prudence W H Cheung, Jason Pui Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spine deformity in adolescent patients. Although structural deformity may affect spinal biomechanics of patients with AIS, little is known regarding various period prevalence proportions of back pain and chronic back pain and factors associated with back pain in such patients. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the period prevalence rates of back pain among teenagers with AIS? (2) Is back pain in patients with AIS associated with curve severity? METHODS: A total of 987 patients with AIS who were treated without surgery were recruited from a single center's scoliosis clinic...
November 13, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
A Mariamidze, L Gogiashvili, O Khardzeishvili, T Javakhishvili, D Makaridze, K Jandieri
The analysis of prevalence of each specific subtypes of the ductal invasive breast carcinoma according to age group categories showed that Luminal A subtype is observed in every age group as dominant subtype, although in different intensity: two peaks were demonstrated in group III and group IV, and in relatively less amount, in V group as well. Its considerable that Her2(+)/ER subtype was second most prevalent subtype in almost all age groups. It also must be noted that there was no direct correlation found between pre- or post-menopausal period and HER2+ state, except for group IV (60-69 year old range), where it was almost 2 times less frequently found than Basal-like subtype...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Yunchao Xie, Chi Zhang, Jheng-Wun Su, Heng Deng, Cheng Zhang, Jian Lin
To date, various approaches to synthesize zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) have been developed, such as solvothermal, sonochemical, microfluidic, and mechanochemistry reactions. However, most of them are time-consuming and involve complex processing steps, thus they cannot rapidly screen potential candidates to obtain ZIFs on demand. Such a challenge calls for efficient synthetic approaches. Herein, we overcome this challenge by employing two nonconventional heating strategies, i.e., microwave- and Joule-heating, which are induced by laser-induced graphene (LIG) microreactors, for rapidly synthesizing ZIFs...
December 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jiao Fang, Chun Gong, Yuhui Wan, Yuanyuan Xu, Fangbiao Tao, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: Both polygenic and unhealthy lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of obesity during childhood. The extent to which increased polygenic risk can be offset by healthy lifestyle is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether increased polygenic risk of obesity is modified by a healthy lifestyle during childhood. METHODS: A total of 997 children (418 boys and 579 girls) who had complete DNA genotyping and body mass index (BMI) were eligible for the study were analyzed from an established prospective puberty cohort...
December 4, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Gaia Chiara Mannino, Francesco Andreozzi, Giorgio Sesti
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that has reached the levels of a global epidemic. In order to achieve optimal glucose control it is often necessary to rely on combination therapy of multiple drugs or insulin, because uncontrolled glucose levels result in T2DM progression and enhanced risk of complications and mortality. Several anti-hyperglycemic agents have been developed over time, and T2DM pharmacotherapy should be prescribed based on suitability for the individual patient's characteristics...
December 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Alberto Arezzo, Nereo Vettoretto, Nader K Francis, Marco Augusto Bonino, Nathan J Curtis, Daniele Amparore, Simone Arolfo, Manuel Barberio, Luigi Boni, Ronit Brodie, Nicole Bouvy, Elisa Cassinotti, Thomas Carus, Enrico Checcucci, Petra Custers, Michele Diana, Marilou Jansen, Joris Jaspers, Gadi Marom, Kota Momose, Beat P Müller-Stich, Kyokazu Nakajima, Felix Nickel, Silvana Perretta, Francesco Porpiglia, Francisco Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A Sánchez-Margallo, Marlies Schijven, Gianfranco Silecchia, Roberto Passera, Yoav Mintz
BACKGROUND: The use of 3D laparoscopic systems is expanding. The European Association of Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) initiated a consensus development conference with the aim of creating evidence-based statements and recommendations for the surgical community. METHODS: Systematic reviews of the PubMed and Embase libraries were performed to identify evidence on potential benefits of 3D on clinical practice and patient outcomes. Statements and recommendations were prepared and unanimously agreed by an international surgical and engineering expert panel which were presented and voted at the EAES annual congress, London, May 2018...
December 4, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Shoujuan Wang, Zhen Xu, Yongyi Fang, Zhongming Liu, Xin Zhao, Guihua Yang, Fangong Kong
Titration method (dropping-on method) was introduced as an efficient approach for determining the mercury ion (Hg2+ ) concentration in aqueous solution by using fabricated cellulosic paper-based test strips. In this study, dithizone used as a recognition reagent was physically loaded on cellulosic paper-based test strips for Hg2+ selective recognition. The sensing mechanism was established on the spectral absorption rate of the coordination compound that was formed by dithizone and Hg2+ under strong acidic conditions...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Susan Woolley, Ray Goetz, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jennifer Murphy, Jonathan Hupf, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Howard Andrews, Daragh Heitzman, Richard Bedlack, Jonathan Katz, Richard Barohn, Eric Sorenson, Bjorn Oskarsson, Americo Fernandes Filho, Edward Kasarskis, Tahseen Mozaffar, Sharon Nations, Andrea Swenson, Agnes Koczon-Jaremko, Georgia Christodoulou, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods: We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Suanne Bosch, Tarryn Lee Botha, Anine Jordaan, Mark Maboeta, Victor Wepener
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as an ecotoxicological model species in both aqueous medium and solid substrates. It is easy and of low cost to maintain in the laboratory and it produces hundreds of offspring within a short period of time. It also has a small body size (1 mm), making it possible for in vivo assays to be conducted in 12-well plates. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a class of emerging pollutants. Nanogold (nAu) is used in many consumer products and in vivo drug delivery. These materials can be released into the aquatic environment during production or discarding of consumer products...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Marie Furuta, Antje Horsch, Edmond S W Ng, Debra Bick, Debbie Spain, Jacqueline Sin
Background: Approximately 3% of women in community samples develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. Higher prevalence rates are reported for high risk samples. Postpartum PTSD can adversely affect women's wellbeing, mother-infant relationships and child development. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPT), for postnatal women. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all clinical trials which reported post-traumatic stress symptoms for both the intervention and control groups or at least two time-points, pre- and post-intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andrew Melnik, Felix Schüler, Constantin A Rothkopf, Peter König
Theories of embodied cognition postulate that the world can serve as an external memory. This implies that instead of storing visual information in working memory the information may be equally retrieved by appropriate eye movements. Given this assumption, the question arises, how we balance the effort of memorization with the effort of visual sampling our environment. We analyzed eye-tracking data in a sensorimotor task where participants had to produce a copy of a LEGO® -blocks-model displayed on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Noémi Kovács, Krisztián Szigeti, Nikolett Hegedűs, Ildikó Horváth, Dániel S Veres, Michael Bachmann, Ralf Bergmann, Domokos Máthé
Radiotherapy is one of the most frequently applied treatments in oncology. Tissue-absorbed ionizing radiation damages not only targeted cells but the surrounding cells too. The consequent long-term induced oxidative stress, irreversible tissue damage, or second malignancies draw attention to the urgent need of a follow-up medical method by which personalized treatment could be attained and the actually dose-limiting organ could be monitored in the clinical practice. We worked out a special hemisphere irradiation technique for mice which mimics the radiation exposure during radiotherapy...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Eszter Vagdalt, Zsófia Ruttkay, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: In recent years, drug prevention networks and drug education programs have started using Web-based or mobile phone apps as novel prevention tools, testing their efficacy compared with face-to-face prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential of an interactive app called Once Upon a High (VoltEgySzer). METHODS: The app approaches drug prevention from 6 different aspects, and it addresses youngsters with 6 different modules: (1) interactive comics/cartoons, telling stories of recovery; (2) quiz game; (3) roleplay game; (4) introduction of psychoactive drugs; (5) information on the somatic and psychological effects of psychoactive substances; (6) list of available treatment units, rehabs, and self-support groups in Hungary...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
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