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Konstantinos D Tambalis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Glyceria Psarra, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of fast-food consumption and the association between fast food and lifestyle factors in a representative sample of children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. Fast-food consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, sedentary activities and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires...
October 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Ludovic Trinquart, Adam G Dunn, Florence T Bourgeois
BACKGROUND: Prospective trial registration is a powerful tool to prevent reporting bias. We aimed to determine the extent to which published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were registered and registered prospectively. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 2005 to October 2017; we also screened all articles cited by or citing included and excluded studies, and the reference lists of related reviews. We included studies that examined published RCTs and evaluated their registration status, regardless of medical specialty or language...
October 16, 2018: BMC Medicine
Fengtao Luo, Yangli Xie, Zuqiang Wang, Junlan Huang, Qiaoyan Tan, Xianding Sun, Fangfang Li, Can Li, Mi Liu, Dali Zhang, Meng Xu, Nan Su, Zhenhong Ni, Wanling Jiang, Jinhong Chang, Hangang Chen, Shuai Chen, Xiaoling Xu, Chuxia Deng, Zhugang Wang, Xiaolan Du, Lin Chen
Apert syndrome (AS), the most severe form of craniosynostosis, is caused by missense mutations including Pro253Arg(P253R) of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), which leads to enhanced FGF/FGFR2-signaling activity. Surgical correction of the deformed skull is the typical treatment for AS. Because of constant maldevelopment of sutures, the corrective surgery is often executed several times, resulting in increased patient challenge and complications. Biological therapies targeting the signaling of mutant FGFR2 allele, in combination with surgery, may bring better outcome...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Ioanna S Fotiou, Polyxeni G Pappi, Konstantinos E Efthimiou, Nikolaos I Katis, Varvara I Maliogka
In this study a one-tube real-time RT-qPCR assay was developed using the TaqMan chemistry for the universal detection and quantification of PPV, one of the most important pathogens affecting stone fruit trees. In order to design appropriate primers and probe, nucleotide sequences from different PPV isolates originating from all known strains were recovered from the databases. Various genomic regions were screened and finally primers were selected from a conserved region of the 3'- terminal part of the CP gene amplifying a 146 bp DNA fragment while the probe was designed to bind within the amplicon...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Xu Zeng, Tiao Luo, Jijia Li, Gui Li, Donghua Zhou, Tuo Liu, Xian Zou, Aparna Pandey, Zhiyong Luo
Cytochromes P450 (CYP450s), a superfamily of mono-oxygenases, are essential to generate highly functionalized secondary metabolites in plants and contribute to the diversification of specialized triterpenoid biosynthesis in eudicots. However, screening and identifying the exact CYP450 genes in ginsenoside biosynthesis is extremely challenging due to existence of large quantities of members in CYP450 superfamily. Therefore, to screen the CYP450 genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis, transcriptome dataset of Panax ginseng was created in our previous work using the technique of the next-generation sequencing...
October 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Ranmini S Kularatne, Ronelle Niit, Jane Rowley, Tendesayi Kufa-Chakezha, Remco P H Peters, Melanie M Taylor, Leigh F Johnson, Eline L Korenromp
OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in prevalence and incidence of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia in adult men and women in South Africa. METHODS: The Spectrum-STI tool estimated trends in prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia, fitting South African prevalence data. Results were used, alongside programmatic surveillance data, to estimate trends in incident gonorrhea cases resistant to first-line treatment, and the reporting gap of symptomatic male gonorrhea and chlamydia cases treated but not reported as cases of urethritis syndrome...
2018: PloS One
Ya Chen, Xia Yuan, Zhangping Xiao, Hongwei Jin, Liangren Zhang, Zhenming Liu
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. It is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), which is becoming a growing challenge to the treatment of cancer and infections. In the context of several types of cancer in which MRP4 is overexpressed, MRP4 inhibition manifests striking effects against cancer progression and drug resistance. In this study, we combined ligand-based and structure-based drug design strategy, by searching the SPECS chemical library to find compounds that are most likely to bind to MRP4...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer J Y Lee, Ciarán M Duffy, Jaime Guzman, Kiem Oen, Nick Barrowman, Alan M Rosenberg, Natalie J Shiff, Gilles Boire, Elizabeth Stringer, Lynn Spiegel, Kimberly A Morishita, Bianca Lang, Deepti Reddy, Adam M Huber, David A Cabral, Brian M Feldman, Rae S M Yeung, Lori B Tucker, Karen Watanabe Duffy
OBJECTIVE: Identification of the incidence of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis and its risk factors is essential to optimize early detection. Data from the Research in Arthritis in Canadian Children Emphasizing Outcomes (ReACCh-Out) inception cohort were used to estimate the annual incidence of new-onset uveitis following JIA diagnosis and identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Data were reported every 6 months for 2 years, then yearly to 5 years...
October 15, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Tomoichiro Oka, Nobuhiro Iritani, Seiji P Yamamoto, Kohji Mori, Tomoko Ogawa, Chika Tatsumi, Shinichiro Shibata, Seiya Harada, Fang-Tzy Wu
Sapoviruses are associated with acute gastroenteritis. Human sapoviruses are classified into four distinct genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) based on their capsid gene sequences. A TaqMan probe based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay that detects representative strains of these four genogroups is widely used for screening fecal specimens, shellfish, and environmental water samples. However, since the development of this test, more genetically diverse sapovirus strains have been reported, and are not detected by the previously established assay...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Xiujuan Peng, Jasmim Leal, Rashmi Mohanty, Melissa Soto, Debadyuti Ghosh
This protocol describes the use of quantitative PCR (qPCR) to enumerate T7 phages from phage selection experiments (i.e., "biopanning"). qPCR is a fluorescence-based approach to quantify DNA, and here, it is adapted to quantify phage genomes as a proxy for phage particles. In this protocol, a facile phage DNA preparation method is described using high-temperature heating without additional DNA purification. The method only needs small volumes of heat-treated phages and small volumes of the qPCR reaction...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sai Rashmika Velugula-Yellela, Casey Kohnhorst, David N Powers, Nicholas Trunfio, Anneliese Faustino, Phillip Angart, Erica Berilla, Talia Faison, Cyrus Agarabi
Automated microscale bioreactors (15 mL) can be a useful tool for cell culture engineers. They facilitate the simultaneous execution of a wide variety of experimental conditions while minimizing potential process variability. Applications of this approach include: clone screening, temperature and pH shifts, media and supplement optimization. Furthermore, the small reactor volumes are conducive to large Design of Experiments that investigate a wide range of conditions. This allows upstream processes to be significantly optimized before scale-up where experimentation is more limited in scope due to time and economic constraints...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Carlos Regalado-Gonzalez, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in the exponential phase sustain their growth by producing ATP through fermentation and/or mitochondrial respiration. The fermentable carbon concentration mainly governs how the yeast cells generate ATP; thus, the variation in fermentable carbohydrate levels drives the energetic metabolism of S. cerevisiae. This paper describes a high-throughput method based on exponential yeast growth to estimate the effects of concentration changes and nature of the carbon source on respiratory and fermentative metabolism...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Violaine Dubois, Laura Laencina, Anouchka Bories, Vincent Le Moigne, Alexandre Pawlik, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
What differentiates Mycobacterium abscessus from other saprophytic mycobacteria is the ability to resist phagocytosis by human macrophages and the ability to multiply inside such cells. These virulence traits render M. abscessus pathogenic, especially in vulnerable hosts with underlying structural lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis or tuberculosis. How patients become infected with M. abscessus remains unclear. Unlike many mycobacteria, M. abscessus is not found in the environment but might reside inside amoebae, environmental phagocytes that represent a potential reservoir for M...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kasper Katisko, Nina Kokkonen, Johanna Krüger, Päivi Hartikainen, Anne M Koivisto, Seppo Helisalmi, Ville E Korhonen, Merja Kokki, Jussi Tuusa, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Eino Solje, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Kaisa Tasanen, Anne M Remes
Recent studies have shown an epidemiological and immunological association between bullous pemphigoid (BP) and several neurological or psychiatric diseases. Here, our aim was for the first time to specify whether an association exists between BP and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Medical histories of FTLD patients (N = 196) were screened for clinical comorbidity, and BP180 and BP230 autoantibodies were analyzed in the sera of FTLD patients (N = 70, including 24 C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers) by BP180-NC16A-ELISA and BP230-ELISA...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael Ronzetti, Bolormaa Baljinnyam, Adam Yasgar, Anton Simeonov
Drug plasma protein binding remains highly relevant to research and drug development, making the assessment and profiling of compound affinity to plasma proteins essential to drug discovery efforts. Although there are a number of fully-characterized methods, they lack the throughput to handle large numbers of compounds. As the evaluation of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion is addressed earlier in the drug development timeline, the need for higher-throughput methods has grown. Areas Covered: This review will highlight recent developments on methods for profiling drug plasma binding, with an emphasis on fluorescent probes and emerging high-throughput methodologies...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Andrew D Williams, Marie-Louise Bird, Sibella Gk Hardcastle, Mark Kirschbaum, Kathryn J Ogden, Julia Ae Walters
BACKGROUND: Current treatment modalities for cancer have been successful in achieving improved survivorship; however, they come with a number of long-term adverse effects. Accidental falls are a common and clinically significant adverse event in people living with and beyond cancer and rates are higher than in the rest of the population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prescribed or provided exercise for reducing accidental falls, and falls risk factors of strength, flexibility and balance, in people living with and beyond cancer...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kent F Hoskins, Silvia Tejeda, Ganga Vijayasiri, Ifeanyi Beverly Chukwudozie, Mylene H Remo, Hiral A Shah, Ivy E Abraham, Lara E Balay, Tara K Maga, Ericka R Searles, Veena J Korah, Alana Biggers, Melinda R Stolley, Richard B Warnecke
BACKGROUND: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) endorses routine screening for genetic risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer as a component of primary health care. Implementation of this recommendation may prove challenging, especially in clinics serving disadvantaged communities. METHODS: The authors tested the feasibility of implementing the USPSTF mandate at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) to identify women who were eligible for genetic counseling (GC)...
October 15, 2018: Cancer
Matteo Grattieri, David P Hickey, Han Sol Kim, Vanesa Teijeiro Seijas, Jungbae Kim, Shelley D Minteer
Enzymes are promising catalysts for bioprocessing. For instance, the enzymatic capture of CO2 using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a carbon capture approach that allows obtaining bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) with no high-energy input required. However, application in a commercially viable biotechnology requires sufficient enzymatic lifetime. Although enzyme stabilization can be achieved by different immobilization techniques, most of them are not commercially viable because of transport limitations induced by the immobilization method...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
M Ghoddusi Johari, M H Dabaghmanesh, H Zare, A R Safaeian, Gh Abdollahifard
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease, and its increasing prevalence is a global concern. If diabetes mellitus is left untreated, poor control of blood glucose may cause long-term complications. A big challenge encountered by clinicians is the clinical management of diabetes. Many IT-based interventions such ad CDSS have been made to improve the adherence to the standard care for chronic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a decision support system of diabetes management based on diabetes care guidelines in order to reduce medical errors and increase adherence to guidelines...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Samuel Lebourgeois, Audrey Fraisse, Catherine Hennechart-Collette, Laurent Guillier, Sylvie Perelle, Sandra Martin-Latil
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents causing acute liver disease worldwide. HAV has been increasingly reported as the cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. The standard method currently available for detection of the genome of HAV in vulnerable foodstuffs is by RT-qPCR (ISO 15216). Despite its usefulness in the investigation of foodborne viruses, the use of RT-qPCR in food virology has been shown to overestimate the quantity of infectious virus or to highly underestimate the effect of the treatment on virus inactivation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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