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C Nabet, C Belzunce, D Blanchet, P Abboud, F Djossou, B Carme, C Aznar, M Demar
BACKGROUND: American histoplasmosis is a mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. A variety of clinical features of histoplasmosis have been commonly described ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe pulmonary infections. In immunocompromised individuals, progressive disseminated forms are frequent, leading to fatal outcome if untreated. However, H. capsulatum sinusitis is unusual with a few cases documented over the last three decades and may be underdiagnosed or confused with other fungal aetiologies, especially outside endemic regions...
November 26, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Eloise R Galligan, Lindsey Fix, Sameera Husain, Philip Zachariah, Darrell J Yamashiro, Christine T Lauren
We report a case of disseminated Trichosporon asahii in a patient on systemic anti-fungal therapy who presented with multiple cutaneous nodules suggestive of fungal infection. Histologic features resembled neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis but staining with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori methenamine silver confirmed the clinical diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of maintaining suspicion for trichosporonosis and contextualizing histologic findings within the underlying clinical picture. This article is protected by copyright...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Shiva Khoobyari, Timothy I Miller, Michi M Shinohara
In the United States, chronic ulcers affect 6.5 million people, with a cost of ≈$20 million annually. The most common etiology of chronic ulcers in the United States is venous stasis, followed by arterial insufficiency and neuropathic ulcers. Less common causes of chronic ulcers include infection, inflammatory etiologies such as vasculitis and pyoderma gangrenosum, and neoplastic causes. Obtaining skin biopsy and tissue culture can be helpful in diagnosing unusual causes of chronic ulcers; however, there are little data on the diagnostic utility of skin biopsy in rendering a definitive diagnosis of the etiology of chronic ulcers...
November 15, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Atsushi Kitazawa, Ryo Koda, Atsunori Yoshino, Yoshihiko Ueda, Tetsuro Takeda
BACKGROUND: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory condition. The kidney is one of the organs commonly affected by IgG4-RD. Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the main feature, and membranous nephropathy (MN) has also been described frequently. In MN, polyclonal immunoglobulins and complements are deposited in granular form along the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs). Unusual cases of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) associated with membranous features have been reported...
November 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Néha Sihra, Anna Goodman, Rhana Zakri, Arun Sahai, Sachin Malde
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are highly prevalent, lead to considerable patient morbidity, incur large financial costs to health-care systems and are one of the most common reasons for antibiotic use worldwide. The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance means that the search for nonantibiotic alternatives for the treatment and prevention of UTI is of critical importance. Potential nonantibiotic measures and treatments for UTIs include behavioural changes, dietary supplementation (such as Chinese herbal medicines and cranberry products), NSAIDs, probiotics, D-mannose, methenamine hippurate, estrogens, intravesical glycosaminoglycans, immunostimulants, vaccines and inoculation with less-pathogenic bacteria...
December 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Muhammad Majeed, Hatem Soliman, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mansour El-Matbouli, Mona Saleh
BACKGROUND: The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is increasingly being used for genome editing experiments. It is a system to add, delete and/or replace parts of a gene in situ in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The genome of many organisms has been edited using this system. We tested the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Aphanomyces invadans, an oomycete, which is the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in many fish species...
October 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jerome B Taxy, Harry M Goldin, Sara Dickie, Thomas Cibull
The ulcerated papules of cutaneous leishmaniasis represent an unusual form of granulomatous dermatitis caused by Leishmania species, a protozoan transmitted by sandfly bites. As the disease is not native to North America, clinical suspicion is partially based on a compatible travel history and may result in a biopsy. The key role of standard morphology is the identification of Leishmania organisms, supplemented by Giemsa and/or CD1a immunostaining. Histologically, the organism may be confused with Histoplasma species, which is resolved by staining with methenamine silver or PAS...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Bilge Fettahl Oğlu Karaman, Arbil Açıkalın, İlker Ünal, Varol L Aksungur
BACKGROUND: In the absence of a real gold standard, comparative studies are still done on diagnostic methods for onychomycosis. There are only a few attempts using latent class analysis to determine the value of polymerase chain reaction in comparison to conventional methods. We aimed to determine the value of histological examination in such a way for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. METHODS: Potassium hydroxide mount (KOH), culture and histological examination with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Gomori's methenamine silver (GMS) stains were done in 106 patients having clinically suspected toenail onychomycosis...
September 23, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Umamaheshwari Golconda, Richard E Sobonya, Stephen A Klotz
Tissue from 13 autopsy cases with invasive gastrointestinal candidiasis was studied for the binding of the pentraxins, C-reactive protein (CRP), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) to fungal surfaces. Invasive candidal infection was demonstrated using a hematoxylin and eosin stain and a Gomori methenamine silver stain (GMS). Immunohistochemistry was performed with CRP and PTX3 monoclonal antibodies and did not demonstrate CRP or PTX3 bound to fungi (0 of 13 cases), although CRP was extensively deposited on human tissue...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Claire Hemedez, Elizabeth Trail-Burns, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Sunil K Shaw, Joseph M Bliss, Monique E De Paepe
Introduction/Objectives Non- albicans Candida species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata have emerged as prevalent pathogens in premature infants. The aim of this study was to systematically delineate the histopathologic findings in neonatal non- albicans candidiasis. Methods We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of extremely premature (23-28 weeks' gestation) infants diagnosed with invasive candidiasis. Archival autopsy tissues were subjected to periodic acid-Schiff, methenamine-silver and anti- Candida (immuno)histochemical stains, as well as dual anti- Candida and anti-cytokeratin or anti-CD31 immunofluorescence assays...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
S Long, X D Mu, C Zhang, L Su, P Jia, P N Zhou, G F Wang
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection and colonization in non-AIDS patients. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2017, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected by Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS) staining and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) in non-AIDS patients with bronchoscopic alveolar lavage at Peking University First Hospital. At the same time, Pneumocystis jirovecii was detected in the environment of the hospital. Results: Within 8 years, Pneumocystis jirovecii were detected in BALF of a total of 1 407 non-AIDS patients...
August 14, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Thomas H Long, Michi M Shinohara, Zsolt B Argenyi, John A Thompson, Jennifer M Gardner
Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a novel intralesional oncolytic genetically modified herpes simplex virus type 1 vector for the treatment of unresectable cutaneous, subcutaneous, and nodal melanoma. Although immunological therapies such as T-VEC offer therapeutic promise, they carry a risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), the full spectrum of which is incompletely understood. We report a 63-year-old previously healthy man with cutaneous melanoma of the right ankle and progressive right lower extremity in-transit metastases despite systemic therapy with immunomodulatory and molecularly targeted treatments...
November 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
A Fernández-Cruz, E Magira, S T Heo, S Evans, J Tarrand, D P Kontoyiannis
There is a paucity of studies on the yield of Gomori-methenamine-silver (GMS) staining in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and its comparison with fluorescent dye staining for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with hematologic malignancies. To that end, we analyzed the yield of direct fungal visualization in BAL fluid cytology with GMS staining, in a series of culture-positive IPA cases in 67 patients with hematologic malignancies, and we compared the results with those of direct examination with calcofluor white staining and BAL fluid galactomannan assays, when available...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Eric A Swanson, Jordon K March, Frederic Clayton, Marc R Couturier, Ramir Arcega, Richard Smith, Kimberley J Evason
Recent publications have described epithelial cytoplasmic vacuoles and inclusions incidentally noted within gallbladder epithelium and concluded that they represent coccidian parasite infection, in particular, Cystoisospora belli. We identified 8 gallbladder specimens from our institution in the past 3 years in which this diagnosis was suggested or in which similar epithelial alterations were prominent. Molecular analysis was performed on the 8 gallbladder specimens and on 3 positive control specimens: small bowel biopsies from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with diarrhea...
October 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Janie Roberson, Asma M Ali, Jennifer Clark, Isam Eltoum, David Ritter, Ryan Soles
Background: The American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Board of Certification (BOC) surveys US certified cytotechnologists (CTs) at approximately 5-year intervals to gain information about current practice patterns. Although the purpose of this survey is to inform valid content development for the BOC CT examination, comparative longitudinal analysis of the survey data provides information about changes in cytotechnology practice. Materials and Methods: BOC Practice Analysis Survey data for 2009 and 2015 were examined, comparing survey demographics and performance of laboratory tasks...
July 5, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Ariana L Smith, Jason Brown, Jean F Wyman, Amanda Berry, Diane K Newman, Ann E Stapleton
PURPOSE: Recurrent lower urinary tract infections in women are a highly prevalent and burdensome condition for which best practice guidelines for treatment and prevention that minimize harm and optimize well-being are greatly needed. To inform development of practice recommendations, a rapid literature review of original research, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and practice guidelines was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed®, Embase®, Opus, Scopus®, Google Scholar, The Cochrane Library and the U...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Urology
Michael Tradewell, Joseph J Pariser, Tony Nimeh, Sean P Elliott
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a source of morbidity and healthcare costs in adults with spina bifida (ASB). UTI prevention strategies are often recommended, but the evidence of various approaches remains unclear. We performed a systematic review to inform a best practice policy statement for UTI prevention in ASB. On behalf of the Neurogenic Bladder Research Group (, we developed an a priori protocol and searched the published English literature for 30 outcomes questions addressing UTI prevention in ASB...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Gregory E Tasian, Thomas Jemielita, David S Goldfarb, Lawrence Copelovitch, Jeffrey S Gerber, Qufei Wu, Michelle R Denburg
Background Although intestinal and urinary microbiome perturbations are associated with nephrolithiasis, whether antibiotics are a risk factor for this condition remains unknown. Methods We determined the association between 12 classes of oral antibiotics and nephrolithiasis in a population-based, case-control study nested within 641 general practices providing electronic health record data for >13 million children and adults from 1994 to 2015 in the United Kingdom. We used incidence density sampling to match 25,981 patients with nephrolithiasis to 259,797 controls by age, sex, and practice at date of diagnosis (index date)...
June 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Dan-Dan Mao, Wen-Yu Yang, Yan Li, Jian-Wei Lin, Shi-Yu Gao, Yi-Ru Wang, Hai-Yan Hu
Objective: To investigate the effects of QKF on expression of amyloid-beta (A β ), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using a rat model of AD. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups (eight rats each): control group, sham-operated group, AD model group, groups of AD rats administered with low, medium, and high doses of QKF, and the donepezil group. AD was established by bilateral injection of β -amyloid (A β ) 1-40 into the hippocampus...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ridhi Sood, Ruchita Tyagi, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Gursheen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Akashdeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Nocardia, a gram-positive aerobic bacillus of the Actinomycetales family, is a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary nocardiosis are nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, pneumocystis, staphylococcal or fungal infections, or as malignancy. Aspiration cytology with special stains is a quick and effective approach for accurate diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 7 cases of pulmonary nocardiosis, admitted to the pathology department in a tertiary-care hospital in Punjab...
2018: Acta Cytologica
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