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Himanshu Pandey, Sarita Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Dinesh K Tripathi, Mrigank Srivastava, Surya Kant, Kishore K Srivastava, Ashish Arora
BACKGROUND: We have characterized two immunogenic proteins, Rv1197 and Rv1198, of the Esx-5 system of the ESAT-6 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. METHODS: The complex formation between Rv1197 and Rv1198 was characterized by biophysical techniques. The reactivity of serum from TB patients towards these proteins was characterized by ELISA. Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine induction were followed in restimulated splenocytes from immunized mice by using MTT assay and CBA flowcytometry, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Myung-Joo Choi, Hong-Mei Zheng, Jae Min Kim, Kye Wan Lee, Yu Hwa Park, Don Haeng Lee
Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti‑inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced liver injury in rats...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Paulina Płoszaj, Andrzej Regiec, Stanisław Ryng, Agnieszka Piwowar, Marian L Kruzel
The 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide (HIX) is a synthetic isoxazole derivative with a potential for development as an anti-inflammatory drug candidate. The goal of this study was to explore in vitro autoimmune and inflammatory gene modulation by HIX in human Caco-2 cultured cells. The effect of low dose of HIX was tested on the expression level of RNA in 24h Caco-2 cultures using the QIAGEN Th17 for Autoimmunity & Inflammation RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. We choose the PCR technology as the most reliable and sensitive gene expression profiling method for analyzing specific gene regulatory networks...
October 17, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Denghai Mi, Weiwei Ren, Kehu Yang
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and induced killer cells for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of interleukin-2 and induced killer cells on NSCLC, so as to provide references for further clinical practice and research. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in Cochrane library (Issue 2, 2013), Web of Science (1980-March 2013), PubMed (1966-March 2013), China Knowledge Resource Integrated database (CNKI) (1994-March 2013), China Biology Medicine database (CBM) (1978-March 2013), VIP (1989-March 2013), and Wan Fang databases (1997-March 2013)...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Masanori Inui, Akiko Sugahara-Tobinai, Hiroshi Fujii, Ari Itoh-Nakadai, Hidehiro Fukuyama, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Tomonori Ishii, Hideo Harigae, Toshiyuki Takai
Plasmablasts and plasma cells (PBs/PCs) producing pathogenic autoantibodies in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases could be a better target for specific therapies for the disease than general immunosuppression or pan- or activated B-cell targeting. Our previous study indicated that Leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR)B4 (B4, also known as ILT3/LIR-5/CD85k), a tolerogenic receptor in antigen-presenting cells, is ectopically expressed on the PB/PC surface in healthy individuals. Here we show that the enlarged population size of PBs/PCs with augmented B4 expression is characteristic in non-treated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
October 14, 2016: International Immunology
Konrad Pazdrak, Christof Straub, Rosario Maroto, Susan Stafford, Wendy I White, William J Calhoun, Alexander Kurosky
The mechanisms contributing to persistent eosinophil activation and poor eosinopenic response to glucocorticoids in severe asthma are poorly defined. We examined the effect of cytokines typically overexpressed in the asthmatic airways on glucocorticoid signaling in in vitro activated eosinophils. An annexin V assay used to measure eosinophil apoptosis showed that cytokine combinations of IL-2 plus IL-4 as well as TNF-α plus IFN-γ, or IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 alone significantly diminished the proapoptotic response to dexamethasone...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Amy K Erbe, Wei Wang, Jacob Goldberg, Mikayla Gallenberger, KyungMann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Dustin Hess, Eneida A Mendonca, Yiqiang Song, Jacquelyn A Hank, Su-Chun Cheng, Sabina Signoretti, Michael Atkins, Alexander Carlson, James W Mier, David J Panka, David F McDermott, Paul M Sondel
BACKGROUND: Fc-gamma receptors (FCGRs) are expressed on immune cells, bind to antibodies, and trigger antibody-induced cell-mediated anti-tumor responses when tumor-reactive antibodies are present. The affinity of the FCGR/antibody interaction is variable and dependent upon FCGR polymorphisms. Prior studies of cancer patients treated with immunotherapy indicate that FCGR polymorphisms can influence antitumor response for certain immunotherapies that act via therapeutically administered mAbs or via endogenous tumor-reactive antibodies induced from tumor antigen vaccines...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xiu-Zhen Li, Lin Lv, Xu Zhang, Kenneth Yongabi Anchang, Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi, Liqing Tu, Xiaohu Wang, Lijun Xia, Xiu-Xiang Zhang, Weili Feng, Chunxia Lu, Shoujun Li, Zi-Guo Yuan
We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays...
October 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Maggie L Diller, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Keith A Delman, David H Lawson, Mandy L Ford
Th17 cells represent a distinct subset of CD4 effector T cells with potent pathogenic qualities, capable of directly mediating tumor cell destruction. IL-2 has frequently been shown to have a negative effect on Th17 differentiation while supporting regulatory T-cell (FoxP3CD4, TREG) growth and development in both in vitro models and in vivo animal models. We investigated the effect of in vivo IL-2 on both the Th17 and FoxP3CD4 T-cell compartments in a human model of cancer. High-dose IL-2 (HDIL-2) was administered at a dose of 720,000 IU/kg to patients with melanoma (n=7) and peripheral blood was collected at baseline and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours posttreatment...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Yang Liu, Srilakshmi Pandeswara, Vinh Dao, Álvaro Padrón, Justin M Drerup, Shunhua Lao, Aijie Liu, Vincent Hurez, Tyler J Curiel
mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T cell malignancies. Here we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of anti-tumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T cell-dependent fashion...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Research
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ziye Pan, Jinjiao He, Lubna M Rasoul, Yunye Liu, Ruixiang Che, Yun Ding, Xiaocheng Guo, Jiarui Yang, Dehua Zou, Hua Zhang, Deshan Li, Hongwei Cao
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) is tumor selective and intrinsically oncolytic, which has been developed as a vector to express exogenous genes to enhance its oncolytic efficacy. Our previous studies found that insertion sites of foreign gene in rNDV vector affected its expression and anti-tumor activities. However, the optimal insertion site for foreign genes remains unknown. In this study, we inserted the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and IL2 genes into four different intergenic regions of the rNDV using reverse genetics technology...
2016: PloS One
Ali Moravej, Mohammad-Hossein Karimi, Bita Geramizadeh, Negar Azarpira, Amir-Hasan Zarnani, Ramin Yaghobi, Maryam Khosravi, Mehdi Kalani, Behrouz Gharesi-Fard
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show immunomodulatory functions. But the exact mechanism underlying these activities of MSCs is still not completely understood. There have been a few studies which have assessed the effects of these cells on dendritic cells (DCs) function. Given the importance of programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-L1) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in induction of tolerance in DCs, we were encouraged to investigate if one of the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could be inducing upregulation of PD-L1 and VDR on DCs or not...
October 13, 2016: Immunological Investigations
X-M Wang, Y-G Zhang, A-L Li, Z-H Long, D Wang, X-X Li, J-H Xia, S-Y Luo, Y-H Shan
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between expression of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood and the severity of depression and anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, 62 PD patients admitted to our institution were included in the PD group, and 62 healthy subjects seeking health check-up at our institution during the same period of time were enrolled in the control group...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Masayuki Mizui, George C Tsokos
Recent extensive research on interleukin-2 (IL-2)/IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) biology has revealed its critical role in the regulation of immune tolerance by influencing regulatory T (Treg) cell functions and survival. Since in vivo low-dose IL-2 administration in humans has been confirmed to be safe and effective in expanding Treg, it is likely that it may be considered for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematousus (SLE). A recent clinical trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of low-dose IL-2 treatment on SLE...
November 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Epameinondas Gousopoulos, Steven T Proulx, Samia B Bachmann, Jeannette Scholl, Dimitris Dionyssiou, Efterpi Demiri, Cornelia Halin, Lothar C Dieterich, Michael Detmar
Secondary lymphedema is a common postcancer treatment complication, but the underlying pathological processes are poorly understood and no curative treatment exists. To investigate lymphedema pathomechanisms, a top-down approach was applied, using genomic data and validating the role of a single target. RNA sequencing of lymphedematous mouse skin indicated upregulation of many T cell-related networks, and indeed depletion of CD4(+) cells attenuated lymphedema. The significant upregulation of Foxp3, a transcription factor specifically expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs), along with other Treg-related genes, implied a potential role of Tregs in lymphedema...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Mirjam A Lips, Jan Bert van Klinken, Hanno Pijl, Ignace Janssen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Frits Koning, Vanessa van Harmelen
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss interventions such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and very low calorie diets (VLCD) lead to improvement of glucose metabolism in obese individuals with type-2 diabetes. Weight loss can also positively influence the unfavorable inflammatory profile associated with obesity. However, a direct comparison of the effect of VLCD and RYGB on systemic inflammation is lacking. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was investigated in age- and BMI-matched morbidly obese T2DM women by determining the number and activation- or memory status of peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry, in addition to measuring circulating levels of cytokines and CRP...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Mi-Young Son, Young-Dae Kim, Binna Seol, Mi-Ok Lee, Hee-Jun Na, Bin Yoo, Jae-Suk Chang, Yee Sook Cho
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory and multisystemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Due to the lack of a specific test for BD, its diagnosis is very difficult, and therapeutic options are limited. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which provides inaccessible disease-relevant cell types, opens a new era for disease treatment. Here, we generated BD iPSCs from patient somatic cells and differentiated them into hematopoietic precursor cells (BD iPSC-HPCs) as BD model cells...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Ryan A Zander, Jenna J Guthmiller, Amy C Graham, Rosemary L Pope, Bradly E Burke, Daniel J J Carr, Noah S Butler
CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses are essential for limiting Plasmodium parasite replication and the severity of malaria; however, the factors that regulate humoral immunity during highly inflammatory, Th1-biased systemic infections are poorly understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we show that Plasmodium infection-induced type I interferons limit T follicular helper accumulation and constrain anti-malarial humoral immunity. Mechanistically we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon signaling induces T-bet and Blimp-1 expression, thereby promoting T regulatory 1 responses...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Sally A Abuelezz, Nevien Hendawy, Yosra Magdy
Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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