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Inherited ataxia

Jakub Trzesniewski, Sandrine Altmann, Levy Jäger, Josef P Kapfhammer
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by diverse mutations in the Protein Kinase C gamma (PKCγ) gene which is one of the crucial signaling molecules of Purkinje cells. We have previously created a mouse model of SCA14 by transgenic expression of a mutated PKCγ gene causing SCA14 with a mutation in the catalytic domain. Purkinje cells from the mutated mice have a strong reduction of their dendritic tree in organotypic slice cultures typical for increased PKC activity...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Ayako Kashimada, Setsuko Hasegawa, Toshihiro Nomura, Hiroshi Shiraku, Kengo Moriyama, Tomonori Suzuki, Keisuke Nakajima, Tomoko Mizuno, Kohsuke Imai, Yuji Sugawara, Tomohiro Morio, Satoko Kumada, Masatoshi Takagi
OBJECTIVES: Defects in DNA damage responses or repair mechanisms cause numerous rare inherited diseases, referred to as "DNA-repair defects" or "DNA damage deficiency", characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and/or cancer predisposition. Early accurate diagnosis is important for informing appropriate clinical management; however, diagnosis is frequently challenging and can be delayed, due to phenotypic heterogeneity. Comprehensive genomic analysis could overcome this disadvantage...
October 6, 2018: Brain & Development
Roisin Sullivan, Wai Yan Yau, Emer O'Connor, Henry Houlden
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative ataxic disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance. We aim to provide an update on the recent clinical and scientific progresses in SCA where numerous novel genes have been identified with next-generation sequencing techniques. The main disease mechanisms of these SCAs include toxic RNA gain-of-function, mitochondrial dysfunction, channelopathies, autophagy and transcription dysregulation. Recent studies have also demonstrated the importance of DNA repair pathways in modifying SCA with CAG expansions...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, Yoshiko Murakami, Kristen M Wigby, Nissan V Baratang, Justine Rousseau, Anik St-Denis, Jill A Rosenfeld, Stephanie C Laniewski, Julie Jones, Alejandro D Iglesias, Marilyn C Jones, Diane Masser-Frye, Angela E Scheuerle, Denise L Perry, Ryan J Taft, Françoise Le Deist, Miles Thompson, Taroh Kinoshita, Philippe M Campeau
Inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) are a subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation that are increasingly recognized as a result of advances in whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). IGDs cause a series of overlapping phenotypes consisting of seizures, dysmorphic features, multiple congenital malformations, and severe intellectual disability. We present a study of six individuals from three unrelated families in which WES or WGS identified bi-allelic phosphatidylinositol glycan class S (PIGS) biosynthesis mutations...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Stefania Magri, Valentina Fracasso, Massimo Plumari, Enrico Alfei, Daniele Ghezzi, Cinzia Gellera, Paola Rusmini, Angelo Poletti, Daniela Di Bella, Antonio E Elia, Chiara Pantaleoni, Franco Taroni
Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are crucial for neuronal survival and their perturbation is a major cause of neurodegeneration. m-AAA complex is an ATP-dependent metalloprotease located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and involved in protein quality control. Mutations in the m-AAA subunits AFG3L2 and paraplegin are associated with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) and autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG7), respectively. We report a novel m-AAA-associated phenotype characterized by early-onset optic atrophy with spastic ataxia and L-Dopa-responsive parkinsonism...
September 25, 2018: Human Mutation
David Alsina, Rosa Purroy, Joaquim Ros, Jordi Tamarit
Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance. In most patients, the disease is caused by the presence of trinucleotide GAA expansions in the first intron of the frataxin gene. These expansions cause the decreased expression of this mitochondrial protein. Many evidences indicate that frataxin deficiency causes the deregulation of cellular iron homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss several hypotheses proposed for frataxin function, their caveats, and how they could provide an explanation for the deregulation of iron homeostasis found in frataxin-deficient cells...
September 19, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Erin N Burns, Carrie J Finno
Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder affecting many horse breeds. Clinical signs include a symmetric ataxia and an abnormal stance at rest, similar to cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, and equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy. This review will provide an update on the disease prevalence, management, impact, and ongoing research.
2018: Veterinary medicine
Carlos Roberto Martins Junior, Fabrício Castro de Borba, Alberto Rolim Muro Martinez, Thiago Junqueira Ribeiro de Rezende, Iscia Lopes Cendes, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Marcondes Cavalcante França Júnior
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of monogenic diseases that share ataxia and autosomal dominant inheritance as the core features. An important proportion of SCAs are caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the coding region of different genes. In addition to genetic heterogeneity, clinical features transcend motor symptoms, including cognitive, electrophysiological and imaging aspects. Despite all the progress in the past 25 years, the mechanisms that determine how neuronal death is mediated by these unstable expansions are still unclear...
August 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Li Zeng, Dapeng Zhang, Hayley S McLoughlin, Annie J Zalon, L Aravind, Henry L Paulson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene which encodes the deubiquitinating enzyme, ATXN3. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathogenic role of mutant, polyQ-expanded ATXN3 in SCA3 including disease protein aggregation, impairment of ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation and transcriptional dysregulation. A better understanding of the normal functions of this protein may shed light on SCA3 disease pathogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Josef Finsterer, Marlies Frank
Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is not only a disorder of the pancreas and ears but a multisystem mitochondrial disorder syndrome. Hypogonadism, however, has not been reported as a phenotypic feature of MIDD. We report a single case of a patient with MIDD which manifested clinically at 41 years old. In addition to diabetes and deafness, he manifested with seizures, ataxia, myopathy, and hypogonadism. We used established methods for the routine workup of this patient. MIDD is indeed a multisystem condition...
September 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Atsushi Okamoto, Nao Hosoda, Shin-Ichi Hoshino
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a useful model system to investigate the mechanism of prion generation and inheritance, to which studies in Sup35 made a great contribution. Recent studies demonstrated that 'protein misfolding and aggregation' (i.e. amyloidogenesis) is a common principle underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including prion, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Perkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD) diseases and polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) and Hantington's disease (HD)...
September 9, 2018: Prion
Peter J B Sabatini, Resham Ejaz, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, Ann M Joseph-George
Background: Complex genomic structural variations, involving chromoanagenesis, have been implicated in multiple congenital anomalies and abnormal neurodevelopment. Familial inheritance of complex chromosomal structural alteration resulting from germline chromoanagenesis-type mechanisms are limited. Case presentation: We report a two-year eleven-month old male presenting with epilepsy, ataxia and dysmorphic features of unknown etiology. Chromosomal microarray identified a complex unbalanced rearrangement involving chromosome 21...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
Lorenzo Mari, Kaspar Matiasek, Christopher A Jenkins, Alberta De Stefani, Sally L Ricketts, Oliver Forman, Luisa De Risio
CASE DESCRIPTION Two 12-week-old Norwegian Buhunds from a litter of 5 were evaluated because of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and fine head tremors. Two other females from the same pedigree had been previously evaluated for similar signs. CLINICAL FINDINGS Findings of general physical examination, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable for all affected puppies. Brain MRI and CSF analysis, including PCR assays for detection of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and canine distemper virus, were performed for 3 dogs, yielding unremarkable results...
September 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Sofia Esteves, Stéphanie Oliveira, Sara Duarte-Silva, Daniela Cunha-Garcia, Andreia Teixeira-Castro, Patrícia Maciel
Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorders with no disease-modifying treatment. We previously identified the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram as a safe and effective drug to be repurposed for Machado-Joseph disease. Pre-symptomatic treatment of transgenic (CMVMJD135) mice strikingly ameliorated mutant ataxin-3 (ATXN3) pathogenesis. Here, we asked whether citalopram treatment initiated at a post-symptomatic age would still show efficacy. We used a cohort of CMVMJD135 mice that shows increased phenotypic severity and faster disease progression (CMVMJD135hi) compared to the mice used in the first trial...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Michelle Ham, Julia Han, Kathryn Osann, Moyra Smith, Virginia Kimonis
Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic disease characterized by progressive bilateral vision loss, pallor of the optic disc, central vision loss, and impairment of color vision. Additionally, a small percentage of patients experience hearing loss and ataxia, while recent studies suggest disruption of cardiac and neuromuscular functions. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of the various mutations in the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) gene, we obtained both clinical and genetic information of ADOA patients from published reports...
August 27, 2018: Mitochondrion
Wai Yan Yau, Emer O'Connor, Roisin Sullivan, Layan Akijian, Nicholas W Wood
The inherited cerebellar ataxias comprise of a genetic heterogeneous group of disorders. Pathogenic expansions of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) encoding polyglutamine tracts account for the largest proportion of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, while GAA expansion in the first introns of frataxin gene is the commonest cause of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias. Currently, there is no available treatment to alter the disease trajectory, with devastating consequences for affected individuals. Inter- and Intrafamily phenotypic variability suggest the existence of genetic modifiers, which may become targets amendable to treatment...
August 27, 2018: FEBS Journal
Zeynep S Karalok, Alfredo Megaro, Marta Cenciarini, Alev Guven, Sonia M Hasan, Birce D Taskin, Paola Imbrici, Serdar Ceylaner, Mauro Pessia, Maria C D'Adamo
Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1), a Shaker -like K+ channelopathy , is a consequence of genetic anomalies in the KCNA1 gene that lead to dysfunctions in the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1. 1. Generally, KCNA1 mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Here we report the clinical phenotype of an EA1 patient characterized by ataxia attacks that decrease in frequency with age, and eventually leading to therapy discontinuation. A new de novo mutation (c.932G>A) that changed a highly conserved glycine residue into an aspartate (p...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jingjing Li, Ruihong Liu, Huiyu Feng, Jian Zhang, Dilong Wang, Yiming Wang, Jinsheng Zeng, Yuhua Fan
Objective: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an uncommon clinical manifestation in patients with TBC1D24 mutations. In addition, NCSE has not been reported as a syndrome together with cerebellar ataxia and ophthalmoplegia. Methods: We herein report the clinical and genetic features of a four-year-old patient with NCSE, cerebellar ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia caused by hitherto unidentified TBC1D24 mutations. We performed 24-h video electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging, and gene sequencing on the patient and her parents to determine the diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Suran Nethisinghe, Maria Lucia Pigazzini, Sally Pemble, Mary G Sweeney, Robyn Labrum, Katarina Manso, David Moore, Jon Warner, Mary B Davis, Paola Giunti
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the ATXN1 gene. Normal alleles have been reported to range from 6 to 35 repeats, intermediate alleles from 36 to 38 repeats and fully penetrant pathogenic alleles have at least 39 repeats. This distribution was based on relatively few samples and the narrow intermediate range makes the accuracy of the repeat sizing crucial for interpreting and reporting diagnostic tests, which can vary between laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Aoi Nakazono, Naoko Adachi, Hideyuki Takahashi, Takahiro Seki, Daizo Hamada, Takehiko Ueyama, Norio Sakai, Naoaki Saito
Amyloid and amyloid-like protein aggregations are hallmarks of multiple, varied neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We previously reported that spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), a dominant-inherited neurodegenerative disease that affects cerebellar Purkinje cells, is characterized by the intracellular formation of neurotoxic amyloid-like aggregates of genetic variants of protein kinase Cγ (PKCγ). A number of protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), promote the degradation and/or refolding of misfolded proteins and thereby prevent their aggregation...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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