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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672644/the-relative-age-effect-is-larger-in-italian-soccer-top-level-youth-categories-and-smaller-in-serie-a
#1
Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Corrado Lupo, Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Riccardo Frati, Alberto Rainoldi, Gennaro Boccia
The relative age effect (RAE; i.e., an asymmetry in the birth distribution) is a bias observed in sport competitions that may favour relatively older athletes in talent identification. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of RAE in elite soccer players competing in the Italian championships, even considering the discriminations of younger and older Serie A players (in relation to the median age of the sample), and different positional roles (i.e., goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, forward) for each observed category...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659337/hyperandrogenic-athletes-performance-differences-in-elite-standard-200m-and-800m-finals
#2
Jonathan Ospina Betancurt, Maria S Zakynthinaki, Maria Jose Martinez-Patiño, Carlos Cordente Martinez
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the difference in elite-standard track and field performance between women athletes with and without hyperandrogenism reaches the 10-12% difference in performance between men and women, using only results from elite-standard track and field final competitions. Officially available data from two hyperandrogenic women (Caster Semenya and Dutee Chand) were compared with the characteristic performance of 200m and 800m elite-standard finals. The finishing times of Caster Semenya, before her ineligibility to compete in 2009 and after the suspension of the 2011 IAAF Hyperandrogenism Regulations were found to be respectively 1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619792/degree-of-vision-impairment-influence-the-fight-outcomes-in-the-paralympic-judo-a-10-year-retrospective-analysis
#3
Evgeny Mashkovskiy, Ayshat Magomedova, Evgeny Achkasov
INTRODUCTION: In the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) judo Sports Classes B1, B2, and B3 compete against each other within weight- and gender-specific categories. B1 athletes are totally blind, whereas B2 and B3 are partially sighted. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the degree of vision impairment on fight outcomes. METHODS: We analysed 1,936 fights from official competitions and compare win ratio in fights between discordant Sports Classes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615000/measuring-sport-experiences-in-children-and-youth-to-better-understand-the-impact-of-sport-on-health-and-positive-youth-development-designing-a-brief-measure-for-population-health-surveys
#4
John Cairney, Heather J Clark, Matthew Y W Kwan, Mark Bruner, Katherine Tamminen
BACKGROUND: Despite the proliferation of studies examining youth sport participation, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of youth sport participation on health and development. These gaps are not new, but have persisted due to limitations with how sport participation is measured. Much of the research to date has measured sport participation as binary (yes/no) or count measures. This has been especially true in survey-based research. Yet, at the same time, research has investigated youths' experiences in sport such as the influence of coaches, teammates, and parents...
April 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584523/brain-behavior-mechanisms-for-the-transfer-of-neuromuscular-training-adaptions-to-simulated-sport-initial-findings-from-the-train-the-brain-project
#5
Dustin R Grooms, Adam W Kiefer, Michael A Riley, Jonathan D Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz, Gregory D Myer
CONTEXT: A limiting factor for reducing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is ensuring that the movement adaptions made during the prevention program transfer to sport-specific activity. Virtual reality provides a mechanism to assess transferability and neuroimaging provides a means to assay the neural processes allowing for such skill transfer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the neural mechanisms for injury risk reducing biomechanics transfer to sport after ACL injury prevention training...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580692/modeling-the-two-dimensional-accuracy-of-soccer-kicks
#6
Andrew H Hunter, Michael J Angilletta, Theodore Pavlic, Glen Lichtwark, Robbie S Wilson
In many sports, athletes perform motor tasks that simultaneously require both speed and accuracy for success, such as kicking a ball. Because of the biomechanical trade-off between speed and accuracy, athletes must balance these competing demands. Modelling the optimal compromise between speed and accuracy requires one to quantifyhow task speed affects the dispersion around a target, a level of experimental detail not previously addressed. Using soccer penalties as a system, we measured two-dimensional kicking error over a range of speeds, target heights, and kicking techniques...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580114/athletes-and-supplements-prevalence-and-perspectives
#7
Ina Garthe, Ronald J Maughan
In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550212/urinary-incontinence-among-adolescent-female-athletes
#8
Bridget Linehan Logan, Lynn Foster-Johnson, Eleni Zotos
BACKGROUND: A collection of studies have demonstrated that approximately one-third of female nulliparous athletes experience urinary incontinence during their athletic activities. Contributing factors of incontinence that have thus far been the focus of study include type of sport, duration and intensity of athletic activity, use of hormonal contraception, and weight. There has, as yet, been a notable underemphasis on several other factors which influence incontinence, including bowel pattern, urinary habits, and menstrual status...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548578/impact-of-regular-physical-activity-on-adipocytokines-and-cardiovascular-characteristics-in-spinal-cord-injured-subjects
#9
Roberto Schreiber, Cristiane M Souza, Layde R Paim, Guilherme de Rossi, José R Matos-Souza, Anselmo de A Costa E Silva, Fernando R Faria, Eliza R Azevedo, Karina C Alonso, Andrei C Sposito, Alberto Cliquet, José I Gorla, Wilson Nadruz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cardiac structure and function with adipocytokines in sedentary (S-SCI) and physically-active (PA-SCI) subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one SCI men (16 S-SCI and 25 PA-SCI) with chronic (>1y) SCI were evaluated. S-SCI subjects did not perform labor that required physical effort, recreational physical activity or sports, while PA-SCI subjects included competing athletes that were regularly performing adapted sports...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544161/physical-self-concept-and-body-dissatisfaction-among-special-olympics-athletes-a-comparison-between-sex-weight-status-and-culture
#10
Cheng-Chen Pan, Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J S Morin
BACKGROUND: Little research has looked at the associations between sex, weight status and culture, and the physical self-perceptions and body dissatisfaction of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) involved in Special Olympics (SO) sports. AIMS: To examine sex- (male vs female), weight status- (non-overweight/obese vs. overweight/obese), and culture-based (North American vs. Asian) differences in physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among SO athletes...
March 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529951/effects-of-tennis-play-on-executive-function-in-6-11-year-old-children-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#11
Toru Ishihara, Masao Mizuno
The present study aimed to assess the effects of 12 months of frequent tennis play on executive functions and the relationships of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), physical competence, and enjoyment of playing tennis to executive functions in children. Thirty-two children (6-11 years old) who had regularly played tennis (once a week; mean = 3 years, range = 0-6 years) before the study were enrolled in a 12-month intervention. Participants were allocated into two groups: low-dose (maintain current frequency of tennis play, N = 19) or high-dose (increased frequency of tennis play to four times per week, N = 13)...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512224/physiology-of-static-breath-holding-in-elite-apneists
#12
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506547/programmed-sports-therapy-pst-in-people-with-haemophilia-pwh-sports-therapy-model-for-rare-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Hilberg
Sports and exercise therapy becomes more and more integrated in the treatment plan of different diseases. Although the benefits of this therapy are of high quality evidence, e.g. in cardiovascular diseases, no concepts of sports therapy are available as a treatment option for rare diseases.During the last eighteen years, we analyzed the situation as well as necessity, and developed a model, contents and the concept of the "Programmed Sports Therapy (PST)" for the treatment of PwH (people with haemophilia) as our model of rare disease...
March 5, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502345/lesions-associated-with-the-use-of-bits-nosebands-spurs-and-whips-in-danish-competition-horses
#14
M Uldahl, H M Clayton
BACKGROUND: Information is needed to guide sport administrators in formulating rules for equipment use in competitions. OBJECTIVES: To seek associations between spurs, bits, nosebands and whips with injuries in horses during competitions in four equestrian sports. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study. METHODS: Post competition evaluations were performed in 3143 horse/rider combinations competing in Danish Equestrian Federation competitions in dressage, showjumping, eventing and endurance by trained evaluators who recorded the presence and type of spurs, bits, nosebands, and whips...
March 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496012/investigating-factors-affecting-the-body-temperature-of-dogs-competing-in-cross-country-canicross-races-in-the-uk
#15
Anne J Carter, Emily J Hall
Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493531/-comparison-of-pelvic-floor-muscle-strength-in-competition-level-athletes-and-untrained-women
#16
Ingunn Ludviksdottir, Hildur Hardardottir, Thorgerdur Sigurdardottir, Gudmundur F Ulfarsson
INTRODUCTION: Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles...
2018: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489442/the-long-shadow-of-rivalry-rivalry-motivates-performance-today-and-tomorrow
#17
Brian E Pike, Gavin J Kilduff, Adam D Galinsky
Research has established that competing head to head against a rival boosts motivation and performance. The present research investigated whether rivalry can affect performance over time and in contests without rivals. We examined the long-term effects of rivalry through archival analyses of postseason performance in multiple high-stakes sports contexts: National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Men's Basketball and the major U.S. professional sports leagues: National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL)...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474738/modelling-the-impact-of-players-workload-on-the-injury-burden-of-english-premier-league-football-clubs
#18
Colin W Fuller
The loss of players through injury is known to affect team performance in many sports; it is important therefore for professional teams to be able to quantify the likely injury-burden that will be encountered throughout a season. A kinetic model, based on the rates at which match and training injuries are sustained and resolved, a team's squad size and the 2017/18 season fixture schedule for teams competing in the English Premier League, is used to produce daily forecasts of injury-burden experienced by a typical team...
February 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474386/peak-oxygen-uptake-in-paralympic-sitting-sports-a-systematic-literature-review-meta-and-pooled-data-analysis
#19
Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Berit Brurok, Øyvind Sandbakk
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in Paralympic sitting sports athletes represents their maximal ability to deliver energy aerobically in an upper-body mode, with values being influenced by sex, disability-related physiological limitations, sport-specific demands, training status and how they are tested. OBJECTIVES: To identify VO2peak values in Paralympic sitting sports, examine between-sports differences and within-sports variations in VO2peak and determine the influence of sex, age, body-mass, disability and test-mode on VO2peak...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473832/motocross-injuries-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients
#20
Amy L McIntosh, Christy M Christophersen
Motocross is a popular sport in which participants ride a two-wheeled, motorized vehicle on an uneven 2-km track with natural or human-made obstacles. Participants compete at high rates of speed, and children as young as age 4 years compete in age-appropriate groups. Motocross is recognized as a strenuous sport with a high accident rate. Most injuries are musculoskeletal in nature. The most commonly injured areas are the forearm, clavicle, femur, and tibia. Many injuries require surgical treatment. Some patients sustain head trauma with loss of consciousness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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