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Cold injury

Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Recent findings from a phase II clinical trial showed analgesic effects of an angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist in postherpetic neuralgia patients. This study aimed to investigate whether AT2R antagonism could provide effective analgesia in voluntary measures of unevoked/ongoing pain-like behaviors in mice with experimental neuropathy. Mice were subjected to spared nerve injury to induce neuropathy and tested in 2 operant behavioral tests to measure ongoing mechanical and cold pain hypersensitivities...
October 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, José Régis Cordeiro da Silva, Carmen Lúcia Soares Gomes de Medeiros, Ricardo Alves de Olinda, Sérgio d'Ávila
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the spatial and spatial-temporal distribution of oral and maxillofacial injuries caused by urban violence, as well as to identify underlying disparities at regional level through a geostatistical approach. METHODS: This was a historical ecological cohort study of trauma cases caused by urban violence using aggregate data from victims assisted in a Brazilian medical-forensic service between January 2012 and December 2015. The longitudinal patterns of change observed in each geographic area (neighbourhoods) were evaluated using the finite mixture model (FMM)...
October 15, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Hongxia Miao, Peiguang Sun, Juhua Liu, Jingyi Wang, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Rho-like GTPases from plants (ROPs) are plant-specific molecular switches that are crucial for plant survival when subjected to abiotic stress. We identified and characterized 17 novel ROP proteins from Musa acuminata (MaROPs) using genomic techniques. The identified MaROPs fell into three of the four previously described ROP groups (Groups II⁻IV), with MaROPs in each group having similar genetic structures and conserved motifs. Our transcriptomic analysis showed that the two banana genotypes tested, Fen Jiao and BaXi Jiao, had similar responses to abiotic stress: Six genes ( MaROP-3b , -5a , -5c , -5f , -5g , and -6 ) were highly expressed in response to cold, salt, and drought stress conditions in both genotypes...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoshimasa Kanawaku, Takanobu Tanifuji, Youkichi Ohno
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected deaths in bathtubs among elderly Japanese adults occur predominantly during the cold season. This study investigated the relationship between these deaths and bathing day temperature among elderly adults in Tokyo. METHODS: Data for 1408 cases of bath-related deaths from January 1 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office. We excluded 409 cases for the following reasons: criminal death, injury-related death, suicide, intoxication, non-sudden death, not bathtub-related death, out-of-bathroom death, subject aged under 65 years, undetermined bathing date, institutional housing, and bathing not at subject's home...
October 3, 2018: Legal Medicine
Nicholas Atwal, Sherelle L Casey, Vanessa A Mitchell, Christopher W Vaughan
Clinical studies have shown that the major psychoactive ingredient of Cannabis sativa Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has some analgesic efficacy in neuropathic pain states. However, THC has a significant side effect profile. We examined whether the profile of THC could be improved by co-administering it with the first-line neuropathic pain medication gabapentin. This was done using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in C57BL6 mice. At 8 days post-CCI nerve injury, acute systemic administration of gabapentin produced a dose-dependent decrease in CCI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia, and increased motor incoordination...
October 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jeanette E Villanueva, Ling Gao, Hong C Chew, Mark Hicks, Aoife Doyle, Min Ru Qui, Kumud K Dhital, Peter S Macdonald, Andrew Jabbour
The ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene inhibits calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and reduces cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in global warm ischaemia models however the cardioprotective potential of dantrolene under hypothermic conditions is unknown. This study addresses whether the addition of dantrolene during cardioplegia and hypothermic storage of the donor heart can improve functional recovery and reduce IRI. Using an ex vivo isolated working heart model, Wistar rat (3 month and 12 month) hearts were perfused to acquire baseline haemodynamic measurements of aortic flow, coronary flow, cardiac output, pulse pressure and heart rate...
2018: PloS One
Joel Changalucha, Rachel Steenson, Eleanor Grieve, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Geofrey Mchau, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Alphoncina Nanai, Nicodem J Govella, Angel Dilip, Lwitiko Sikana, Francesco Ventura, Katie Hampson
BACKGROUND: Rabies is preventable through prompt administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to exposed persons, but PEP access is limited in many rabies-endemic countries. We investigated how access to PEP can be improved to better prevent human rabies. METHODS: Using data from different settings in Tanzania, including contact tracing (2,367 probable rabies exposures identified) and large-scale mobile phone-based surveillance (24,999 patient records), we estimated the incidence of rabies exposures and bite-injuries, and examined health seeking and health outcomes in relation to PEP access...
October 8, 2018: Vaccine
Lauren Proctor-Brown, Rebecca Hicks, Sarah Colmer, Danielle Guilfoyle, Barbara Dallap-Schaer, Amy L Johnson, Joy Tomlinson
Digital cryotherapy (DC) is frequently used as laminitis prophylaxis for horses. While DC with ice-water slurries is reported to be safe for up to 48 h, the safety of sleeve-style digital cryotherapy (SSDC) with ice in direct contact with the distal limb has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the incidence of distal limb pathologic conditions (DLPC) among horses treated with SSDC. A retrospective study of cases from 2011 to 2015 identified 285 horses treated with SSDC for a minimum of 12 h...
October 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Vinni F Rasmussen, Páll Karlsson, Peter D Drummond, Ellen L Schaldemose, Astrid J Terkelsen, Troels S Jensen, Lone F Knudsen
Objective: Findings regarding small nerve fiber damage in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are not uniform, and studies have not included a matched healthy control group. The aim was to assess intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in relation to thermal sensitivity of the same skin areas in CRPS-I patients and a gender- and age-matched healthy control group. Methods: IENFD was investigated in skin biopsies from the CRPS-affected and contralateral limbs of eight CRPS-I patients and from an equivalent site in eight gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
October 1, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Ji Hye Kwon, Sangbin Han, Duck Cho, Donat R Spahn, Justin S Ko, Do Yeon Kim, Joo Hyun Jun, Mi Sook Gwak, Gaab Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) products change after 2 weeks of cold storage. It is unclear whether older RBCs affect mortality after liver transplantation. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the association between the age of transfused RBCs and death after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Of 200 recipients who underwent LDLT, 118 who received RBCs with a mean storage duration of less than 10 days (shorter storage group) were compared with 82 with an RBC mean storage duration of more than 14 days (longer storage group)...
October 9, 2018: Transfusion
Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Junwei He, Arsalan Ahmed, Youxin Yang, Mingxi Li, Chunpeng Wan
Medicinal plants have served humans since prehistoric times to treat various ailments. Both developed and underdeveloped countries rely on traditional systems of medication using natural sources from plants. Phyllanthus is one of the largest genus in the family Phyllanthaceae, comprising over 700 well known species cosmopolitan in distribution mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Phyllanthus species are being in constant used in traditional medications to cure an array of human diseases (constipation, inhalation related, arthritis, loss of appetite, injuries, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, running nose, common cold, malaria, blennorrhagia, colic, diabetes mellitus, dysentery, indigestion, fever, gout, gonorrheal diseases of males and females, skin itching, jaundice, hepatic disorders, leucorrhea, vaginitis, menstrual irregularities, obesity, stomach pains, and tumors), confectionaries, food industry, and in some pesticides...
October 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Camila Knecht, Cecilia L Balaban, Joaquín V Rodríguez, Eduardo A Ceccarelli, Edgardo E Guibert, Germán L Rosano
Cold storage is a common procedure for liver preservation in a transplant setting. However, during cold ischemia, the liver suffers molecular alterations that can affect its performance. Also, deleterious mechanisms set forth in the storage phase are exacerbated during reperfusion. This study aimed to identify liver proteins associated with injury during cold storage and/or normothermic reperfusion using the isolated perfused rat liver model. Livers from male rats were subjected to either (1) cold storage for 24 h, (2) ex vivo normothermic reperfusion for 90 min or (3) cold storage for 24 h followed by ex vivo normothermic reperfusion for 90 min...
October 5, 2018: Cryobiology
Lauren E Piana, Kirsten D Garvey, Halle Burns, Elizabeth G Matzkin
Cryotherapy is the use of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of ice to facilitate healing. Cryotherapy mediates these salutatory effects by reducing blood flow to the site of injury, down-regulating the production of inflammatory and pain-inducing prostaglandins, and diminishing the conductive ability of nerve endings. It is commonly used postoperatively in orthopedics to decrease analgesic requirements and blood loss as well as to increase range of motion, despite limited literature on its ability to produce such therapeutic effects in clinical practice...
September 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Elan R Small, Sarah R Burbank, Jeanette M Lorme, Karl Carlson, Timothy B Erickson, David S Young
INTRODUCTION: Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (APIS) lies at the northern tip of Wisconsin and is home to a network of 21 islands along Lake Superior. The goal of this report is to investigate search and rescue (SAR) and emergency medical services (EMS) trends at APIS in an effort to improve visitor safety and resource allocation. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis reviewing APIS SAR reports and annual EMS summary reports from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015...
October 4, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ian R Willick, Lawrence V Gusta, D Brian Fowler, Karen K Tanino
Meaningful improvements in winter cereal cold hardiness requires a complete model of freezing behaviour in the critical crown organ. Magnetic resonance microimaging diffusion weighted experiments provided evidence that cold-acclimation decreased water content and mobility in the vascular transition zone (VTZ) and the intermediate zone in rye (Secale cereale L. Hazlet) compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Norstar). Differential thermal analysis, ice nucleation and localization studies identified three distinct exothermic events...
October 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
T Vaksvik, M Røkkum, I Holm
We studied changes in cold hypersensitivity from 3 to 7 years following severe hand injuries. Data was collected using postal questionnaires 7 years after injury in 71 patients who had participated in a 3-year follow-up from the time of injury. There was no change in cold sensitivity measured using the McCabe Cold Sensitivity Severity scale (CSS) from 3 to 7 years after injury. However, there was a trend toward decreased severity measured using a five-level scale of self-reported cold hypersensitivity. Compared to the 3-year follow-up, fewer respondents rated their condition as severe and two patients had recovered from their cold hypersensitivity at the 7-year follow-up...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Daisuke Takahashi, Matsuo Uemura, Yukio Kawamura
Freezing stress is accompanied by a state change from water to ice and has multiple facets causing dehydration; consequently, hyperosmotic and mechanical stresses coupled with unfavorable chilling stress act in a parallel way. Freezing tolerance varies widely among plant species, and, for example, most temperate plants can overcome deleterious effects caused by freezing temperatures in winter. Destabilization and dysfunction of the plasma membrane are tightly linked to freezing injury of plant cells. Plant freezing tolerance increases upon exposure to nonfreezing low temperatures (cold acclimation)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Castro Menéndez, S Pagazaurtundúa Gómez, N Rodriguez Casas
High-pressure injection into the hand causes a small skin lesion but severe subcutaneous tissue damage, which can result in permanent functional loss or amputation. Urgent and appropriate treatment is decisive. We present the case of an industrial painter who injected oil-based paint with a high-pressure gun into his left index finger. He was admitted to Accidents and Emergencies, where tetanus prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy were adminis-tered. Then, within four hours of his arrival at the hospital, the patient was brought to the operating room for surgical debridement...
October 2, 2018: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Edoardo Picetti, Mauro Oddo, Lara Prisco, Raimund Helbok, Fabio Silvio Taccone
BACKGROUND: Fever is common in patients with acute brain injury and worsens secondary brain injury and clinical outcomes. Currently, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of fever and its management. The aims of the survey were to explore: (a) fever definitions, (b) thresholds to trigger temperature management, and (c) therapeutic strategies to control fever. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire (26 items) was made available to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine via its website between July 2016 and December 2016...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Kai Mo, Shaogen Wu, Xiyao Gu, Ming Xiong, Weihua Cai, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Emily E Jobe, Xinyu Zhao, Wei-Feng Tu, Yuan-Xiang Tao
The transmission of normal sensory and/or acute noxious information requires intact expression of pain-associated genes within the pain pathways of nervous system. Expressional changes of these genes after peripheral nerve injury are also critical for neuropathic pain induction and maintenance. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 (MBD1), an epigenetic repressor, regulates gene transcriptional activity. We report here that MBD1 in the primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is critical for the genesis of acute pain and neuropathic pain as DRG MBD1-deficient mice exhibit the reduced responses to acute mechanical, heat, cold, and capsaicin stimuli and the blunted nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivities...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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