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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474809/the-structure-of-arm-and-hand-movements-in-a-spontaneous-and-food-rewarded-on-line-string-pulling-task-by-the-mouse
#1
Ashley A Blackwell, Mark Banovetz, Qandeel, Ian Q Whishaw, Douglas G Wallace
Arm and hand use by the mouse have been studied in a variety of tasks in order to understand the structure of skilled movements and motor learning, the anatomy and function of neural pathways, and to develop animal models of neurological conditions. The present study describes string-pulling by the mouse, a behavior in which a mouse uses hand-over-hand movements to pull down a string that hangs from the top of a test cage. Mice both spontaneously string-pull and also string-pull to obtain cashew nuts tied to the end of the string as food reward...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474207/health-related-fitness-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-motor-delays
#2
Sara King-Dowling, Christine Rodriguez, Cheryl Missiuna, Brian W Timmons, John Cairney
PURPOSE: School-age children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have poor health-related fitness (HRF), but little is known about when these deficits emerge. The purpose of this study was to determine if 4- and 5-year old children who meet the criteria for DCD exhibit poorer HRF than typically developing (TD) children, and if this relationship is mediated by vigorous physical activity (VPA) engagement. METHODS: Five-hundred and ninety-two children participated (age 5...
February 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473778/assessment-of-the-praxis-circuit-in-glioma-surgery-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-postoperative-and-long-term-apraxia-a-new-intraoperative-test
#3
Marco Rossi, Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Gianmarco Zuccon, Enrica Fava, Daniela Milani, Alessandra Casarotti, Marco Riva, Federico Pessina, Gabriella Cerri, Lorenzo Bello
OBJECTIVE Apraxia is a cognitive-motor deficit affecting the execution of skilled movements, termed praxis gestures, in the absence of primary sensory or motor disorders. In patients affected by stroke, apraxia is associated with lesions of the lateral parietofrontal stream, connecting the posterior parietal areas with the ventrolateral premotor area and subserving sensory-motor integration for the hand movements. In the neurosurgical literature to date, there are few reports regarding the incidence of apraxia after glioma surgery...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472949/the-relationship-between-motor-imitation-and-early-social-communication-skills-in-children-with-autism
#4
Hooshang Dadgar, Javad Alaghband Rad, Zahra Soleymani, Anahita Khorammi, Joe McCleery, Saman Maroufizadeh
Objective: Development of early social skills in children is a complex process. To understand this process, it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in other developmental domains may be affected by these skills. The present study aimed at investigating the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In this study, 20 children with ASD aged 3 to 5 years (M = 4.05, SD = 0.55) participated. All children were diagnosed as ASD based on the DSM-V criteria by an independent child psychiatrist...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472882/the-quiet-eye-and-motor-expertise-explaining-the-efficiency-paradox
#5
André Klostermann, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
It has been consistently reported that experts show longer quiet eye (QE) durations when compared to near-experts and novices. However, this finding is rather paradoxical as motor expertise is characterized by an economization of motor-control processes rather than by a prolongation in response programming, a suggested explanatory mechanism of the QE phenomenon. Therefore, an inhibition hypothesis was proposed that suggests an inhibition of non-optimal task solutions over movement parametrization, which is particularly necessary in experts due to the great extent and high density of their experienced task-solution space...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471213/cerebellar-gray-matter-explains-bimanual-coordination-performance-in-children-and-older-adults
#6
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Koen Cuypers, Inge Leunissen, Stefan Sunaert, Raf Meesen, Hamed Zivari Adab, Olivier Renaud, Stephan P Swinnen
The cerebellum appears to undergo late maturation in children and early decline at older age. Whether these age-related changes affect bimanual coordination performance remains unclear at best. Here, we identified the ages at which bimanual coordination performance stops improving and starts declining. In an independent cohort, we defined brain regions of interest involved in bimanual coordination using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used these regions of interest to investigate the extent to which the gray matter of cerebellar and other brain regions explains bimanual coordination performance from 10- to 80-year-olds...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468182/-gls-loss-of-function-causes-autosomal-recessive-spastic-ataxia-and-optic-atrophy
#7
David S Lynch, Viorica Chelban, Jana Vandrovcova, Alan Pittman, Nicholas W Wood, Henry Houlden
We describe a consanguineous family in which two brothers were affected by childhood onset spastic ataxia with optic atrophy and loss of motor and language skills. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a homozygous copy number variant in GLS as the cause. The duplication leads to complete knockout of GLS expression. GLS encodes the brain- and kidney-specific enzyme glutaminase, which hydrolyzes glutamine for the production of glutamate, the most abundant central nervous system neurotransmitter...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466018/differences-in-learning-retention-when-teaching-a-manual-motor-skill-with-a-visual-vs-written-instructional-aide
#8
Alice Cade, Matthew Sherson, Kelly Holt, Graham Dobson, Katie Pritchard BSc, Heidi Haavik
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if a written or visual teaching aid influenced learning retention when teaching a manual motor skill. METHODS: Seventy chiropractic students who had completed an upper cervical specific chiropractic technique course were evaluated for technique-specific recall before and after a review using either a visual teaching aid or a written guide. Two randomized groups reviewed original course-written guides ( n = 33) or new visual teaching aids ( n = 37)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465332/a-coaches-perspective-on-the-contribution-of-anthropometry-physical-performance-and-motor-coordination-in-racquet-sports
#9
Kamasha Robertson, Johan Pion, Mireille Mostaert, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali Wazir, Tamara Kramer, Irene Renate Faber, Pieter Vansteenkiste, Matthieu Lenoir
Differences and similarities between table tennis and other racquet sports exist, but are not well documented in the literature, in spite of the relevance for talent identification. In this study we aimed at identifying the key characteristics of table tennis in comparison with tennis and badminton based upon a survey in coaches. A total of 177 licensed coaches from all across the world and with diverse professional backgrounds completed a survey on anthropometric measures, physical performance, and motor coordination skills...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465319/sit-still-and-pay-attention-trunk-movement-and-attentional-resources-in-infants-with-typical-and-delayed-development
#10
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Carmen L Guallpa Lliguichuzhca
AIMS: (1) examine infant movement during an early posture (sitting) utilizing a novel video assessment technique; and (2) document the differences between infants with typical development (TD), premature infants with motor delay, and infants with cerebral palsy (CP) during focused and nonfocused attention (NFA). METHODS: Infants were tested when they began to sit independently. We utilized Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) to accentuate small trunk and pelvic movements for visual coding from video taken during a natural play task with and without focused attention (FA)...
February 21, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464435/palliative-care-for-movement-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Christina L Vaughan, Benzi M Kluger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While care for patients with movement disorders has traditionally focused on motor symptoms, there is increasing evidence that optimal care for these disorders is more complex both in terms of the spectrum of symptoms experienced by patients (e.g., pain, depression) and the multidimensional needs of patients and their families. Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families affected by serious illnesses that seeks to relieve suffering by addressing complex medical symptoms, psychosocial issues, spiritual well-being, and goals of care...
February 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464197/mecp2-deficiency-leads-to-loss-of-glial-kir4-1
#12
Uri Kahanovitch, Vishnu A Cuddapah, Natasha L Pacheco, Leanne M Holt, Daniel K Mulkey, Alan K Percy, Michelle L Olsen
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). RTT is typified by apparently normal development until 6-18 mo of age, when motor and communicative skills regress and hand stereotypies, autonomic symptoms, and seizures present. Restoration of MeCP2 function selectively to astrocytes reversed several deficits in a murine model of RTT, but the mechanism of this rescue is unknown. Astrocytes carry out many essential functions required for normal brain functioning, including extracellular K+ buffering...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462464/determining-brain-mechanisms-that-underpin-analgesia-induced-by-the-use-of-pain-coping-skills
#13
Leonie J Cole, Kim L Bennell, Yasmin Ahamed, Christina Bryant, Francis Keefe, G Lorimer Moseley, Paul Hodges, Michael J Farrell
Objective: Cognitive behavioral therapies decrease pain and improve mood and function in people with osteoarthritis. This study assessed the effects of coping strategies on the central processing of knee pain in people with osteoarthritis of the knees. Methods: Mechanical pressure was applied to exacerbate knee pain in 28 people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Reports of pain intensity and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of pain-related brain activity were recorded with and without the concurrent use of pain coping skills...
February 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461411/sequencing-effects-of-object-control-and-locomotor-skill-during-integrated-neuromuscular-training-in-6-7-year-old-children
#14
Michael J Duncan, Thomas Hames, Emma L J Eyre
This study examined whether scheduling of object control (e.g., throwing, catching) and locomotor skills (e.g., running, jumping), within an integrated neuromuscular training (INT) program, results in different responses in motor competence, muscular fitness and perceived motor competence in 6-7 year old children. Seventy seven boys and 63 girls (n = 140) from 3 primary schools were randomised into three, 10-week interventions, Loco First (n = 50) where locomotor skills were performed first followed by object control skills; Object First (n =48) where object control skills were performed first followed by locomotor skills or a control group (n =42, CON) who undertook school Physical Education...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460553/can-early-physical-therapy-positively-affect-the-onset-of-independent-walking-in-infants-with-down-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Bruno Corrado, Nadia Sommella, Gianluca Ciardi, Enza Raiano, Iris Scala, Pietro Strisciuglio, Clemente Servodio Iammarrone
BACKGROUND: The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460114/peripheral-administration-of-tetanus-toxin-hc-fragment-prevents-mpp-toxicity-in-vivo
#16
Natalia Moreno-Galarza, Liliana Mendieta, Victoria Palafox-Sánchez, Mireia Herrando-Grabulosa, Carles Gil, Daniel I Limón, José Aguilera
Several studies have shown that intrastriatal application of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) produces similar biochemical changes in rat to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as dopaminergic terminal degeneration and consequent appearance of motor deficits, making the MPP+ lesion a widely used model of parkinsonism in rodents. Previous results from our group have shown a neuroprotective effect of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) under different types of stress...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459837/effects-of-relaxing-and-arousing-music-during-imagery-training-on-dart-throwing-performance-physiological-arousal-indices-and-competitive-state-anxiety
#17
Garry Kuan, Tony Morris, Yee Cheng Kueh, Peter C Terry
Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455866/cognition-action-trade-offs-reflect-organization-of-attention-in-infancy
#18
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455676/evaluation-of-an-ophthalmoscopy-simulator-to-teach-funduscopy-skills-to-pediatric-residents
#19
Elizabeth Kouzmitcheva, Stephanie A Grover, Tara Berenbaum, Asim Ali, Adelle Atkinson, E Ann Yeh
BACKGROUND: Medical school and residency training in ophthalmoscopic evaluation is limited, reducing diagnostic accuracy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of self-study using an ophthalmoscopy simulator to improve the technical motor skills involved in direct funduscopy in postgraduate pediatric residents. METHODS: In this randomized-controlled study, 17 pediatric residents (postgraduate years 1-3) were randomized to control (n=8) or intervention (n=9) groups...
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455171/visual-motor-integration-and-fine-motor-skills-at-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-associations-with-neonatal-brain-volumes-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-in-sweden-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
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