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Skill acquisition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425775/academic-outcomes-of-multilingual-children-in-australia
#2
Meredith O'Connor, Elodie O'Connor, Joanne Tarasuik, Sarah Gray, Amanda Kvalsvig, Sharon Goldfeld
PURPOSE: The Australian educational system is increasingly challenged to meet the needs of multilingual students, who comprise a fifth of the student population. Within the context of a monolingual English curriculum, multilingual children who enter school not yet English proficient may be at risk of experiencing inequitable educational outcomes. METHOD: We examined the relationship between the timing of multilingual children's acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills and subsequent reading and numeracy outcomes, as well as factors associated with earlier versus later timing of acquisition...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422626/navigating-the-hidden-curriculum-of-higher-education-for-postsecondary-students-with-intellectual-disabilities
#3
Lucretia A Berg, Tracy Jirikowic, Katie Haerling, Ginger MacDonald
Students with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) increasingly pursue postsecondary education (PSE). Navigating the hidden curriculum-including meeting prerequisites for PSE and employment, using support systems and community transportation, and carrying out adulthood expectations-is an area of challenge. This exploratory case study examined experiences of students with IDD attending a PSE program and stakeholder perspectives. Thirty-two participants (10 students with IDD, 5 parents or guardians, 4 college administrators, 8 college instructors, 4 occupational therapists, and a transition specialist) were interviewed...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419062/single-center-study-investigating-foreign-language-acquisition-at-school-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-uni-or-bilateral-cochlear-implants-in-the-swiss-german-population
#4
Renske Beeres-Scheenstra, Claudia Ohnsorg, Claudia Candreia, Sybille Heinzmann, Susana Castellanos, Nicola De Min, Thomas E Linder
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: CI center. PATIENTS: Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. INTERVENTION(S): Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires...
April 17, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418824/financial-forecasting-and-stochastic-modeling-predicting-the-impact-of-business-decisions
#5
REVIEW
Geoffrey D Rubin, Bhavik N Patel
In health care organizations, effective investment of precious resources is critical to assure that the organization delivers high-quality and sustainable patient care within a supportive environment for patients, their families, and the health care providers. This holds true for organizations independent of size, from small practices to large health systems. For radiologists whose role is to oversee the delivery of imaging services and the interpretation, communication, and curation of imaging-informed information, business decisions influence where and how they practice, the tools available for image acquisition and interpretation, and ultimately their professional satisfaction...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417256/to-which-extent-social-withdrawal-at-the-age-of-1%C3%A2-year-is-associated-with-iq-at-5-6%C3%A2-years-old-results-of-the-eden-mother-child-cohort
#6
Antoine Guedeney, Sarah Doukhan, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Hugo Peyre
The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year...
April 17, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410404/novel-behavioral-indicator-of-explicit-awareness-reveals-temporal-course-of-frontoparietal-neural-network-facilitation-during-motor-learning
#7
Regan R Lawson, Jordan O Gayle, Lewis A Wheaton
Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408881/commentary-preconditioning-tdcs-facilitates-subsequent-tdcs-effect-on-skill-acquisition-in-older-adults
#8
COMMENT
George M Opie, John Cirillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408726/integrated-surgical-academic-training-in-the-uk-a-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Natalie S Blencowe, James C Glasbey, Philip J McElnay, Aneel Bhangu, Vimal J Gokani, Rhiannon L Harries
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore variations in the provision of integrated academic surgical training across the UK. DESIGN: This is an online cross-sectional survey (consisting of 44 items with a range of free-text, binomial and 5-point Likert scale responses) developed by the Association of Surgeons in Training. SETTING: A self-reported survey instrument was distributed to academic surgical trainees across the UK (n=276). PARTICIPANTS: 143 (51...
April 13, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407264/microvascular-anastomosis-simulation-using-a-chicken-thigh-model-interval-versus-massed-training
#10
Stephen Schoeff, Brian Hernandez, Derek J Robinson, Mark J Jameson, David C Shonka
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To compare the effectiveness of massed versus interval training when teaching otolaryngology residents microvascular suturing on a validated microsurgical model. STUDY DESIGN: Otolaryngology residents were placed into interval (n = 7) or massed (n = 7) training groups. The interval group performed three separate 30-minute practice sessions separated by at least 1 week, and the massed group performed a single 90-minute practice session. Both groups viewed a video demonstration and recorded a pretest prior to the first training session...
April 13, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406846/the-value-of-simulation-based-training-in-the-path-to-laparoscopic-urological-proficiency
#11
Ben S E P Van Cleynenbreugel, Ali S Gözen, Theodoros Tokas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous factors have reduced the training opportunities of surgical residents in the operating room. There is also the question of patient's safety. This gives a need for increased training opportunities outside the operating room. We look if there is an added value in simulation-based training (SBT) in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. RECENT FINDINGS: Incorporating SBT into the medical students curriculum reduces surgical complication rates in the operating room...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405906/cross-linguistic-transfer-in-bilinguals-reading-in-two-alphabetic-orthographies-the-grain-size-accommodation-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Marie Lallier, Manuel Carreiras
Reading acquisition is one of the most complex and demanding learning processes faced by children in their first years of schooling. If reading acquisition is challenging in one language, how is it when reading is acquired simultaneously in two languages? What is the impact of bilingualism on the development of literacy? We review behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from alphabetic writing systems suggesting that early bilingualism modulates reading development. Particularly, we show that cross-linguistic variations and cross-linguistic transfer affect bilingual reading strategies as well as their cognitive underpinnings...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401826/establishing-theoretical-stability-and-treatment-integrity-for-motivational-interviewing
#13
Cathy Atkinson, Kevin Woods
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence claiming the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in promoting behavioural change. However, ongoing changes to MI theory and practice have implications for its transferability, accessibility and for the validity of previous findings. Lack of practice consistency may make its effectiveness difficult to evaluate. AIMS: This paper explores the complexity of MI and issues in the development of evidence-based practice in delivery, before describing issues related to practitioner application...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400968/psychiatry-trainees-experiences-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-training-in-a-uk-deanery-a-qualitative-analysis
#14
Amy Alice Carson, Sarah Emily Clark
Aims and method To explore core psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) training by using interpretative phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven core trainee psychiatrists in Yorkshire and the Humber Deanery. Results Four key themes emerged: (1) barriers to training; (2) guidance, with emphasis on the importance of supervision groups; (3) acquisition of new skills and confidence; (4) personal influence on the training experience. Clinical implications Many trainees in Yorkshire have a positive experience of CBT training; however, some also experience barriers to acquiring the relevant skills...
April 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398389/-back-to-units-for-nursing-students-education-the-dedicated-education-units-deu
#15
Giulia Randon, Elena Bortolami, Silvia Grosso
. Back to units for nursing students' education? The Dedicated Education Units (DEU). INTRODUCTION: The reorganization and rationalization of resources and cost containment in health care put a strain on the sustainability of practical training of student nurses. The Dedicated Education Units (DEU), where ward staff, in collaboration with university teachers, receive large numbers of students, integrating the caring and teaching missions, are a possible answer. AIM: To describe the main characteristics of DEUs...
January 2017: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398388/-teaching-methods-for-clinical-settings-a-literature-review
#16
Anna Brugnolli, Carla Benaglio
. Teaching Methods for clinical settings: a review. INTRODUCTION: The teaching process during internship requires several methods to promote the acquisition of more complex technical skills such as relational, decisional and planning abilities. OBJECTIVE: To describe effective teaching methods to promote the learning of relational, decisional and planning skills. METHODS: A literature review of the teaching methods that have proven most effective, most appreciated by students, and most frequently used in Italian nursing schools...
January 2017: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395706/accumulation-of-content-validation-evidence-for-the-critical-thinking-self-assessment-scale
#17
Girija Gopinathan Nair, Laurie-Ann M Hellsten, Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. METHODS: An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393996/-interactive-tools-to-standardize-semiology-teaching
#18
Alejandro González, Bryan Vargas, Vicente González, Ignacio Reyes, Alberto Sarfatis
BACKGROUND: The learning process for medical semiology depends on multidisciplinary teaching activities, including simulation tools. These tools should achieve a standardization level aiming at a same level of basic knowledge in each student. AIM: To evaluate an interactive online semiology learning tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An interactive online learning method for medical semiology was developed. It focused mainly on physical examination and incorporated audiovisual and self-explanatory elements, to strengthen the acquisition of skills and basic knowledge for each standardized clinical learning simulation session...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391191/automatic-quality-assessment-of-echocardiograms-using-convolutional-neural-networks-feasibility-on-the-apical-four-chamber-view
#19
Amir Abdi, Christina Luong, Teresa Tsang, John Jue, Dale Hawley, Sarah Fleming, Kenneth Gin, Jody Swift, Robert Rohling, Purang Abolmaesumi
Echocardiography (echo) is a skilled technical procedure that depends on the experience of the operator. The aim of this work is to reduce user variability in data acquisition by automatically computing a score of echo quality for operator feedback. To do this, a deep convolutional neural network model, trained on a large set of samples, was developed for scoring apical four-chamber (A4C) echo. In this research, 6,916 end-systolic echo images were manually studied by an expert cardiologist and were assigned a score between 0 (not acceptable) and 5 (excellent)...
April 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390547/image-acquisition-in-general-radiography-the-utilisation-of-ddr
#20
C M Hayre, A Eyden, S Blackman, K Carlton
OBJECTIVE: This article explores image acquisition with DDR. General radiographic technology continues to advance therefore it remains paramount to continually reflect on DDR hardware and software amongst radiographers in an imaging modality that constitutes approximately 90% of all radiological examinations. METHOD: This article reports findings from a wider ethnographic study of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK). Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were the methods used to uncover original data...
May 2017: Radiography
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