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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456439/parent-training-and-skill-acquisition-and-utilization-among-spanish-and-english-speaking-latino-families
#1
Giovanni Ramos, Angela M Blizzard, Nicole E Barroso, Daniel M Bagner
In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial...
January 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455867/above-and-beyond-objects-the-development-of-infants-spatial-concepts
#2
Marianella Casasola
Early in development infants form categorical representations of small-scale spatial relations, such as left vs right and above vs below. This spatial skill allows infants to experience coherence in the layout of the objects in their environment and to note the equivalence of a spatial relation across changes in objects. Comparisons across studies of infant spatial categorization offer insight into the processes that contribute to the development of this skill. Rather than viewing contrasting results across studies as contradictory, identifying how infant spatial categorization tasks recruit distinct processes can not only reconcile findings but also yield insight into the starting points, development, and emerging nature of infants' representations of spatial relations...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455162/evaluation-of-learning-from-practical-obstetric-multi-professional-training-and-its-impact-on-patient-outcomes-in-australia-using-kirkpatrick-s-framework-a-mixed-methods-study
#3
Arunaz Kumar, Sam Sturrock, Euan M Wallace, Debra Nestel, Donna Lucey, Sally Stoyles, Jenny Morgan, Peter Neil, Michelle Schlipalius, Philip Dekoninck
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Practical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training (PROMPT) simulation using the Kirkpatrick's framework. We explored participants' acquisition of knowledge and skills, its impact on clinical outcomes and organisational change to integrate the PROMPT programme as a credentialing tool. We also aimed to assess participants' perception of usefulness of PROMPT in their clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: Mixed methods approach with a pre-test/post-test design...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454219/reading-skill-related-to-left-ventral-occipitotemporal-cortex-during-a-phonological-awareness-task-in-5-6-year-old-children
#4
Jin Wang, Marc F Joanisse, James R Booth
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453357/the-effect-of-fidget-spinners-on-fine-motor-control
#5
Erez James Cohen, Riccardo Bravi, Diego Minciacchi
Fidgeting, defined as the generation of small movements through nervousness or impatience, is one of cardinal characteristic of ADHD. While fidgeting is, by definition, a motor experience still nothing is known about the effects of fidgeting on motor control. Some forms of fidgeting involve also the manipulation of external objects which, through repetition, may become automatic and second nature. Both repetition and practice are important for the acquisition of motor skills and, therefore, it is plausible that the repetitive manipulation of objects may influence motor control and performance...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452002/conditions-based-learning-theory-as-a-framework-for-comparative-effectiveness-reviews-a-worked-example
#6
Liam Rourke, Jessica Leong, Patricia Chatterly
Phenomenon: An evidence-informed era of medical education encourages the generation and use of comparative-effectiveness reviews, yet the reviews often conclude, curiously, that all instructional approaches are equally effective. APPROACH: We used a conditions-based learning theory to structure a review of the comparative-effectiveness literature on electrocardiogram instruction. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE (Ovid), ERIC (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), and CINAHL (EBSCO) from inception to June 2016...
February 16, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451427/easier-seen-than-done-merely-watching-others-perform-can-foster-an-illusion-of-skill-acquisition
#7
Michael Kardas, Ed O'Brien
Modern technologies such as YouTube afford unprecedented access to the skilled performances of other people. Six experiments ( N = 2,225) reveal that repeatedly watching others can foster an illusion of skill acquisition. The more people merely watch others perform (without actually practicing themselves), the more they nonetheless believe they could perform the skill, too (Experiment 1). However, people's actual abilities-from throwing darts and doing the moonwalk to playing an online game-do not improve after merely watching others, despite predictions to the contrary (Experiments 2-4)...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449819/knowledge-is-power-for-medical-assistants-crystallized-and-fluid-intelligence-as-predictors-of-vocational-knowledge
#8
Anne Moehring, Ulrich Schroeders, Oliver Wilhelm
Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET) was examined for medical assistant students ( n = 448). Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449162/is-video-based-education-an-effective-method-in-surgical-education-a-systematic-review
#9
Akgul Ahmet, Kus Gamze, Mustafaoglu Rustem, Karaborklu Argut Sezen
OBJECTIVE: Visual signs draw more attention during the learning process. Video is one of the most effective tool including a lot of visual cues. This systematic review set out to explore the influence of video in surgical education. We reviewed the current evidence for the video-based surgical education methods, discuss the advantages and disadvantages on the teaching of technical and nontechnical surgical skills. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines defined in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446155/not-just-trust-factors-influencing-learners-attempts-to-perform-technical-skills-on-real-patients
#10
Susan L Bannister, Mark S Dolson, Lorelei Lingard, David A Keegan
CONTEXT: As part of their training, physicians are required to learn how to perform technical skills on patients. The previous literature reveals that this learning is complex and that many opportunities to perform these skills are not converted into attempts to do so by learners. This study sought to explore and understand this phenomenon better. METHODS: A multi-phased qualitative study including ethnographic observations, interviews and focus groups was conducted to explore the factors that influence technical skill learning...
February 15, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445864/playing-to-your-skills-a-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-a-dedicated-video-game-for-minimally-invasive-surgery
#11
Cuan M Harrington, Vishwa Chaitanya, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Video gaming demands elements of visual attention, hand-eye coordination and depth perception which may be contiguous with laparoscopic skill development. General video gaming has demonstrated altered cortical plasticity and improved baseline/acquisition of minimally invasive skills. The present study aimed to evaluate for skill acquisition associated with a commercially available dedicated laparoscopic video game (Underground) and its unique (laparoscopic-like) controller for the Nintendo®Wii U™ console...
February 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442541/the-ophthalmology-surgical-competency-assessment-rubric-oscar-for-anterior-approach-ptosis-surgery
#12
Valerie Juniat, Karl C Golnik, Francesco P Bernardini, Altug Cetinkaya, Aaron Fay, Bipasha Mukherjee, Farzad Pakdel, Brent Skippen, George M Saleh
PURPOSE: The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is currently developing a series of standardized, internationally validated, teaching tools for key ophthalmic surgical procedures called the Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubrics (OSCARs). This study aims to develop an OSCAR for anterior approach ptosis surgery. METHODS: An international panel of content experts, representing Australia, India, Iran, Italy, Turkey, UK, and the USA was established and worked to develop the rubric using a range of online collaboration tools...
February 14, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441005/atypical-within-session-motor-procedural-learning-after-traumatic-brain-injury-but-well-preserved-between-session-procedural-memory-consolidation
#13
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436887/machine-learning-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder-behavioral-research-a-review-and-ways-forward
#14
Fadi Thabtah
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that retards acquisition of linguistic, communication, cognitive, and social skills and abilities. Despite being diagnosed with ASD, some individuals exhibit outstanding scholastic, non-academic, and artistic capabilities, in such cases posing a challenging task for scientists to provide answers. In the last few years, ASD has been investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning to improve diagnostic timing, precision, and quality...
February 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433950/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-therapeutic-patient-education-programme-during-a-clinical-trial-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-trial-anrs-12286-mobidip
#15
Adrien Galy, Laura Ciaffi, Geraldine Manirakiza Mberyo, Pretty Mbouyap, Hermine Abessolo, Roselyne Toby, Frida Essomba, Geneviève Lamarre, Angeline Bikié, Olga Bell, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte
OBJECTIVES: High adherence is needed to maintain antiretroviral therapy efficacy. Few attempts at therapeutic patient education (TPE) have been made in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe patients' achievements before intervention and identified needs, TPE programme implementation and evaluation, and patients' satisfaction. METHODS: The TPE programme was proposed to patients in the ANRS-12286/MOBIDIP trial. Beforehand, a directory of competences to manage HIV infection was designed...
February 1, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429397/pre-movement-and-during-movement-visual-search-behaviours-vary-depending-on-expertise-and-anxiety-levels-in-ten-pin-bowling
#16
Wan Xiu Goh, Bernice H Y Lim, Matthew James Wylde, Michele Macnaughton, Jia Yi Chow, Marcus J C Lee
This study investigated the pre-movement and during-movement visual search behaviour (VSB) and quiet eye (QE) of 11 elite versus 10 sub-elite ten-pin bowlers, performing under high-anxiety and low-anxiety conditions. Pre-movement and independent of expertise, bowlers had more fixations and directed them to more locations when performing under high-anxiety compared with low-anxiety. Elite bowlers fixated at more locations closer to the pins in pre-movement than during-movement, with pre-movement QE occurring mostly at the breakpoint and middle arrows...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428359/laparoscopic-simulator-for-pediatric-ureteral-reimplantation-lap-spur-following-the-lich-gregoir-technique
#17
Carolina Millán, Mercedes Rey, Manuel Lopez
OBJECTIVE: Acquiring surgical skills requires regular practice. Medical evidence supports that these skills can be learned outside the operating room (OR). The aim of the current study was to describe the first laparoscopic simulator for ureteral reimplantation (LAP-SPUR) following Lich- Gregoir technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LAP-SPUR was manufactured using reusable and disposable materials. The technique can be summarized in the following five steps: (1) a transperitoneal approach; (2) extra-vesical ureteral dissection; (3) detrusor division until exposing the mucosa; (4) reimplanting ureter into the new tunnel; and (5) reapproximation and suturing of the detrusor...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426569/individual-learning-plans-foster-self-directed-learning-skills-and-contribute-to-improved-educational-outcomes-in-the-surgery-clerkship
#18
Andrew S Kastenmeier, Philip N Redlich, Catherine Fihn, Robert Treat, Raymond Chou, Amy Homel, Brian D Lewis
BACKGROUND: The Individual Learning Plan (ILP) is a newly implemented curricular element designed to foster self-directed learning (SDL) skills among medical students during our surgery clerkship. Our aim was to determine the impact of ILPs on educational outcomes and acquisition of SDL skills. METHODS: Students were surveyed regarding the educational value of ILPs, their acquisition of SDL skills, and the impact of the surgery clerkship on fostering these skills...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423553/force-based-learning-curve-tracking-in-fundamental-laparoscopic-skills-training
#19
Sem F Hardon, Tim Horeman, H Jaap Bonjer, W J H Jeroen Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Within minimally invasive surgery (MIS), structural implementation of courses and structured assessment of skills are challenged by availability of trainers, time, and money. We aimed to establish and validate an objective measurement tool for preclinical skills acquisition in a basic laparoscopic at-home training program. METHODS: A mobile laparoscopic simulator was equipped with a state-of-the-art force, motion, and time tracking system (ForceSense, MediShield B...
February 8, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422709/counseling-skill-development-in-audiology-clinical-instruction-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Karen Muñoz
Audiologists play a critical role in supporting patients as they provide diagnostic information about their hearing and in the delivery of treatment services. Graduate training related to counseling, however, varies among programs in the extent students are prepared to engage effectively and intentionally with patients. Instruction is needed to provide students with a framework that supports their ability to learn and implement evidence-based counseling services. This article addresses the impact patients can experience when counseling gaps exist, shares clinical instruction strategies that can support students' acquisition of counseling skills, and discusses considerations for integration of counseling education into graduate training programs...
February 2018: Seminars in Hearing
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