Read by QxMD icon Read

Skill acquisition

Susanne Froehlich, Florian Goebel, Adrian Meder, Janine Wirkner, Udo Obertacke, Richard Kasch
PREFACE: The surgical medical clerkship is of special importance, as the student is given the opportunity to get in touch with medical colleagues and patients for the first time, and the interest in a certain field of specialisation can be consolidated. The present study will clarify how students perceived their medical clerkship in the field of surgery. METHODS: A nationwide online survey carried out in 2012 was able to recruit 9079 participants, and contained questions about the completed curricular internships...
June 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Martha Elba Alarcón, María Del Refugio López, Magali Ramon, Irma Rosa Alvarado, Martha González
The aim of this study was to identify the maternal feeding practices with children who have some kind of disability and its influence in their social inclusion process. Three focus groups were carried out with the participation of twelve mothers/caregivers of children with disabilities. The mothers/caregivers are in charge of their children's progress with respect to their physical health and disability. Their feeding practices contribute to their health condition, to the acquisition of nourishing learning, social behavior at the table, domestic collaboration, as well as to the development of language by means of the communicative interactions, and also the tightening of the affective bond between mother and child...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
María Cañadas, Miguel-Ángel Gómez, Javier García-Rubio, Sergio J Ibáñez
Scientific literature has stated the presence of various stages in athletes sportive development, with different objectives in each one of them. This should lead coaches to different training plans according to the athlete's formation stage. The aim of this study was to analyse training plans and identify differences in basketball objectives according to formative stages (U'12 and U'14) in boys and girls. A total of 1,976 training tasks were collected and analysed, for a total of four teams (girls and boys of U'12 and U'14 categories) during an entire season...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Milan N A van der Kuil, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Andrea W M Evers, Ineke J M van der Ham
Acquired brain injury patients often report navigation impairments. A cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been designed in the form of a serious game. The aim of the serious game is to aid patients in the development of compensatory navigation strategies by providing exercises in 3D virtual environments on their home computers. The objective of this study was to assess the usability of three critical gaming attributes: movement control in 3D virtual environments, instruction modality and feedback timing. Thirty acquired brain injury patients performed three tasks in which objective measures of usability were obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alli Gokeler, Romain Seil, Gino Kerkhoffs, Evert Verhagen
Efficacy studies have demonstrated decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates for athletes participating in injury prevention programs. Typically, ACL injury prevention programs entail a combination of plyometrics, strength training, agility and balance exercises. Unfortunately, improvements of movement patterns are not sustained over time. The reason may be related to the type of instructions given during training. Encouraging athletes to consciously control knee movements during exercises may not be optimal for the acquisition of complex motor skills as needed in complex sports environments...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Rui Zheng, Doug Hill, Douglas Hedden, James Mahood, Marc Moreau, Sarah Southon, Edmond Lou
The measurements of spinal curvatures using the ultrasound (US) imaging method on children with scoliosis have been comparable with radiography. However, factors influencing the reliability and accuracy of US measurement have not been studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of curve features and patients' demographics on US measurements and to determine which factors influence the reliability and accuracy. Two hundred children with scoliosis were recruited and scanned with US by one experienced operator and three trainees...
2018: PloS One
Lauren K Schnell, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Casey L Nottingham
Generalization is a critical outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who display new skills in a limited range of contexts. In the absence of proper planning, generalization may not be observed. The purpose of the current study was to directly compare serial to concurrent multiple exemplar training using total training time per exemplar, mean total training time, and exposures to mastery across three children diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, we assessed the efficiency of presenting secondary targets in the antecedent and consequence portions of learning trials and evaluated generalization to tacts not associated with direct teaching...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Ashley R Gibbs, Christopher A Tullis, Raven Thomas, Brittany Elkins
Vocal stereotypy is a commonly occurring challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is frequently maintained by automatic reinforcement and often interferes with skill acquisition. Matched stimulation (MS), and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) are two interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy with participants with ASD. The current study sought to determine if the combination of MS (noncontingent music) and RIRD was more effective at reducing vocal stereotypy than RIRD alone and if the parents of children with ASD found the combination of MS and RIRD more socially valid than RIRD alone...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
C Macía-Rodríguez, M L López Reboiro, D Martín Iglesias, A González-Munera, J Moreno Diaz, A Montaño Martínez, G Ortiz Llauradó, P Demelo-Rodríguez, C Muñoz Muñoz, F Salgado Ordoñez
BACKGROUND: Specialist training is based on the gradual acquisition of expertise, skills and responsibilities. The aim of this study is to determine the opinion of residents regarding their training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on an online survey of 5th-year residents during February and March 2017. RESULTS: A total of 194 residents (62.8% of the total) responded to the survey, 62.9% of whom were women and 50% of whom were younger than 30years, representing hospitals from all levels and from the 17 autonomous communities...
June 14, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Zhichao Xia, Linjun Zhang, Fumiko Hoeft, Bin Gu, Gaolang Gong, Hua Shu
The ability to read is essential for cognitive development. To deepen our understanding of reading acquisition, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates (cortical thickness (CT)) of word reading fluency and sentence comprehension efficiency in Chinese with a group of typically developing children (N = 21; 12 females and 9 males; age range 10.7-12.3 years). Then, we investigated the relationship between the CT of reading-defined regions and the cognitive subcomponents of reading to determine whether our study lends support to the multi-component model...
May 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
Annalena Venneri, Caroline Jahn-Carta, Matteo De Marco, Davide Quaranta, Camillo Marra
Relatively spared during most of the timeline of normal aging, semantic memory shows a subtle yet measurable decline even during the pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This decline is thought to reflect early neurofibrillary changes and impairment is detectable using tests of language relying on lexical-semantic abilities. A promising approach is the characterization of semantic parameters such as typicality and age of acquisition of words, and propositional density from verbal output. Seminal research like the Nun Study or the analysis of the linguistic decline of famous writers and politicians later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease supports the early diagnostic value of semantic processing and semantic memory...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Matthew Dyson, Jessica Barnes, Kianoush Nazarpour
The objective of this study was to compare the use of muscles appropriate for partial-hand prostheses with those typically used for complete hand devices and to determine whether differences in their underlying neural substrates translate to different levels of myoelectric control.
 Approach: We developed a novel abstract myoelectric decoder based on motor learning. Three muscle pairs, namely, an intrinsic and independent, an intrinsic and synergist and finally, an extrinsic and antagonist, were tested during abstract myoelectric control...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Indiana Wollman, Virginia Penhune, Melanie Segado, Thibaut Carpentier, Robert J Zatorre
The auditory and motor neural systems are closely intertwined, enabling people to carry out tasks such as playing a musical instrument whose mapping between action and sound is extremely sophisticated. While the dorsal auditory stream has been shown to mediate these audio-motor transformations, little is known about how such mapping emerges with training. Here, we use longitudinal training on a cello as a model for brain plasticity during the acquisition of specific complex skills, including continuous and many-to-one audio-motor mapping, and we investigate individual differences in learning...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anne Castles, Kathleen Rastle, Kate Nation
There is intense public interest in questions surrounding how children learn to read and how they can best be taught. Research in psychological science has provided answers to many of these questions but, somewhat surprisingly, this research has been slow to make inroads into educational policy and practice. Instead, the field has been plagued by decades of "reading wars." Even now, there remains a wide gap between the state of research knowledge about learning to read and the state of public understanding...
June 2018: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Sasha Hernandez, Jessica Oliveira, Leah Jones, Juan Chumil, Taraneh Shirazian
In low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), traditional birth attendant (TBA) training programs are increasing, yet reports are limited on how those programs affect the prenatal clinical abilities of trained TBAs. This study aims to assess the impact of clinical training on TBAs before and after a maternal health-training program. A prospective observational study was conducted in rural Guatemala from March to December 2017. Thirteen participants conducted 116 prenatal home visits. Data acquisition occurred before any prenatal clinical training had occurred, at the completion of the 14-week training program, and at six months post program completion...
June 9, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Andrew J Satin
Simulation in obstetrics is a widely accepted and valuable tool that benefits all levels of learners from medical students to maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists. What began as an adjunct to medical education now has a rapidly expanding role in acquisition of new and innovative procedures, team and unit training, and safety and quality initiatives. The number of obstetric simulation peer-reviewed reports has increased exponentially in recent years, yet only a small percentage of reports primarily addresses clinical outcomes...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Samira Jeimy, Jenny Yujing Wang, Lisa Richardson
OBJECTIVE: The virtual patient (VP) is a computer program that simulates real-life clinical scenarios and allows learners to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in a safe environment. Although many VP cases are available, few focus on junior trainees as their target audience. In addition, there is wide variability in trainees' clinical rotation experiences, based on local practice and referral patterns, duty hour restrictions, and competing educational requirements. In order to standardize clinical exposure and improve trainees' knowledge and perceived preparedness to manage core internal medicine cases, we developed a pool of VP cases to simulate common internal medicine presentations...
June 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Stephen D Jernigan, Susan R Hodgkins, Wendy C Hildenbrand, Delois M Laverentz, Kristy Johnson, Michael J Waxman, Jana K Zaudke
PURPOSE: The University of Kansas Medical Center has developed an interprofessional education (IPE) foundational program using TeamSTEPPS, a curriculum designed to improve patient care through effective communication and teamwork. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of the Level 1 program on learners as they develop the attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to interprofessional collaborative practice. METHODS: Learners (n=715) representing 15 professions participated in the Level 1 program...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Bronwen Connolly, Laura Allum, Michelle Shaw, Natalie Pattison, Paul Dark
OBJECTIVE: To characterise the research profile of UK critical care physiotherapists including experience, training needs, and barriers and enablers to engagement in critical care research. 'Research' was defined broadly to encompass activities related to quantitative and qualitative studies, service evaluations, clinical audit and quality improvements. DESIGN: Closed-question online survey, with optional free-text responses. SETTING: UK critical care community...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Yu V Lomakin, E N Leonova, A V Khodulapov
This article is published on the occasion of the 2nd All-Russian forensic medicine student Olympiad. The Olympiad has been held during three years in succession and attracts attention of the students from different Universities of the Russian Federation and the former Soviet republics. The Olympiad is considered to be a highly efficient form of the intellectual leisure activities of the students; moreover, it facilitates formation of motivation for the self-education and the acquisition of the professional skills and competences envisaged by the state standards for higher education that have not yet been incorporated into the program of modern medical education adopted in the Russian Federation...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"