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Skill acquisition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048506/the-comfort-ability-pain-management-workshop-a-preliminary-nonrandomized-investigation-of-a-brief-cognitive-biobehavioral-and-parent-training-intervention-for-pediatric-chronic-pain
#1
Rachael Coakley, Tessa Wihak, Joe Kossowsky, Christina Iversen, Carolina Donado
Objective: Psychological intervention is widely recognized as an integral part of the recovery process from pediatric chronic pain, but service acquisition is often limited by resource barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction of a brief, structured, skills-based, group intervention designed expressly to address gaps in service delivery. Exploratory outcomes were also assessed. Method: Adolescents with chronic pain (n = 102; ages 10-17 years) and their mothers (n = 105) completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 1-week, 1-month, and 3-month posttreatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043542/undergraduate-basic-surgical-skills-education-impact-on-attitudes-to-a-career-in-surgery-and-surgical-skills-acquisition
#2
P F McAnena, N O'Halloran, B M Moloney, D Courtney, R M Waldron, G Flaherty, M J Kerin
INTRODUCTION: Basic surgical skills modules in medical education are effective in teaching skills and increasing confidence among students approaching surgery. However, these modules are not delivered universally and their effect on the professional development of graduates has not been established. We aimed to assess the impact of a 10-week basic surgical skills module on attitudes and technical skills of first year medical students compared to interns. METHODS: Eighteen students participated and were assessed using a 4-part questionnaire...
October 17, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042826/clinical-reasoning-and-knowledge-management-in-final-year-medical-students-the-role-of-student-led-grand-rounds
#3
David Arumaisingam Kandiah
OBJECTIVES: The development of clinical reasoning and decision-making skills is often limited in medical school curricula. In reality, medical graduates acquire these skills during their first few years of residency. For many, this can be stressful as they may be working under limited supervision as a part of their rotations. METHODS: Student-led Grand Rounds was developed to transfer both explicit and tacit knowledge to final year medical students. This pilot project was to apply the principles of knowledge management to allow students to be exposed to the reasoning and decision making of common clinical presentations...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038859/refashioned-lamb-tissue-as-an-animal-model-for-training-complex-techniques-of-laryngotracheal-stenosis-surgery
#4
Lluís Nisa, Pedro Teiga, Gustavo Barreto da Cunha, Biswanath Roy, Riza Onder Gunaydin, Kishore Sandu
Open reconstructive upper airway surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), whether for subglottic or tracheal stenosis, constitutes a group of complex approaches. LTS requiring open reconstruction is overall rare and primarily performed at tertiary centres. This poses an obvious challenge for the acquisition and maintenance of surgical skills for this group of complex approaches. In this context, animal models provide a unique opportunity for open reconstructive airway surgery training. Such models ought to take into consideration ethical aspects, be easily available and easy to maintain, and have similar macroscopic anatomical features to the human laryngotracheal frame...
October 16, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038562/interacting-learning-processes-during-skill-acquisition-learning-to-control-with-gradually-changing-system-dynamics
#5
Nicolas Ludolph, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037823/the-development-of-a-novel-perfused-cadaver-model-with-dynamic-vital-sign-regulation-and-real-world-scenarios-to-teach-surgical-skills-and-error-management
#6
Michael Minneti, Craig J Baker, Maura E Sullivan
The landscape of graduate medical education has changed dramatically over the past decade and the traditional apprenticeship model has undergone scrutiny and modifications. The mandate of the 80-hour work-week, the introduction of integrated residency programs, increased global awareness about patient safety along with financial constraints have spurred changes in graduate educational practices. In addition, new technologies, more complex procedures, and a host of external constraints have changed where and how we teach technical and procedural skills...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037821/validation-of-a-novel-inverted-peg-transfer-task-advancing-beyond-the-regular-peg-transfer-task-for-surgical-simulation-based-assessment
#7
Amro M Abdelrahman, Denny Yu, Bethany R Lowndes, EeeLN H Buckarma, Becca L Gas, David R Farley, Juliane Bingener, M Susan Hallbeck
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a novel inverted peg transfer (iPT) task for assessing laparoscopic skills of novices and experts and compare iPT to the regular PT (rPT) task to ensure surgical trainee acquisition of an adequate advanced laparoscopic skills level for safe laparoscopic practice in the operating room. DESIGN: Prospective crossover study. SETTING: Multidisciplinary simulation center and motion analysis laboratory, Mayo Clinic...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036381/project-echo-telementoring-intervention-for-managing-chronic-pain-in-primary-care-insights-from-a-qualitative-study
#8
Leslie Carlin, Jane Zhao, Ruth Dubin, Paul Taenzer, Hannah Sidrak, Andrea Furlan
Objective: Family physicians in Canada receive little training in chronic pain management; concomitantly, they face increasing pressure to reduce their prescribing of opioids. Project ECHO Ontario Chronic Pain/Opioid Stewardship (ECHO) is a telementoring intervention for primary care practitioners that enhances their pain management skills. This qualitative study reports participants' experiences and assessment of ECHO. Design: An opportunistic sample of multidisciplinary primary care providers attending one of three residential weekend workshops participated in focus group discussions...
September 27, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034649/implementation-a-medical-simulation-curriculum-in-emergency-medicine-residency-program
#9
Amirhossein Jahanshir, Maryam Bahreini, Mohsen Banaie, Mohammad Jallili, Shahram Hariri, Fatemeh Rasooli, Hamed Sotoodehnia, Javad Seyed Hosseini, Arash Safaie, Ehsan Karimi, Ali Labaf, Hadi Mir Fazaelian, Elnaz Vahidi
Applying simulation in medical education is becoming more and more popular. The use of simulation in medical training has led to effective learning and safer care for patients. Nowadays educators have confronted with the challenge of respecting patient safety or bedside teaching. There is widespread evidence, supported by robust research, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, on how much effective simulation is. Simulation supports the acquisition of procedural, technical and non-technical skills through repetitive practice with feedbacks...
August 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031490/-survey-on-the-perception-of-competencies-acquired-during-nephrology-resident-training-in-france
#10
Olivier Moranne, Marie-Noëlle Peraldi, Gabriel Choukroun, Philippe Brunet, Éric Rondeau, Bruno Moulin
Due to a national theoretical training provided to all resident for many years and the ongoing discussions to change the organization of the resident training of specialized study diploma (SSD) of nephrology, a survey was done to assess the perception of skills acquired in the management of different clinical situations in terms of knowledge, expertise and attitudes. The expected results are intended to identify new training procedures for future nephrologists in France. The study was performed in 112 resident from 3rd and 4th year of nephrology resident training attending an educational seminar of the University College of Nephrology Teachers in May 2014...
October 11, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026121/white-noise-enhances-new-word-learning-in-healthy-adults
#11
Anthony J Angwin, Wayne J Wilson, Wendy L Arnott, Annabelle Signorini, Robert J Barry, David A Copland
Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test was also administered...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021945/an-evaluation-of-instructive-feedback-to-teach-play-behavior-to-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Laura L Grow, Tiffany Kodak, Andrea Clements
Instructive feedback is used to expose learners to secondary targets during skill acquisition programs (Reichow & Wolery, in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 327-340, 2011; Werts, Wolery, Gast, & Holcombe, in Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 55-75, 1995). Although unrelated feedback may have clinical utility in practice, very little research has evaluated unrelated instructive feedback, particularly for promoting play behavior (Colozzi, Ward, & Crotty, in Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 226-248, 2008)...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021121/effect-of-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-acquisition-of-coping-skills-among-cocaine-dependent-individuals-enrolled-in-methadone-maintenance
#13
Brian D Kiluk, Elise E DeVito, Matthew B Buck, Karen Hunkele, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020890/career-transition-points-in-toxicologic-pathology-management-and-consulting
#14
Shambhunath Choudhary, Tanasa Osborne, Rick R Adler, Kevin S McDorman, John E Dillberger, Ricardo Ochoa
In the constantly evolving field of toxicologic pathology, a pathologist's career is often characterized by multiple career transitions. However, these transitions can be challenging and/or overwhelming and may require a shift in focus, strategic approach, and acquisition of new skills and expertise. In order to provide a forum to discuss challenges associated with career transitions and skill set/competencies required to navigate career changes effectively and successfully, the Career Development and Outreach Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) sponsored a career development workshop entitled "Transitions in a Pathologist's Career" in conjunction with the STP 36th annual symposium...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020699/the-first-homemade-colonoscopy-trainer
#15
Dominik Andrzej Walczak, Maciej Grajek, Paulina Agnieszka Walczak, Magdalena Tuliszka-Gołowkin, Roman Massopust, Dariusz Pawełczak, Zbigniew Pasieka, Łukasz Krakowczyk, Adam Maciejewski
Introduction Colonoscopy trainers have gained recognition for improving endoscopy skills and preparing for real procedures on humans. Unfortunately, due to their high price, commercial simulators are hard to obtain, especially for small medical centers. However, a solution might be to construct a device for themselves. Aim Our goal was to build a relatively cheap and easy-to-construct simulator for residents who want to start learning colonoscopy. Materials and methods The box model colonoscopy trainer was designed and constructed...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019576/development-of-a-laparoscopic-training-model-using-a-smartphone
#16
André Takashi Oti, Lucas Nascimento Galvão, Thyago Cezar Prado Pessoa, Camylla Rodrigues de Oliveira Rocha, Andrew Moraes Monteiro, Mauro José Pantoja Fonteles, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Edson Yuzur Yasojima
OBJECTIVE: to develop a model of training in video-surgery, of low cost and that uses a smartphone as an image-generating source. METHODS: We developed a 38cm high, 40cm wide, 40cm long hexagonal-shaped training box, with a front opening of 12x8 cm for coupling the smartphone. The internal illumination is made with LED lamps and for the support of the smartphone, we used a selfie stick, fixed in the upper part of the box, that allows control of height, distance, angulation, and the coupling of devices with different formats...
September 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018544/verbal-augmented-feedback-in-the-rehabilitation-of-lower-extremity-musculoskeletal-dysfunctions-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Marianne Storberget, Linn Helen J Grødahl, Suzanne Snodgrass, Paulette van Vliet, Nicola Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Verbal augmented feedback (VAF) is commonly used in physiotherapy rehabilitation of individuals with lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction or to induce motor learning for injury prevention. Its effectiveness for acquisition, retention and transfer of learning of new skills in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: First, to investigate the effect of VAF for rehabilitation and prevention of lower extremity musculoskeletal dysfunction. Second, to determine its effect on motor learning and the stages of acquisition, retention and transfer in this population...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017521/an-integrative-review-of-e-learning-in-the-delivery-of-self-management-support-training-for-health-professionals
#18
Sharon Lawn, Xiaojuan Zhi, Andrea Morello
BACKGROUND: E-learning involves delivery of education through Information and Communication Technology (ITC) using a wide variety of instructional designs, including synchronous and asynchronous formats. It can be as effective as face-to-face training for many aspects of health professional training. There are, however, particular practices and skills needed in providing patient self-management support, such as partnering with patients in goal-setting, which may challenge conventional practice norms...
October 10, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994796/the-knob-supination-task-a-semi-automated-method-for-assessing-forelimb-function-in-rats
#19
Samuel D Butensky, Thelma Bethea, Joshua Santos, Anil Sindhurakar, Eric Meyers, Andrew M Sloan, Robert L Rennaker, Jason B Carmel
Tasks that accurately measure dexterity in animal models are critical to understand hand function. Current rat behavioral tasks that measure dexterity largely use video analysis of reaching or food manipulation. While these tasks are easy to implement and are robust across disease models, they are subjective and laborious for the experimenter. Automating traditional tasks or creating new automated tasks can make the tasks more efficient, objective, and quantitative. Since rats are less dexterous than primates, central nervous system (CNS) injury produces more subtle deficits in dexterity, however, supination is highly affected in rodents and crucial to hand function in primates...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993878/fuzzy-neuronal-model-of-motor-control-inspired-by-cerebellar-pathways-to-online-and-gradually-learn-inverse-biomechanical-functions-in-the-presence-of-delay
#20
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
Contrary to forward biomechanical functions, which are deterministic, inverse biomechanical functions are generally not. Calculating an inverse biomechanical function is an ill-posed problem, which has no unique solution for a manipulator with several degrees of freedom. Studies of the command and control of biological movements suggest that the cerebellum takes part in the computation of approximate inverse functions, and this ability can control fast movements by predicting the consequence of current motor command...
October 9, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
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