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Acute Respiratory Failure in adults

Leonardo Jönck Staub, Roberta Rodolfo Mazzali Biscaro, Erikson Kaszubowski, Rosemeri Maurici
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound can accelerate the diagnosis of life-threatening diseases in adults with respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVE: Systematically review the accuracy of lung ultrasonography (LUS) for emergency diagnosis of pneumonia, acute heart failure, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma in adults. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde; until 2016) were searched for prospective diagnostic accuracy studies...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sarah J Peterson, Liam McKeever, Omar B Lateef, Sally Freels, Giamila Fantuzzi, Carol A Braunschweig
OBJECTIVES: Among critically ill patients, the benefits of nutrition support may vary depending on severity of organ dysfunction. The objective of the current article was to explore the relationship between organ failure and calories exposure with hospital mortality during the first week of acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single-center ICU. PATIENTS: Adults admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Andrezza Maria Côrtes Thomé, Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Solange Campos Vicentini, Adilson Fonseca Teixeira, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Flavia de Paoli, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Acute lung injury (ALI) is defined as respiratory failure syndrome, in which the pathogenesis could occur from sepsis making it a life-threatening disease by uncontrolled hyperinflammatory responses. A possible treatment for ALI is the use of low-power infrared lasers (LPIL), whose therapeutical effects depend on wavelength, power, fluence, and emission mode. The evaluation mRNA levels of repair gene related to oxidative damage after exposure to LPIL could provide important information about the modulation of genes as treatment for ALI...
October 8, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Marco A F Pimentel, Oliver C Redfern, Stephen Gerry, Gary S Collins, James Malycha, David Prytherch, Paul E Schmidt, Gary B Smith, Peter J Watkinson
AIMS: To compare the ability of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) to identify patients at risk of in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes. METHODS: We undertook a multi-centre retrospective observational study at five acute hospitals from two UK NHS Trusts. Data were obtained from completed adult admissions who were not fit enough to be discharged alive on the day of admission. Diagnostic coding and oxygen prescriptions were used to identify patients with type II respiratory failure (T2RF)...
October 1, 2018: Resuscitation
Eliotte L Hirshberg, Michael J Lanspa, Juhee Peterson, Lori Carpenter, Emily L Wilson, Samuel M Brown, Nathan C Dean, James Orme, Colin K Grissom
OBJECTIVES: Low tidal volume (= tidal volume ≤ 6 mL/kg, predicted body weight) ventilation using volume control benefits patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway pressure release ventilation is an alternative to low tidal volume-volume control ventilation, but the release breaths generated are variable and can exceed tidal volume breaths of low tidal volume-volume control. We evaluate the application of a low tidal volume-compatible airway pressure release ventilation protocol that manages release volumes on both clinical and feasibility endpoints...
October 1, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Nobuto Nakanishi, Jun Oto, Taiga Itagaki, Emiko Nakataki, Mutsuo Onodera, Masaji Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Most heat-and-moisture exchangers (HMEs) for patients with tracheostomy and spontaneously breathing are small and have suction ports that allow some expiratory gas to escape, which loses vapor held in the expired gas. Recently, a heated-and-humidified high-flow system for spontaneously breathing patients with tracheostomy was developed. Little is known, however, about the humidifying performance of HMEs or heated-and-humidified high-flow systems for spontaneous breathing patients with a tracheostomy...
September 25, 2018: Respiratory Care
Yas Sanaiha, Katherine Bailey, Peter Downey, Young-Ji Seo, Esteban Aguayo, Vishal Dobaria, Richard J Shemin, Peyman Benharash
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used as a life-sustaining measure in patients with acute or end-stage cardiac or respiratory failure. We analyzed national trends in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use and outcomes and assessed the influence of hospital demographics. METHODS: Adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients in the 2008-2014 National Inpatient Sample were evaluated. Patient and hospital characteristics, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation indication, mortality, and hospital costs were analyzed...
September 22, 2018: Surgery
Nazir I Lone, Robert Lee, Timothy S Walsh
OBJECTIVES: Data describing long-term outcomes following ICU for patients with alcohol-related liver disease are scarce. We aimed to report long-term mortality and emergency hospital resource use for patients with alcohol-related liver disease and compare this with two comparator cohorts. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study linking population registry data. SETTING: All adult general Scottish ICUs (2005-2010) serving 5 million population. PATIENTS: ICU patients with alcohol-related liver disease were compared with an unmatched cohort with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation defined diagnoses of severe cardiovascular, respiratory, or renal comorbidity and a matched general ICU cohort...
September 20, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Elisabet Periche Pedra, Melinda Rita Koborzan, Fabrizio Sbraga, Arnau Blasco Lucas, David Toral Sepúlveda
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal life support that has been used to support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to conventional therapy. The experience with the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is still limited. The aim of this study was to report clinical outcomes in adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation treated with ECMO. Methods: Between July 2011 and October 2017, 18 adult patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of an acute care tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Konomi Togo, Yoshiaki Takewa, Nobumasa Katagiri, Yutaka Fujii, Akihiro C Yamashita, Eisuke Tastumi
INTRODUCTION: Recently, the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure has increased. We previously investigated the optimal return cannula position; however, the optimal drainage cannula position has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal drainage cannula position. METHODS: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed in four adult goats (mean body weight 59...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Min Jiang, Jun Wang, Shuangshuang Gu, Nan Cai, Yao Liu, Qiuling Zhang, Peng Xu, Fei He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and prognosis risk factors of the elderly and youth patients with acute severe poisoning. METHODS: Adult patients with acute severe poisoning in the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into the elderly group (age ≥ 60 years) and the youth group (16 years ≤ age < 60 years), the clinical data of the two groups were analyzed...
August 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Zahra Rahmatinejad, Hamidreza Reihani, Fariba Tohidinezhad, Fatemeh Rahmatinejad, Samira Peyravi, Ali Pourmand, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Saeid Eslami
BACKGROUND: The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and modified SOFA (mSOFA) are risk stratification systems which incorporate respiratory, coagulatory, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic systems to quantify the overall severity of acute disorder in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic performance of the SOFA and mSOFA scores at arrival for predicting in-hospital mortality in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: All adult patients with an Emergency Severity Index (ESI) of 1-3 in the ED of Imam Reza Hospital, northeast of Iran were included from March 2016 to March 2017...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marieke B Lemiengre, Mieke L van Driel, Dan Merenstein, Helena Liira, Marjukka Mäkelä, An Im De Sutter
BACKGROUND: Acute rhinosinusitis is an acute infection of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses that lasts less than four weeks. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis is generally based on clinical signs and symptoms in ambulatory care settings. Technical investigations are not routinely performed, nor are they recommended in most countries. Some trials show a trend in favour of antibiotics, but the balance of benefit versus harm is unclear.We merged two Cochrane Reviews for this update, which comprised different approaches with overlapping populations, resulting in different conclusions...
September 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Puślecki, M Ligowski, S Stefaniak, M Dąbrowski, M Zieliński, A Pawlak, T Kłosiewicz, M Sip, M Karczewski, T Małkiewicz, Ł Gąsiorowski, W Telec, M Ładzińska, K Baumgart, P Ładziński, B Perek, M Misterski, W Mrówczyński, P Sobczyński, I Kiel-Puślecka, P Buczkowski, M Kiel, M Czekajlo, M Jemielity
The "ECMO for Greater Poland" program takes full advantage of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) perfusion therapy opportunities to promote the health of the 3.5 million inhabitants in the region. The main implementation areas are treatment of patients with hypothermia; severe reversible respiratory failure (RRF); critical states resulting in heart failure, that is, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, or acute intoxication; and promotion of the donor after circulatory death (DCD) strategy in selected organ donor cases, after unsuccessful life-saving treatment, to achieve organ recovery...
September 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
N N Lam, T D Hung, D K Hung
Our aim was to investigate risk factors and outcome of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in severe burn patients. A descriptive study was carried out on 159 adult burn patients with burn extent ≥ 20% total body surface area, treated at the Burn Intensive Care Unit, National Institute of Burns. ARDS was defined according to the 2012 Berlin definition. Risk factors for developing ARDS and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that 45 patients developed ARDS (28.3%). Severe ARDS was recorded in 30 of these patients, accounting for 66...
March 31, 2018: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Catherina Lueck, Michael Stadler, Christian Koenecke, Marius M Hoeper, Elke Dammann, Andrea Schneider, Jan T Kielstein, Arnold Ganser, Matthias Eder, Gernot Beutel
PURPOSE: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is associated with relatively poor outcome. Since longitudinal data on this topic remains scarce, we analyzed reasons for ICU admission as well as short- and long-term outcome of critically ill HSCT recipients. METHODS: A total of 942 consecutive adult patients were transplanted at Hannover Medical School from 2000 to 2013. Of those, 330 patients were at least admitted once to the ICU and included in this retrospective study...
September 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Ann R Falsey, Edward E Walsh, Mark T Esser, Kathryn Shoemaker, Li Yu, M Pam Griffin
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is recognized as a serious pathogen in people with chronic cardiopulmonary conditions. Immunoprophylaxis might be considered for adults at high-risk for frequent and severe RSV infection. Thus, we studied the incidence of RSV-related medically attended acute respiratory illness (MARI) in adults with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Subjects ≥50 years of age with Gold Class III/IV COPD and/or American Heart Association class III/IV CHF and exposure to children ≥once per month were recruited...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
S Valade, L Biard, V Lemiale, L Argaud, F Pène, L Papazian, F Bruneel, A Seguin, A Kouatchet, J Oziel, S Rouleau, N Bele, K Razazi, O Lesieur, F Boissier, B Megarbane, N Bigé, N Brulé, A S Moreau, A Lautrette, O Peyrony, P Perez, J Mayaux, E Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) patients could require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Adults admitted between 2000 and 2015 to 20 French ICUs with proven atypical pneumonia were retrospectively described. Patients with MP were compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia patients admitted to ICUs. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included, 71 men and 33 women, with a median age of 56 [44-67] years...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Gabriella F Pogorzelski, Taline Aal Silva, Thamara Piazza, Tomás M Lacerda, Fernando Ac Spencer Netto, Amaury Cesar Jorge, Péricles Ad Duarte
Background: Trauma is a major cause of hospital admissions and is associated with manifold complications and high mortality rates. However, data on intensive care unit (ICU) admissions are scarce in developing and low-income countries, where its incidence has been increasing. Objectives: To analyze epidemiological and clinical factors and outcomes in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of a public teaching hospital in a developing country as well as to identify risk factors for complications in the ICU...
2018: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Takeshi Oichi, Yasushi Oshima, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Sakae Tanaka, Hideo Yasunaga
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To compare morbidity and mortality between nonagenarians and other older adult patients who underwent elective spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is a lack of information of the perioperative risks of nonagenarians undergoing spine surgery. METHODS: Data of patients aged ≥65 years who underwent elective spine surgery from July 2010 to March 2013 were extracted from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, a nationwide administrative inpatient database in Japan...
August 7, 2018: Spine
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