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Intravenous drug

Quan-Yao Chen, Jun Wan, Jian-Hui Yang, Min Lin, Yao Chen
Vancomycin is a first-line drug for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Thrombocytopenia is a rare adverse reaction to vancomycin treatment, and there are no reports of vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia (VIT) in infants. We describe the case of a 3-month-old girl who was diagnosed with purulent meningitis. After 13 days of treatment with vancomycin, her platelet count reduced to 8 × 109/L. Vancomycin was discontinued, and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered. The platelet count returned to normal after 4 days...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
O Khukhlina, A Antoniv, L Kanovska, O Mandryk, V Smandych
The article presents a theoretical generalization of the research results the effectiveness of heparisin on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease І-ІІ stage. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of heparisin (glycyrizine 40 mg, glycine 400 mg, L-cysteine hydrochloride 20 mg) on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix in connective tissue of the liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease (CKD) І-ІІ stage...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Shinji Iwasaki, Yohei Kosugi, Andy Zhu, Sayaka Nakagawa, Noriyasu Sano, Miyuki Funami, Mai Kosaka, Atsutoshi Furuta, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano
1. This study evaluated the prediction accuracy of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) using minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling incorporating the hepatic accumulation factor of an inhibitor (i.e. unbound liver/unbound plasma concentration ratio [Kp,uu,liver ]) based on 22 clinical DDI studies. 2. Kp,uu,liver values were estimated using three methods: (1) ratio of cell-to-medium ratio in human cryopreserved hepatocytes (C/M,u ) at 37 °C to that on ice (Kp,uu,C/M ), (2) multiplication of total liver/unbound plasma concentration ratio (Kp,u,liver ) estimated from C/M,u at 37 °C with unbound fraction in human liver homogenate (Kp,uu,cell ), and (3) observed Kp,uu,liver in rats after intravenous infusion (Kp,uu,rat )...
December 5, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
L L Zhao, H Liu, Y Y Zhang, J Q Wei, Y Han, L Han, J P Yang
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of propofol with dexmedetomidine in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). The 88 patients diagnosed with SAHS in the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 44). Patients in the group dexmedetomidine (group D) received continuous intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine 1 μ g/kg over 15 minutes before the endoscopy, and propofol 2 mg/kg was intravenously administrated in the group propofol (group P)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ramón Teira, Nuria Espinosa, M Mar Gutiérrez, Marta Montero, Elisa Martínez, Francisco González, Fernando Lozano de León, Francisco Téllez, M José Galindo, Joaquim Peraire, Elisabeth Deig, Pepa Muñoz-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of people infected by HIV or AIDS under follow-up in the VACH Cohort in 2012 who were lost to follow-up from 2013 to 2014, and to establish the sociodemographic features relating to this loss. METHODS: We considered subjects with less than one recorded consultation per year studied to be lost to follow-up. We built logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), of the variables relating to loss to follow-up...
December 1, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Hari Krishna Ananthula, Scott Parker, Erin Touchette, R Mark Buller, Gopi Patel, Daniel Kalman, Johanna S Salzer, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Tessa Moir-Savitz, Larry Sallans, Milton H Werner, Catherine M Sherwin, Pankaj B Desai
BACKGROUND: Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) developed as anti-cancer drugs, also have anti-viral activity due to their ability to disrupt productive replication and dissemination in infected cells. Consequently, such drugs are attractive candidates for "repurposing" as anti-viral agents. However, clinical evaluation of therapeutics against infectious agents associated with high mortality, but low or infrequent incidence, is often unfeasible. The United States Food and Drug Administration formulated the "Animal Rule" to facilitate use of validated animal models for conducting anti-viral efficacy studies...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yingtong Cui, Xuejuan Zhang, Wen Wang, Zhengwei Huang, Ziyu Zhao, Guanlin Wang, Shihao Cai, Hui Jing, Ying Huang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as a solution. Due to the nature of NTM hygroscopicity that hinders its direct use through DPI, in this study, L-leucine (LL) was added into NTM dry powder to reduce its moisture absorption rate and improve its aerosolization performance...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Kelly Olds, John Gilbert, Neil E I Langlois, Roger W Byard
A 32-year-old woman collapsed following an intravenous injection of material that included crushed pharmaceutical tablets. Resuscitation was attempted but was unsuccessful. She had an extensive past medical history of complications resulting from intravenous drug use. Death was due to mixed drug toxicity. The major findings at autopsy included a 10 mm deep skin sinus over the right femoral vein that was used as an injection site. Polarizable foreign material was present at the injection site and also within the lungs with a granulomatous reaction...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Yinghong Xiao, Ming Zhang, Yunting Fan, Qicheng Zhang, Yuli Wang, Wenwen Yuan, Ninglin Zhou, Jianfei Che
A novel drug carrier is constructed by compositing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HP-β-CD) and carboxylated graphene nanomaterial (GO-COOH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that the two materials are successfully combined via chemical bonds. Further, a crosslinking agent of glutaraldehyde is applied to fabricate composite GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres, as demonstrated by an atomic force microscope. Dexamethasone (DEX) is selected as the model drug, and the drug loading efficiency and water solubility of the nanospheres greatly increased...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Seyede Nastaran Momeni, Seyed Ali Masoud, Hamid Reza Banafshe
Vitamin D3 as a neuroactive steroid hormone plays an important role in the nervous system. Recent clinical and experimental studies have shown an association between vitamin D-related disorders and epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of chronic administration of vitamin D3 on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. This interventional study was conducted on 120 mice in 12 groups. Two control groups acutely and chronically received a mixture of almond oil and paraffin; three groups were acutely given vitamin D3 at doses of 2000, 4000 and 6000 IU/kg; three groups chronically received vitamin D3 with similar doses for two weeks and two groups chronically and acutely received a sub-effective dose of vitamin D3 and diazepam...
November 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
R Ferrari, M Sponchioni, M Morbidelli, D Moscatelli
In this review article we discuss some of the key aspects concerning the development of a polymer-based nanoparticle formulation for intravenous drug delivery. Since numerous preparations fail before and during clinical trials, our aim is to emphasize the main issues that a nanocarrier has to face once injected into the body. These include biocompatibility and toxicity, drug loading and release, nanoparticle storage and stability, biodistribution, selectivity towards the target organs or tissues, internalization in cells and biodegradability...
December 4, 2018: Nanoscale
Kristy M Shaeer, Monika T Zmarlicka, Elias B Chahine, Nicholas Piccicacco, Jonathan C Cho
Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thus inhibiting protein synthesis via a concentration-dependent manner. Plazomicin displays a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and organisms with aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. In a large phase III clinical trial, plazomicin was shown to be noninferior to meropenem in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) with respect to the coprimary efficacy endpoints of the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat composite cure rate at day 5 (plazomicin 88% [n=168/191] vs meropenem 91...
December 4, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Tan Zhang, Guihong Chen, Chang Liu, Li'an Zu, Qi Wang, Yitong Wang, Jie Lv, Youzhong An, Lihou Dong, Huiyang Cheng, Shengbin Ren, Qian Wang, Qingshan Zheng, Haifeng Song, Yi Fang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PKs), safety, and immunogenicity of GB242 as a potential biosimilar infliximab with those of reference infliximab in healthy Chinese subjects. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, single-center, double-blind, parallel-controlled phase I study in which 48 healthy subjects were divided equally into a GB242 group and reference infliximab group. Both the test and reference drug were administered as a single intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg...
December 3, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Qian Zhang, Jianming Guo, Guoliang Dai, Jianping Li, Lijing Zhu, Shufen He, Yang Zong, Zhishu Tang, Buchang Zhao, Wenzheng Ju, Jinao Duan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Danhong injection is the most commonly prescribed adjuvant drug applied for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. Ceftriaxone is usually prescribed along with Danhong injection to elderly patients with complications. However, the pharmacokinetic interactions between these two medications have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danhong injection influences the pharmacokinetic profile of ceftriaxone in old rats when these two medications are used in combination...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Simon Portsmouth, David van Veenhuyzen, Roger Echols, Mitsuaki Machida, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira, Mari Ariyasu, Peter Tenke, Tsutae Den Nagata
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria represent the highest priority for addressing global antibiotic resistance. Cefiderocol (S-649266), a new siderophore cephalosporin, has broad activity against Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, including carbapenem-resistant strains. We assessed the efficacy and safety of cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection in patients at risk of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections...
December 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Polly E Kintzel, Jared D Knol, Gretchen Roe
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous lidocaine is an option for intractable pain caused by advancing cancer and wound care. We report a case of intractable cancer pain and wound care pain managed with concurrent use of lidocaine administered as a twice daily intravenous bolus in addition to continuous intravenous infusion. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 31-year-old male with rapidly progressing locally advanced squamous cell cancer affecting the gluteal area developed extensive painful and purulent ulcerating wounds affecting the coccyx, superior gluteal cleft, and buttocks...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Ryan M Jones, Kullervo Hynynen
Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with intravenously circulating microbubbles can transiently and selectively increase blood-brain barrier permeability to enable targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system, and is a technique that has the potential to revolutionize the way neurological diseases are managed in medical practice. Clinical testing of this approach is currently underway in patients with brain tumors, early Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A major challenge that needs to be addressed in order for widespread clinical adoption of FUS-mediated blood-brain barrier permeabilization to occur is the development of systems and methods for real-time treatment monitoring and control, to ensure that safe and effective acoustic exposure levels are maintained throughout the procedures...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Laura Vandelli, Marco Marietta, Tommaso Trenti, Manuela Varani, Guido Bigliardi, Francesca Rosafio, Maria Luisa Dell'acqua, Livio Picchetto, Paolo Nichelli, Andrea Zini
BACKGROUND: Post-thrombotic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is experienced by 6-8% of stroke patients and is associated with multiple factors, including acquired coagulopathy induced by the thrombolytic drug. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of the intravenous (IV) administration of fibrinogen concentrate in a series of acute stroke patients who developed iatrogenic fibrinogen critical depletion after IV thrombolysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of the 39 ischemic stroke patients treated with IV thrombolysis with a severe hypofibrinogenemia requiring infusion with IV fibrinogen concentrate, 30 patients were treated with 2 g of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), followed by further doses until the fibrinogen level reached 200 mg/dL in hemorrhagic patients or 100 mg/dL in non-hemorrhagic patients, and 9 were treated with IV rt-PA followed by endovascular thrombectomy...
December 3, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Zhiqiang Chang, Zhao Chen, Haiyu Gao, Qianqian Zhai, Jian Li
The pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol in the spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) were investigated at 15 and 20°C water temperatures, respectively. Florfenicol content in plasma samples was analyzed using an HPLC method. Drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model after a single intravenous administration (15 mg/kg BW), and fitted to a two-compartment model after an oral administration (30 mg/kg BW) at 15 and 20°C. The florfenicol concentration in the blood increased slowly during the 12 hr following an oral administration at 15°C, with a peak concentration (Cmax ) of 9...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S Tabl, M Balki, K Downey, G Tomlinson, D Farine, G Seaward, J C A Carvalho
Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and prophylactic uterotonic drug administration after the delivery of the infant is advised. Carbetocin is recommended as an uterotonic, but the minimum effective dose has not been verified. We compared the efficacy of two doses of intravenous carbetocin (20 μg and 100 μg) in women undergoing elective caesarean delivery. This was a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority study in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Carbetocin was administered on delivery of the anterior shoulder of the neonate...
December 1, 2018: Anaesthesia
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