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"Guidelines" AND (Treatment Or Prevention Or Diagnosis)

Pascal Granger, Hermann W Siaka, Shubhangi B Umbarkar
This paper reports a short review on the impact of poisoning effects and thermal aging on the reactivity of surface vanadate species on benchmark V2 O5 -WO3 /TiO2 Selective-Catalytic-Reduction catalysts. A renewed interest of this SCR technology is related to its diversification notably as after-treatment systems to treat the exhaust from Diesel engines with higher running temperature especially when SCR catalysts are coated on Diesel Particulates Filters. Particular attention is also paid to poisoning effects in conjunction with the progressive replacement of fossil fuels by bio-fuels containing alkaline contaminants which drastically deactivate the catalyst through neutralization of strong acid sites...
October 18, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Rachela Bleuel, Bernadette Eberlein
Affecting 0.5 % of the world's population, vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder that poses major challenges in terms of dermatological care. Characterized by patchy depigmentation, the disease is frequently associated with cosmetic disfigurement and considerable psychological distress. The primary pathophysiological causes for the loss of functional melanocytes are thought to include genetic predisposition, autoimmune mechanisms, and oxidative stress. The present article highlights treatment recommendations contained in the European guidelines as well as those provided by recent reviews on vitiligo...
October 18, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Amie L Hoefnagel, Shobana Rajan, Adriana Martin, Vibha Mahendra, Amanda K Knutson, Jamie L Uejima, Guy Kositratna, Mark Weller, Hui Yang, Sanchit Ahuja, Caryl Bailey, John F Bebawy
Cognitive aids and evidence-based checklists are frequently utilized in complex situations across many disciplines and sectors. The purpose of such aids is not simply to provide instruction so as to fulfill a task, but rather to ensure that all contingencies related to the emergency are considered and accounted for and that the task at hand is completed fully, despite possible distractions. Furthermore, utilization of a checklist enhances communication to all team members by allowing all stakeholders to know and understand exactly what is occurring, what has been accomplished, and what remains to be done...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Nikita Sood, John J Connolly, Frank D Mentch, Lyam Vazquez, Patrick M A Sleiman, Erik B Hysinger, Hakon Hakonarson
Asthma is the leading chronic disease in children. Several studies have identified genetic biomarkers associated with susceptibility and severity in both adult and pediatric cases. In this study, we evaluated outcomes in 400 African American and European American pediatric cases all of whom were regular users of inhaled corticosteroids. Patients were stratified by genotype using two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene - rs1042713 and rs1042714, previously associated with asthma outcome...
November 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Joel Milam, Sonia Jain, Michael P Dubé, Eric S Daar, Xiaoying Sun, Katya Corado, Eric Ellorin, Jill Blumenthal, Richard Haubrich, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
BACKGROUND: A public health concern regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is sexual risk compensation (i.e., increased unsafe sex among PrEP users that may undermine prevention efforts). METHODS: This demonstration study (NCT#01761643; initiated in 2013) included 398 men who have sex with men (MSM) who initiated PrEP and were followed over 48 weeks at 4 sites in Southern California. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared prior 30-day number of sex partners and condomless insertive and receptive anal sex acts (CIAS and CRAS, respectively) at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 to baseline...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Andrea Wolfler, Gianfranco Raimondi, Cecilia Pagan de Paganis, Elena Zoia
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most frequent reasons for PICU admission in children less than 1 year of age. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios from mild to severe respiratory failure and supportive therapy range from HFNC to nonconventional ventilation and ECMO in the most severe forms. Aim of this article is to review the available ventilation mode in children with bronchiolitis and the scientific evidence. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The main medical databases were explored to search for clinical trials that address management strategies for respiratory support of infants with RSV infection...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Fabio Midulla, Laura Petrarca, Antonella Frassanito, Greta Di Mattia, Anna M Zicari, Raffaella Nenna
Bronchiolitis is the most common acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and the first cause of hospitalization in this age group. Despite it has been studied for over 70 years, its management remains controversial and nowadays the treatment is only supportive. Pediatricians should be well acquainted with the clinical course of the disease. In particular, they should know that the severity of respiratory symptoms peaks between days 3-7 of the disease and dehydration is a key sign to consider for the management...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Deborah Baron, Thandekile Essien, Sinazo Pato, Miliswa Magongo, Nomthandazo Mbandazayo, Fiona Scorgie, Helen Rees, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
INTRODUCTION: The Good Participatory Practice (GPP): Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials, second edition (2011) were developed to provide clinical trial sponsors and implementers with a formal stakeholder engagement framework. As one of the largest African research institutes, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (Wits RHI) became an early adopter of GPP by implementing its principles within large-scale national and regional clinical trials. This article examines Wits RHI's lessons learned from implementing GPP, its ongoing efforts to institutionalize GPP, and the yet to be realized potential in creating fully sustainable structures for meaningful stakeholder engagement in HIV prevention research, implementation science and beyond...
October 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Catherine Slack, Abigail Wilkinson, Jessica Salzwedel, Paul Ndebele
INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials of biomedical HIV prevention modalities require the cooperation of multiple stakeholders. Key stakeholders, such as community members, may have stark vulnerabilities. Consequently, calls for HIV prevention researchers to implement "stakeholder engagement" are increasingly common. Such engagement is held to benefit inter-stakeholder relations, stakeholders themselves and the research itself. The ethics review process presents a unique opportunity to strengthen stakeholder engagement practices in HIV prevention trials...
October 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Victoria Speed, Lara N Roberts, Jignesh P Patel, Roopen Arya
The prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) poses distinct gender-specific challenges. Women of childbearing age are at an increased risk of VTE secondary to the transient risk factors of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) and pregnancy. Cancers specific to women are associated with a significant burden of VTE; whilst the incidence of VTE in localised breast cancer is 5 per 1000 person-years, more cases are seen due to the prevalence of breast cancer. Treatment of VTE in women can be complicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, now increasingly reported with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as well as vitamin K antagonists...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Li-Jun Su, Yu-Liang Wang, Tao Han, Shan Qiao, Ke-Jun Zang, Huai-Kuan Wu, Yong-Xin Su, Ling-Ling Liu, Xue-Wu Liu
Background: Treatment of myoclonic seizures in myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRFs) has been empirical and ineffective. Guideline on this disease is not available. Additional trials must be conducted to find more suitable treatments for it. In this study, the antimyoclonic effects of monotherapies, including levetiracetam (LEV), clonazepam (CZP), valproic acid (VPA), and topiramate (TPM) compared to combination therapy group with LEV and CZP on MERRF, were evaluated to find a more advantageous approach on the treatment of myoclonic seizures...
October 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Barbara Cisterna, Federico Boschi, Anna C Croce, Rachele Podda, Serena Zanzoni, Daniele Degl'Innocenti, Paolo Bernardi, Manuela Costanzo, Pasquina Marzola, Viviana Covi, Gabriele Tabaracci, Manuela Malatesta
The production of Amarone wine is governed by a disciplinary guideline to preserve its typical features; however, postharvest infections by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) not only represent a phytosanitary problem but also cause a significant loss of product. In this study, we tested a treatment with mild ozoniztion on grapes for Amarone wine production during withering in the fruttaio (the environment imposed by the disciplinary guideline) and evaluated the impact on berry features by a multimodal imaging approach...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Krisztina Mikulás, Mercedes Linninger, Emőke Takács, Barbara Kispélyi, Katalin Nagy, Pál Fejérdy, Péter Hermann
Dental amalgam has been used for more than 150 years due to its beneficial mechanical properties and durability in dentistry. In the past and to date, many questions about amalgam restorations have arisen, especially regarding the mercury content, which has been the subject of global disputes. By presenting the past and present of the 'amalgam issue', the aim of our paper is to display the current position of international literature. This summary is based on the publications in the PubMed database, the guidelines of the Council of European Dentists...
October 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Johnson Lin, Ruey-Kuen Hsieh, Jen-Shi Chen, Kuan-Der Lee, Kun-Ming Rau, Yu-Yun Shao, Yung-Chuan Sung, Su-Peng Yeh, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Fang Wu, Ming-Yang Lee, Ming-Sun Yu, Chia-Jui Yen, Pang-Yu Lai, Wen-Li Hwang, Tzeon-Jye Chiou
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of pain in cancer outpatients in Taiwan and to investigate the impact of pain on quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction. Results were compared to those of a similarly designed study conducted in 2008 to identify trends. METHODS: Adult patients with cancer treated as outpatients in hospitals throughout Taiwan were recruited. Pain intensity and the extent to which pain interfered with QoL were self-reported using a modified version of the Brief Pain Inventory...
October 17, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
M Augustin, A Langenbruch, M Gutknecht, K Reich, A Körber, D Maaßen, U Mrowietz, D Thaçi, R von Kiedrowski, M A Radtke
BACKGROUND: Assessment of disease severity is an essential component of psoriasis management. Moderate-to-severe disease qualifies for systemic treatment but different definitions are used. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the impact of different severity definitions for psoriasis in real-world healthcare. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 3274 patients with psoriasis from more than 200 dermatology offices and clinics across Germany were analysed for disease severity based on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)...
October 17, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Matthew E Dilsizian, Eliot L Siegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An understanding of the basics concepts of deep learning can be helpful in not only understanding the potential applications of this technique but also in critically reviewing literature in which neural networks are utilized for analysis and modeling. RECENT FINDINGS: The term "deep learning" has been applied to a subset of machine learning that utilizes a "neural network" and is often used interchangeably with "artificial intelligence...
October 18, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Nathan H Parker, An Ngo-Huang, Rebecca E Lee, Daniel P O'Connor, Karen M Basen-Engquist, Maria Q B Petzel, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David R Fogelman, Keri L Schadler, Richard J Simpson, Jason B Fleming, Jeffrey E Lee, Gauri R Varadhachary, Sunil K Sahai, Matthew H G Katz
PURPOSE: Guidelines recommend exercise to cancer survivors, but limited data exists regarding exercise among patients undergoing preoperative cancer treatment. We examined differences in weekly self-reported exercise and accelerometer-measured physical activity among participants in a home-based exercise program administered during preoperative treatment for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Participants were encouraged to perform at least 60 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and at least 60 min/week of full-body strengthening exercises concurrent with chemotherapy, chemoradiation therapy or both sequentially and received resistance equipment, program instruction, and biweekly follow-up calls to encourage adherence...
October 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Sina Kianoush, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Allison Peng, Josep Comin-Colet, Michael J Blaha
In the recently published review "Coronary Artery Calcium: Recommendations for Risk Assessment in Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines," the following author name was inadvertently misspelled as Alison Peng. The correct spelling of the author's name is: Allison Peng as shown above.
October 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Zeng Wang, Yunsong Peng, Xinjun Cai, Yingying Cao, Guonong Yang, Ping Huang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abdominal surgery significantly affects the structure and function of the gastrointestinal system of patients, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an important nutrition support method for postoperative patients. However, in the process of TPN practice, the excessive fat emulsion and compound amino-acid prescriptions ratio are often prescribed by doctors. To address the problem, we developed the computerized TPN prescription management system to promote the personalized provision of TPN...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Li Tao, Richard B Schwab, Yazmin San Miguel, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Alison J Canchola, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Ian K Komenaka, James D Murphy, Alfredo A Molinolo, Maria Elena Martinez
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer in younger patients is reported to be more aggressive and associated with lower survival; however, factors associated with age-specific mortality differences have not been adequately assessed. METHODS: We used data from the population-based California Cancer Registry for 38,509 younger (18-49 years) and 121,573 older (50 years and older) women diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer, 2005-2014. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate breast cancer specific mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), stratified by tumor subtype, guideline treatment, and care at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCICC)...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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