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December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Andre Nathan Costa, Fernando Lundgren, Lessandra Michelin, Mara Rúbia Figueiredo, Marcelo Holanda, Mauro Gomes, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Ricardo Martins, Rodney Silva, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva, Mônica Corso Pereira
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the vast diversity of respiratory microbiota, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent pathogen among etiologic agents. Despite the significant decrease in the mortality rates for lower respiratory tract infections in recent decades, CAP ranks third as a cause of death in Brazil. Since the latest Guidelines on CAP from the Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT, Brazilian Thoracic Association) were published (2009), there have been major advances in the application of imaging tests, in etiologic investigation, in risk stratification at admission and prognostic score stratification, in the use of biomarkers, and in the recommendations for antibiotic therapy (and its duration) and prevention through vaccination...
September 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Luca Degli Esposti, Anna Girardi, Stefania Saragoni, Stefania Sella, Margherita Andretta, Maurizio Rossini, Sandro Giannini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of pharmacological treatment in osteoporosis patients with recent fracture and to assess the incidence of subsequent fracture and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This observational retrospective study was based on data from administrative databases of five Italian Local Health Units. Osteoporosis patients aged ≥ 50 years with hospitalization for vertebral or hip fracture occurring between 01/01/2011 and 31/12/2015 were included...
December 4, 2018: Endocrine
Benedict Hayhoe, Dani Kim, Paul P Aylin, F Azeem Majeed, Martin R Cowie, Alex Bottle
OBJECTIVE: Clinical guidelines on heart failure (HF) suggest timings for investigation and referral in primary care. We calculated the time for patients to achieve key elements in the recommended pathway to diagnosis of HF. METHODS: In this observational study, we used linked primary and secondary care data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a database of anonymised electronic records from UK general practices) between 2010 and 2013. Records were examined for presenting symptoms (breathlessness, fatigue, ankle swelling) and key elements of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence-recommended pathway to diagnosis (serum natriuretic peptide (NP) test, echocardiography, specialist referral)...
December 4, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
A Brinkmann, A C Röhr, O R Frey, W A Krüger, T Brenner, D C Richter, K-F Bodmann, M Kresken, B Grabein
In January 2018 the recent revision of the S2k guidelines on calculated parenteral initial treatment of bacterial diseases in adults-update 2018 (Editor: Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy, PEG) was realized. It is a helpful tool for the complex infectious disease setting in an intensive care unit. The present summary of the guidelines focuses on the topics of anti-infective agents, including new substances, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as on microbiology, resistance development and recommendations for calculated drug therapy in septic patients...
December 3, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Susan Reijntjes, Muna Albayaty, James Bush, Joseph Cheriyan, Anthea Cromie, Annelize Koch, Michael Hammond, Stuart Mair, Peter Scholes, Ulrike Lorch, Steffan Stringer, Jorg Taubel, Timothy C Hardman
The Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI) annual meeting focused on the changing face of early phase drug development and opened with a keynote speech concerning the revolution in pharmaceutical medicine over the last 30 years and the impact this has had on the way patients are treated. Examples were presented of how translational pharmaceutics is being used to tackle the high drug candidate failure rate and is improving productivity when moving drug candidates from the laboratory through to clinical proof of concept...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Richard J Wallace
We performed bedaquiline broth microdilution susceptibility using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines on 104 non-duplicate isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus complex [ M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (76), M. abscessus subsp. massiliense (10), M. abscessus subsp. bolletii , (2) and M. abscessus subsp. abscessus /subsp. massiliense hybrid, i.e., M. abscessus subsp. abscessus by rpoB gene and subsp. massiliense by erm (41) gene (16)]. All isolates from patients not known to have been on prior bedaquiline had MIC values ≤0...
December 3, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Claudia Gregoriano, Thomas Dieterle, Anna-Lisa Breitenstein, Selina Dürr, Amanda Baum, Sabrina Maier, Isabelle Arnet, Kurt E Hersberger, Jörg D Leuppi
BACKGROUND: The burden of asthma and COPD among patients is high and people affected are frequently hospitalized due to exacerbations. There are numerous reasons for the lack of disease control in asthma and COPD patients. It is associated with non-adherence to guidelines on the part of the health care provider and with poor inhalation technique and/or non-adherence to the prescribed treatment plan by the patient. This study aims to present data on inhaler technique and its impact on quality of life (QoL) and symptom control in a typical population of patients with chronic lung disease from a randomized controlled trial on medication adherence...
December 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Rajan Santosham, Rajiv Santosham, Sheba Sk Jacob, Ashwin Uday Phadke, Trilok Ponduru
Rosai-Dorfman disease or sinus histiocytosis is a nonmalignant disease chiefly presenting as a painless cervical lymphadenopathy, although extranodal involvement is also frequent. Involvement of the tracheobronchial tree is extremely rare, and there are no clear guidelines on management. Rosai-Dorfman disease usually presents as a tracheal tumor, although it may also present with extraluminal compression. Only 12 cases have been reported in the English language literature. Histopathology is required to confirm the diagnosis...
December 3, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Noah F Takah, Jeannine A Atem, Leopold N Aminde, Moffat Malisheni, Grant Murewenhema
BACKGROUND: The low level of male partner involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV services such as safe infant feeding practices poses a serious challenge to the implementation of guidelines on safe infant feeding and may undermine efforts towards elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV in sub Saharan Africa(SSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the approaches that have been utilized to improve male partner involvement in PMTCT services as well as their impact on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices by HIV positive mothers in SSA...
2018: PloS One
Susanne Koch, Claudia Spies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent recommendations on intraoperative electroencephalogram (EEG) neuromonitoring in the elderly aimed at the prevention of postoperative delirium and long-term neurocognitive decline. We discuss recent perioperative EEG investigations relating to aging and cognitive dysfunction, and their implications on intraoperative EEG neuromonitoring in elderly patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly can be reduced by monitoring depth of anesthesia, using an index number (0-100) derived from processed frontal EEG readings...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Mia Minen, Sarah Jinich, Gladys Vallespir Ellett
BACKGROUND: There are no clear guidelines on how to treat posttraumatic headache (PTH) or post-concussive symptoms (PCS). However, behavioral interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and relaxation are Level-A evidence-based treatments for headache prevention. To understand how to develop and study further mind-body interventions (MBIs) and behavioral therapies for PTH and PCS, we developed the following question using the PICO framework: Are behavioral therapies and MBIs effective for treating PTH and PCS? METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of 3 databases (Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) for behavioral interventions and MBIs with the subject headings and keywords for PTH, concussion, and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
December 1, 2018: Headache
Jigisha Patel
Manipulation of the publication process is a relatively new form of misconduct affecting the publishing industry. This editorial describes what it is, why it is difficult for individual journal editors and publishers to handle and the background to the development of the new COPE guidelines on how to manage publication process manipulation. These new guidelines represent an important first step towards encouraging openness and collaboration between publishers to address this phenomenon.
2018: Research Integrity and Peer Review
Sunny George Gwanpua, Abdul Jabbar, Jeritah Tongonya, Sue Nicholson, Andrew R East
Background: Ability to measure ethylene is an important aspect of postharvest management, as knowledge of endogenous ethylene production is used in assessing physiological status, while response of crops to exogenous ethylene informs efforts needed to control unwanted ripening. An ethylene monitoring device with a laser-based photoacoustic detector, ETD-300, was recently developed by Sensor Sense B.V., Nijmegen, The Netherlands. In terms of performance, the ETD-300 is superior to all other current ethylene measurement devices, with a sensitivity of 0...
2018: Plant Methods
Sanjay Kalra, Rajiv Singla, Rahul Rosha, Munish Dhawan
Ketogenic diet is gaining popularity as a nonpharmacological intervention for weight loss and glycaemic control. There is abundant literature on this topic, which serves to confuse the reader. No scientific recommendations have been formulated to guide evidence-based or rational use of ketogenic diet in obesity and diabetes management. This article is a situational analysis of leading professional guidelines on diabetes care, with regards to their coverage of ketogenic diet. It underscores the need for leading experts to pay attention to this upcoming field of metabolic medicine...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Cindy E Neunert, Nichola Cooper
In 1996 and 2011, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) supported efforts to create guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These guidelines used different approaches to arrive at recommendations for testing and treatment. Despite differences in methodology, in both cases there was a paucity of randomized trials to inform recommendations. As data on the diagnosis and management of ITP expands, the ASH Committee on Quality is dedicated to maintaining updated guidelines representing recent evidence and guideline methodology...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
C Egrot, A Dinh, G Amarenco, L Bernard, G Birgand, F Bruyère, E Chartier-Kastler, M Cosson, X Deffieux, P Denys, M Etienne, B Fatton, X Fritel, X Gamé, C Lawrence, L Lenormand, D Lepelletier, J-C Lucet, E Marit Ducamp, C Pulcini, G Robain, E Senneville, M de Sèze, A Sotto, J-R Zahar, F Caron, J-F Hermieu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to issue clinical practice guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis in urodynamics (urodynamic studies, UDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical practice guidelines were provided using a formal consensus method. Guidelines proposals were drew up by a multidisciplinary experts group (pilot group = steering group), then rated by a panel of 12 experts (rating group) using a formal consensus method, and then peer reviewed by a reviewing/reading group of experts (different from the rating group)...
November 27, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Johanna Denman, Keith Radcliffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Lili Yuen, Sara Bontempo, Vincent W Wong, Hamish Russell
AIM: During pregnancy, some women have a low glucose level on the 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The implications of this are unclear and there is no guideline on how to manage these women. METHOD: We recruited pregnant women with a glucose level <3.5mmol/L at 1- or 2-hour during a screening antenatal OGTT. These women (Group 1) underwent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) over a two-week period. We also compared Group 1's demographic and pregnancy outcomes data with women who had normal OGTT results (Group 2) and women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (Group 3)...
November 27, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Charuta Joshi, Chelsey Stillman, Stephanie Criteser, Jennifer Oliver, Alison Conley, Stefan Sillau, Beth Zupec-Kania
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively assess the incidence of high beta hydroxybutyrate, low bicarbonate (BIC), high acyl carnitine, low selenium, low magnesium, low zinc, low phosphorus, in a cohort of supplemented patients treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) for medically intractable epilepsy. To analyze effect of age, duration of exposure to KD, type of KD, and route of KD intake on lab abnormalities. To analyze the incidence of clinically actionable results, resulting in medical interventions based on abnormal results and to analyze costs of testing...
November 16, 2018: Epilepsy Research
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