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Melanoma radiotherapy

Hai-Yan Chen, Lei Xu, Lin-Feng Li, Xiao-Xing Liu, Jian-Xin Gao, Yong-Rui Bai
Endogenous immune response participates in tumor control, and radiotherapy has immune modulatory capacity, but the role of immune modulation in the tumor microenvironment invoked by radiotherapy in radiosensitivity is poorly defined. In the present study, a radio-resistant melanoma cell line was obtained after repeated irradiation to the parental tumor in C57BL/6 mice. Radiotherapy resulted in aggregation of CD8+ and CD3+ T cells, and decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and dendritic cells in the parental tumor, but not in the resistant tumors...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sati Akbaba, Robert Foerster, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Nathalie Arians, Tilman Bostel, Juergen Debus, Henrik Hauswald
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to analyze clinical outcome, visual acuity and enucleation rates after linear accelerator-based stereotactic fractionated photon radiotherapy for primary uveal melanoma. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with primary uveal melanoma treated at the Department of Radiation and Oncology of the University Hospital Heidelberg between 1991 and 2015 were analyzed regarding survival and treatment-related toxicity including eye- and sight-preservation...
August 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Yuequan Shi, Zhongxing Bing, Xiaohui Xu, Yushang Cui
Primary malignant melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pulmonary carcinoma. Only 45 cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of a 46-year-old male patient with an O Rh negative blood type who presented with pulmonary bronchial symptoms and underwent lobectomy. Genetic testing was also performed but no targetable mutations were found, and the patient's PD-L1 RNA level was low. He developed brain metastasis four months after surgery and received radiotherapy but died 21 months after diagnosis...
July 30, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Paul Lesueur, Justine Lequesne, Victor Barraux, William Kao, Julien Geffrelot, Jean-Michel Grellard, Jean-Louis Habrand, Evelyne Emery, Brigitte Marie, Juliette Thariat, Dinu Stefan
BACKGROUND: Until 50% of patients with renal cancer or melanoma, develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Stereotactic radiotherapy has become a standard of care for patients with a limited number of brain metastases. Given the radioresistant nature of melanoma and renal cancer, optimization of the fractionation of stereotactic radiotherapy is needed. The purpose of this retrospective study was to elucidate if hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) impacts local control of brain metastases from radioresistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cancer, in comparison with radiosurgery (SRS)...
July 28, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Kevin Martell, Yannick Poirier, Tiezhi Zhang, Alana Hudson, David Spencer, Ferenc Jacso, Richard Hayashi, Robyn Banerjee, Rao Khan, Nathan Wolfe, Jon-Paul Voroney
Deep periocular cancers can be difficult to plan and treat with radiation, given the difficulties in apposing bolus to skin, and the proximity to the retina and other optic structures. We sought to compare the combination of electrons and orthovoltage therapy (OBE) with existing modalities for these lesions. Four cases-a retro-orbital melanoma (Case 1) and basal cell carcinomas, extending across the eyelid (Case 2) or along the medial canthus (Cases 3-4)-were selected for comparison. In each case, radiotherapy plans for electron only, 70% electron and 30% orthovoltage (OBE), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), conformal arc, and protons were compared...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Babak Masoomian, Arman Mashayekhi, Kunal Malik, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To report treatment of vitreous seeding of choroidal melanoma with monthly injections of intravitreal melphalan. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 70-year-old white woman noted floaters in her left eye, and further examination revealed visual acuity of 20/30 in both eyes. Funduscopically, there was a mushroom-shaped choroidal melanoma in her left eye, measuring 9 mm in basal dimension and 4.8 mm in thickness. Notably, there was apical retinal invasion of melanoma with mild vitreous hemorrhage, without vitreous seeding...
July 25, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Claudius Melzig, Azadeh Fahim Golestaneh, Walter Mier, Christian Schwager, Samayita Das, Julian Schlegel, Felix Lasitschka, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Jürgen Debus, Uwe Haberkorn, Amir Abdollahi
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with carbon ions and endoradiotherapy using radiolabeled tumor targeting agents are emerging concepts in precision cancer therapy. We report on combination effects of these two promising strategies. Tumor targeting 131 I-labelled anti-EGFR-antibody (Cetuximab) was used in the prototypic EGFR-expressing A431 human squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model. A 131 I-labelled melanin-binding benzamide derivative was utilized targeting B16F10 melanoma in an orthotopic syngeneic C57bl6 model...
July 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Anissa Roger, Adeline Finet, Blandine Boru, Alain Beauchet, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Yves Otzmeguine, Astrid Blom, Christine Longvert, Marie-Florence de Maleissye, Magali Fort, Elisa Funck-Brentano, Philippe Saiag
Information on the role of radiotherapy in anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody-treated melanoma patients is limited. We report on a prospective cohort of advanced melanoma patients treated simultaneously with radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 therapy between 01/01/15 and 30/06/16. Tumor evaluations (RECIST 1.1) were performed every 3 months on radiated and non-radiated lesions. Twenty-five advanced melanoma patients (64% AJCC stage IV M1c, 64% on second-line treatment or more, 60% with elevated LDH serum levels) were included...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser
Patients with brain metastases (BM) are a population of high clinical need for new therapeutic approaches due to, as yet, very impaired survival prognosis. However, only few clinical trials have specifically addressed this prognostically highly heterogeneous patient population. New developments in the treatment of BM patients aim to reduce the side effects of local therapies, for example, by redefining the indications for stereotactic radiosurgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or introducing new applications like hippocampal sparing WBRT...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Geoffrey Martinage, Angela M Hong, Mike Fay, Thanuja Thachil, Daniel Roos, Narelle Williams, Serigne Lo, Gerald Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) often cause morbidity and mortality for stage IV melanoma patients. An ongoing randomised phase III trial (NCT01503827 - WBRT-Mel) evaluates the role of adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) following local treatment of MBM. Hippocampal avoidance during WBRT (HA-WBRT) has shown memory and neurocognitive function (NCF) preservation in the RTOG-0933 phase II study. This study assessed the quality assurance of HA-WBRT within the WBRT-Mel trial according to RTOG-0933 study criteria...
July 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Philip A Doble, George L Gabor Miklos
Many cancers are variably resistant to radiation treatment: some patients die within months, while others with the same tumour type and equivalent radiation protocol, survive for years. To determine why some tumours are radiosensitive, while others return after radiotherapy, requires new non-traditional approaches to oncology. Herein we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to test the hypothesis that Mn functions as a metabolic radioprotector and is an apex predictor of tumour radioresponsiveness...
July 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Teresa B Steinbichler, Undine Hauser, Volker H Schartinger, József Dudás, Herbert Riechelmann
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Even if it is quite rare, the incidence has increased about two fold during the last twenty years. Mortality is higher than in malignant melanoma. Risk factors are chronic UV exposition and immunosuppression. MCC are most common in patients over 70 years and half of them manifest in the head and neck region. They early metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Surgical therapy should include wide resection of the primary tumor and diagnostic lymph node excision...
July 13, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Zélia M Correa, Bradley Huth, James J Augsburger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, potential correlation with transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy, and treatment of scleral necrosis in patients with posterior uveal melanomas treated by 125I plaque radiotherapy and assessed by transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy. METHODS: We per-formed a retrospective review of posterior uveal melanoma treated by 125I plaque radiotherapy at a single academic institution between July 2006 and July 2013. Consecutive patients diagnosed with a posterior uveal melanoma during the study period that had an anterior margin at or anterior to the equator who were evaluated by transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy prior to 125I plaque radiotherapy were included...
July 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Babak Masoomian, Carol L Shields, Arman Mashayekhi, Arupa Ganguly, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: To report a case of presumed choroidal nevus that eventually grew into melanoma in a patient with family history of choroidal melanoma and germline BAP1 mutation. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 55-year-old healthy white woman with a family history of uveal melanoma in her father, paternal aunt, and paternal cousin was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic small pigmented choroidal lesion in her right eye, measuring 2 mm × 2 mm in basal diameter and 1 mm in thickness...
July 6, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Mark P Little, Cari M Kitahara, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Marie-Odile Bernier, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Michele M Doody, David Borrego, Jeremy S Miller, Bruce H Alexander, Steven L Simon, Dale L Preston, Craig Meyer, Martha S Linet, Nobuyuki Hamada
There are well-documented associations of glaucoma with high-dose radiation exposure, but only a single study suggesting risk of glaucoma, and less conclusively macular degeneration, associated with moderate-dose exposure. We assessed risk of glaucoma and macular degeneration associated with occupational eye-lens radiation dose, using participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, followed from the date of surveys in 1994-1998, 2003-2005 to the earliest of diagnosis of glaucoma or macular degeneration, cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer, or date of last survey (2012-2014)...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
E Birkeland, S Zhang, D Poduval, J Geisler, S Nakken, D Vodak, L A Meza-Zepeda, E Hovig, O Myklebost, S Knappskog, P E Lønning
Genomic alterations occurring during melanoma progression and the resulting genomic heterogeneity between metastatic deposits remain incompletely understood. Analyzing 86 metastatic melanoma deposits from 53 patients with whole-exome sequencing (WES), we show a low branch to trunk mutation ratio and little intermetastatic heterogeneity, with driver mutations almost completely shared between lesions. Branch mutations consistent with UV damage indicate that metastases may arise from different subclones in the primary tumor...
July 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Harmke J Groot, Sjoukje Lubberts, Ronald de Wit, Johannes A Witjes, Jan Martijn Kerst, Igle J de Jong, Gerard Groenewegen, Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Philip M Poortmans, Heinz-Josef Klümpen, Hetty A van den Berg, Tineke J Smilde, Ben G L Vanneste, Maureen J Aarts, Luca Incrocci, Alfons C M van den Bergh, Katarzyna Jóźwiak, Alexandra W van den Belt-Dusebout, Simon Horenblas, Jourik A Gietema, Flora E van Leeuwen, Michael Schaapveld
Purpose Testicular cancer (TC) treatment increases risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unknown whether changes in TC treatment over time have affected SMN risk. Methods Solid SMN risk was evaluated in a multicenter cohort comprising 5,848 1-year survivors treated for TC before age 50 years between 1976 and 2007. SMN incidence was compared with cancer incidence in the general population. Treatment-specific risks were assessed using multivariable regression in a case-cohort design. Results After a median follow-up of 14...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jaeyeon Choi, Wissam Beaino, Ronald Fecek, Kellsye Fabian, Charles M Laymon, Brenda Kurland, Walter Storkus, Carolyn J Anderson
Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; also known as integrin α4β1) is expressed at high levels in aggressive and metastatic melanoma tumors and may provide an ideal target for imaging and targeted radiotherapy. 177 Lu-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A (177 Lu-LLP2A) shows high affinity for VLA-4 and had high uptake in B16F10 mouse melanoma tumors in vivo. Here, we report efficacy studies of 177 Lu-LLP2A, alone and combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice. Methods: B16F10 tumor cells (1 x 106) were implanted subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Nobuhiko Arai, Hiroshi Kagami, Yutaka Mine, Toshiharu Ishii, Makoto Inaba
INTRODUCTION: Primary solitary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) is extremely rare. In 1992, an extensive review of 81 patients with PIMM was undertaken. Imaging studies, microsurgery, and adjuvant therapy have developed considerably over the last 25 years, and targeted therapy have recently been proven successful for metastatic melanoma. These factors could influence current and future clinical PIMM results. METHOD: We undertook a literature search of PIMM patients since 1992...
June 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ilhan Elmaci, Meric A Altinoz
Pimozide is currently being used in clinic as a neuroleptic and exerts versatile biological actions. Pimozide is a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD); CADs block the synthesis of neutral lipids, impair cholesterol homeostasis of cancer cells and increase accumulation of diacylglycerol-3-phosphate. Pimozide exerts tumoricidal activity which was first shown for melanoma and neuroblastoma via proposed anti- dopaminergic effects. Recently, pancreas cancers are shown to elevate dopamine receptor-2 synthesis, which is blocked by pimozide leading growth inhibition...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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