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Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
L C Perkin, E N Elpidina, B Oppert
Tribolium castaneum is a major agriculture pest damaging stored grains and cereal products. The T. castaneum genome contains 26 cysteine peptidase genes, mostly cathepsins L and B, and seven have a major role in digestion. We targeted the expression of the most highly expressed cathepsin L gene on chromosome 10, TC011001, by RNA interference (RNAi), using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) constructs of different regions of the gene (3', middle, 5' and entire coding regions). RNA sequencing and quantitation (RNA-seq) was used to evaluate knockdown and specificity amongst the treatments...
October 22, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Motahare Soufi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
PURPOSE: Determination of intra-tumor high-uptake area using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important consideration for dose painting in radiation treatment applications. The aim of our study was to develop a framework towards automated segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in clinical lung [(18)F]FDG-PET with the capability of intra-tumor high-uptake region delineation. PROCEDURES: We utilized and extended a fuzzy random walk PET tumor segmentation algorithm to delineate intra-tumor high-uptake areas...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Lucía Cea Soriano, Alex Asiimwe, Luis A García Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prescribing patterns of cyproterone acetate/ethinylestradiol (CPA/EE) in the UK before and after the 2013 prescribing guidance. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study in UK general practice. The study population included women with a first prescription (index date) for CPA/EE in The Health Improvement Network during 2011 (N=2760), 2012 (N=2923) and 2014 (N=2341). We evaluated the proportion of new CPA/EE users with i) a diagnosis of a hyperandrogenic condition, menstrual problem, consultation for contraception management, other acne treatment, in the year before the index date; ii) proportion of new CPA/EE users with concomitant use of another hormonal contraceptive (HC)...
October 18, 2016: Contraception
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
Ursula Oestreicher, Daniel Samaga, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Ana Catarina Antunes, Ans Baeyens, Leonardo Barrios, Christina Beinke, Philip Beukes, William F Blakely, Alexandra Cucu, Andrea De Amicis, Julie Depuydt, Stefania De Sanctis, Marina Di Giorgio, Katalin Dobos, Inmaculada Dominguez, Pham Ngoc Duy, Marco E Espinoza, Farrah N Flegal, Markus Figel, Omar Garcia, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Eric Gregoire, C Guerrero-Carbajal, İnci Güçlü, Valeria Hadjidekova, Prakash Hande, Ulrike Kulka, Jennifer Lemon, Carita Lindholm, Florigio Lista, Katalin Lumniczky, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Nataliya Maznyk, Roberta Meschini, Radia M'kacher, Alegria Montoro, Jayne Moquet, Mercedes Moreno, Mihaela Noditi, Jelena Pajic, Analía Radl, Michelle Ricoul, Horst Romm, Laurence Roy, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Jacobus Slabbert, Sylwester Sommer, Monica Stuck Oliveira, Uma Subramanian, Yumiko Suto, Tran Que, Antonella Testa, Georgia Terzoudi, Anne Vral, Ruth Wilkins, LusiYanti Yanti, Demetre Zafiropoulos, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: Two quality controlled inter-laboratory exercises were organized within the EU project 'Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB)' to further optimize the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and to identify needs for training and harmonization activities within the RENEB network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The general study design included blood shipment, sample processing, analysis of chromosome aberrations and radiation dose assessment. After manual scoring of dicentric chromosomes in different cell numbers dose estimations and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were submitted by the participants...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Kelvin I Afrashtehfar, Elham Emami, Motahareh Ahmadi, Samer Abi-Nader, Faleh Tamimi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: No knowledge synthesis exists concerning when to use a direct restoration versus a complete-coverage indirect restoration in posterior vital teeth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the failure rate of conventional single-unit tooth-supported restorations in posterior permanent vital teeth as a function of remaining tooth structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases were searched electronically, and 8 selected journals were searched manually up to February 2015...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Bishal Gyawali, Alessandra Ferrario, Edwin van Teijlingen, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetes has become an increasingly prevalent and severe public health problem in Nepal. The Nepalese health system is struggling to deliver comprehensive, quality treatment and services for diabetes at all levels of health care. This study aims to review evidence on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact...
2016: Global Health Action
Silje E Reme, Torill H Tveito, Anette Harris, Stein Atle Lie, Astrid Grasdal, Aage Indahl, Jens Ivar Brox, Tone Tangen, Eli Molde Hagen, Sigmund Gismervik, Arit Ødegård, Livar Fryland, Egil A Fors, Trudie Chalder, Hege R Eriksen
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a tailored and manualized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or nutritional supplements of seal oil and soy oil had any additional benefits over a brief cognitive intervention (BI) on return to work (RTW). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Brief intervention programs are clinically beneficial and cost-effective for patients with low back pain (LBP)...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Stephen J Nicholas, Steven J Lee, Michael J Mullaney, Timothy F Tyler, Takumi Fukunaga, Christopher D Johnson, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: The functional benefits of double-row (DR) versus single-row (SR) rotator cuff repair are not clearly established. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of DR versus SR rotator cuff repair on functional outcomes and strength recovery in patients with full-thickness tears. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were randomized to DR or SR repairs; 36 patients (13 women, 23 men; mean age, 62 ± 7 years; 20 SR, 16 DR) were assessed at a mean 2...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
H H G Handoll, S D Brealey, L Jefferson, A Keding, A J Brooksbank, A J Johnstone, J J Candal-Couto, A Rangan
OBJECTIVES: Accurate characterisation of fractures is essential in fracture management trials. However, this is often hampered by poor inter-observer agreement. This article describes the practicalities of defining the fracture population, based on the Neer classification, within a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial in which surgical treatment was compared with non-surgical treatment in adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Fang Zhang, WenMing Hong, Yan Guo, QianYing Guo, XiaoPeng Hu
BACKGROUND: Microsurgery is a common treatment of brainstem tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, nerves injuries, paralysis, even death are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less experienced operators. This study was aimed to validate the accuracy of multimodal neuronavigation during microsurgery resection of brainstem tumors. METHODS: Ten patients with brainstem tumors underwent preoperative MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, computed tomography, three-dimensional print, and images loaded into the neuronavigation platform were used for its segmentation and preoperative planning...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marcelo Epsztein Kanczuk, Nicholas Martin Barrett, Cristian Arzola, Kristi Downey, Xiang Y Ye, Jose C A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Most studies that have compared programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) with continuous epidural infusion regimens have included patient-controlled epidural analgesia and/or manual bolus as rescue analgesia for breakthrough pain. Consequently, the optimal time interval between PIEB is yet to be determined. We designed a study to establish the optimal time interval between PIEB of 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL to produce effective analgesia in 90% of women during first stage of labor without breakthrough pain...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Marcella Nebbioso, Valeria Fameli, Magda Gharbiya, Marta Sacchetti, Anna Maria Zicari, Alessandro Lambiase
The dry eye disease (DED) is a chronic multifactorial disorder of the tears that also involves the ocular surface, the lacrimal glands, and meibomian dysfunction. Furthermore, DED is often associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and other autoimmune disorders. Sometimes, this chronic or subclinical condition is difficult to diagnose and treat, due to its heterogeneity. Areas covered: A literature search of relevant publications about treatment of DED was performed. All relevant articles published between 2011 and 2016 were identified through a computerized search for review and clinical trials using Pub Med database...
October 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
T Munk-Olsen, M L Maegbaek, B M Johannsen, X Liu, L M Howard, A di Florio, V Bergink, S Meltzer-Brody
Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed to do in the present study. We designed a descriptive prospective study and included information from Danish population registers to study first-time ever and recurrent psychiatric episodes during the perinatal period, including treatment at psychiatric facilities and general practitioners (GPs)...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Steven Steinhubl
Despite having the basic tools necessary to appropriately identify and manage individuals with hypertension for over half a century it remains the single greatest contributing risk factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide today. Since diagnosis and effective treatment availability are not issues, this major failing in care can be attributed to inadequate systems of care: systems that have led to only <20% of hypertensive individuals globally having their blood pressure adequately controlled. Even in the US, where it is one of the most common reasons for a primary care visit, and with over $42...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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