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eosinophilic diseases

Diogo Tiago da Silva, Maria Luana Alves, Júlio Cesar Pereira Spada, Rita de Cássia Viveiros da Silveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira, Wilma Aparecida Starke-Buzetti
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum and can cause an inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract, however the role of granulocytic cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells) in the intestine of dogs infected is not fully understood. We performed a quantitative analysis these cells in the intestinal wall of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: group 1 (G1, n=8), dogs with CVL and L. infantum amastigotes in the intestine; group 2 (G2, n=9), dogs with CVL but without intestinal amastigotes; and group 3 (G3, n=3), uninfected dogs (control group)...
October 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Marie McGee Hargrove, John K McGee, Eugene A Gibbs-Flournoy, Charles E Wood, Yong Ho Kim, M Ian Gilmour, Stephen H Gavett
Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM) is associated with lung inflammation and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in sensitive populations, but the degree to which specific emission sources contribute to these effects is unclear. We examined whether coarse PM samples enriched with diverse sources differentially exacerbate allergic airway responses. Coarse PM was collected weekly (7/2009-6/2010) from urban (G.T. Craig [GTC]) and rural (Chippewa Lake Monitor [CLM]) sites in the Cleveland, Ohio area. Source apportionment results were used to pool GTC filter PM extracts into five samples dominated by traffic, coal, steel (two samples), or road salt sources...
December 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Ayesha Riaz, Muhammad Ahsan Riaz, Luqman Khan, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ghulam Hussain, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Qasim
Asthma a chronic airway inflammatory disease mainly characterized by airways obstruction. Airway hyper responsiveness particularly in eosinophils and inflammatory mediators affect the bronchial mucosa. Genetic association studies show the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the STAT6 gene with asthma risk. Role of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is acute for T-helper 2 (Th2) mediated responses during allergic airway diseases. Objective was to investigate whether the two single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4559 and rs324011) in STAT6 gene are associated with non-atopic asthma risk in Pakistani population...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
B Garel, S Ingen-Housz-Oro, D Afriat, C Prost-Squarcioni, F Tétart, B Bensaid, C Bara Passot, M Beylot-Barry, V Descamps, S Duvert-Lehembre, S Grootenboer-Mignot, G Jeudy, A Soria, M B Valnet-Rabier, A Barbaud, F Caux, B Lebrun-Vignes
AIMS: Linear immunoglobin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare autoimmune dermatosis considered spontaneous or drug-induced (DILAD). We assessed all DILAD cases, determined the imputability score of drugs, highlighted suspected drugs. METHODS: Data for patients with DILAD were collected retrospectively from the French Pharmacovigilance network (from 1985 to 2017) and from physicians involved in the Bullous Diseases French Study Group and the French Investigators for Skin Adverse Reactions to Drugs...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Arianna Calcinotto, Arianna Brevi, Marta Chesi, Roberto Ferrarese, Laura Garcia Perez, Matteo Grioni, Shaji Kumar, Victoria M Garbitt, Meaghen E Sharik, Kimberly J Henderson, Giovanni Tonon, Michio Tomura, Yoshihiro Miwa, Enric Esplugues, Richard A Flavell, Samuel Huber, Filippo Canducci, Vincent S Rajkumar, P Leif Bergsagel, Matteo Bellone
The gut microbiota has been causally linked to cancer, yet how intestinal microbes influence progression of extramucosal tumors is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence implying that Prevotella heparinolytica promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells colonizing the gut and migrating to the bone marrow (BM) of transgenic Vk*MYC mice, where they favor progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Lack of IL-17 in Vk*MYC mice, or disturbance of their microbiome delayed MM appearance. Similarly, in smoldering MM patients, higher levels of BM IL-17 predicted faster disease progression...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Aline Lima-Matos, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Juliana Pires Viana de Jesus, Paula Cristina Andrade Almeida, Valmar Bião Lima, Namhee Kwon, John Riley, Luane Marques de Mello, Álvaro A Cruz
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a syndrome with multiple phenotypes. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts might be the ideal biomarker to identify subjects with eosinophilic asthma. It is available, inexpensive, and it is associated with eosinophilia in sputum. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood eosinophilia is associated with asthma severity and to evaluate whether blood eosinophilia is associated with lack of control of asthma symptoms and airway obstruction...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Eugene H Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is a collectin protein expressed in airway epithelia that is critical in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immunity against inhaled pathogens. In this review, we highlight associations of altered SP-A function in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis, and its potential role as a targeted therapy for sinusitis. RECENT FINDINGS: SP-A has been shown to bind and opsonize inhaled pathogens, thereby clearing bacteria through phagocytosis...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ichiro Tojima, Takeshi Shimizu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease and is recently classified into two phenotypes, eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS. ECRS is characterized by Th2-biased eosinophilic inflammation, and non-ECRS is characterized by Th1-biased neutrophilic inflammation. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and exert critical roles in Th2-type immune responses. We summarize our current knowledge about the pathogenic roles of ILC2s in ECRS...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Piotr Szczęsny, Katarzyna Świerkocka, Marzena Olesińska
Despite its misleading adjective, the most commonly used diagnostic criteria of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are applicable only after all other non-autoimmune muscle diseases have been excluded. It makes differential diagnosis the first step when approaching a patient with muscle weakness. This article is designed to list the most common conditions from which to differentiate in rheumatological care. In fact, many patients with the diseases described here have been initially misdiagnosed with IIM...
2018: Reumatologia
N Hayyan Basripuzi, M Shahrom Salisi, N Mahiza Md Isa, Valentina Busin, Callum Cairns, Caitlin Jenvey, Michael J Stear
Gastrointestinal nematode infection is one of the major diseases affecting small ruminants. Although some breeds of goats are quite resistant, many breeds of goats are relatively susceptible. This study used a combined parasitological, immunological, bioinformatic and statistical approach to examine the role of goat IgA and eosinophils in protection against Teladorsagia circumcincta. Molecular modelling suggested that the transmembrane domain of the high affinity IgA receptor was dysfunctional in goats. Statistical analyses failed to find any association in naturally infected goats between high IgA or eosinophil responses and low faecal egg counts...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Chun Hua Piao, Thi Tho Bui, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Tae-Geum Kim, Ok Hee Chai
ETHNOPHARMOCOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dryopteris crassirhizoma (DC) is used as a traditional herbal remedy to treat various diseases, the tapeworm infection, common cold, and cancer in Korea, Japan, and China. DC also has the antioxidant anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. However, anti-allergic inflammatory effect of DC and some of its mechanisms in allergic rhinitis model is unknown well. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-allergic inflammatory effect of DC on the allergic rhinitis model, mast cell activation and histamine release...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mona Bhargava, Saket Benurwar, S Krishnakumar
PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of conjunctival colloid milium. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: We report a 45-year-old woman with a history of a slow-growing, painless mass extending from the medial canthal region to the inferior fornix and the inferior bulbar conjunctiva associated with redness. The patient underwent excisional biopsy of the lesion with amniotic membrane transplantation for the resulting conjunctival defect. Biopsy showed homogenous amorphous eosinophilic material with gaps...
November 27, 2018: Cornea
L Brussino, E Heffler, C Bucca, S Nicola, G Rolla
Asthma is a chronic and heterogeneous disease, which is defined as severe disease whenever it requires treatment with a high dose of inhaled corticosteroids plus a second controller and/or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming ''uncontrolled" or if it remains ''uncontrolled" despite this therapy. Severe asthma is a heterogeneous condition consisting of phenotypes such as eosinophilic asthma, which is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, associated with mild to moderate increase in blood eosinophil count, frequently adult-onset, and associated with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in half of the cases...
2018: BioMed Research International
Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: NSAID-Exacerbated Disease (N-ERD) is a chronic eosinophilic inflammatory disorder of the respiratory tract occurring in patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, whose symptoms are exacerbated by NSAIDs. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management of N-ERD, and to emphasize heterogeneity of this syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence indicates that N-ERD, which has been considered a separate asthma phenotype, is heterogenous, and can be divided in several subphenotypes varying in clinical characteristics...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Melissa Grant, Ola Kilsgård, Sigvard Åkerman, Björn Klinge, Ryan T Demmer, Johan Malmström, Daniel Jönsson
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse family of peptides that defend the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and other locations. Many AMPs have multiple functions and properties that influence aspects of innate defense and colonization by microorganisms. The human oral cavity is home to the second-most diverse microbiome, and the health of the mouth is influenced by the presence of these bacteria as well as by extrinsic factors such as periodontitis and smoking. This study hypothesized that the AMP profile is different in the presence of extrinsic factors and that this would also be reflected in the bacteria present...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Alvise Berti, Roberto Caporali, Carlomaurizio Montecucco, Giuseppe Paolazzi, Sara Monti
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) usually affect adults and older populations. The well recognized clinical (i.e., granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA], microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic GPA) and serological phenotypes (i.e., anti-MPO-ANCA, anti-PR3-ANCA and ANCA negative) within AAV differ substantially for clinical, demographic, and epidemiological features, including age at presentation. Whether and how aging could contribute to the clinical expression of these disease phenotypes is intriguing and still overlooked...
November 28, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Marjorie M Walker, Michael D Potter, Nicholas J Talley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic colitis is a rare condition, with a prevalence rate in the USA of 2-3/100 000 persons (0.003%), but diagnosed in 0.1% of biopsies in those colonoscoped for diarrhoea. Secondary colonic eosinophilia is more common and associated with systemic, colonic and infectious diseases. In this review, the latest advances in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are summarized and discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: What constitutes a 'normal' count of eosinophils is poorly documented but there are recent studies that establish normal colonic eosinophil ranges as well as distinguishing histological and clinical findings in primary eosinophilic colitis and secondary colonic eosinophilia in children and adults...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Tetsuji Takabayashi, Yukie Tanaka, Dai Susuki, Kanako Yoshida, Kaori Tomita, Masafumi Sakashita, Yoshimasa Imoto, Yukinori Kato, Norihiko Narita, Tsugihisa Nakayama, Shinichi Haruna, Robert P Schleimer, Shigeharu Fujieda
BACKGROUND: Most patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) suffer from recurrence of nasal polyps. However, little is known about the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of nasal polyp development in patients with NERD in particular, especially at baseline when cyclooxygenase 1 inhibitors are not present. The objectives of this study were to identify proteins involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps in patients with NERD...
November 26, 2018: Allergy
Tiffany H Taft, Emily Kern, Kristen Starkey, Jenna Craft, Meredith Craven, Bethany Doerfler, Laurie Keefer, Peter Kahrilas, John Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Esophageal dysphagia is a common symptom in gastroenterology practice. Current rapid assessment tools are limited to oropharyngeal dysphagia and do not translate well to esophageal conditions. We aim to create a novel tool, the dysphagia stress test (DST), to evaluate swallowing in patients with esophageal disease characterized by dysphagia. METHODS: Adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), achalasia, and dysphagia not otherwise specified (NOS) participated...
November 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Zafar Rasheed, Khaled Zedan, Ghada Bin Saif, Ragaa H Salama, Tarek Salem, Ahmed A Ahmed, Alaa Abd El-Moniem, Maha Elkholy, Ahmad A Al Robaee, Abdullateef A Alzolibani
Background: Allergic reactions have been implicated as contributions in a number of atopic disorders, including atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis (AR) and bronchial asthma (BA). However, the potential for filaggrin protein, eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) to elicit allergic response or to contribute to atopic disorders remains largely unexplored in pediatric patients. This study was undertaken to investigate the status and contribution of filaggrin protein, eosinophil MBP and total IgE in pediatric patients with AD, AR and BA...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
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