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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340515/inflammatory-potential-of-diet-and-risk-of-oral-and-pharyngeal-cancer-in-a-large-case-control-study-from-italy
#1
Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Valentina Rosato, Werner Garavello, Diego Serraino, Carlo La Vecchia
Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer. We examined the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and oral and pharyngeal cancer in a large case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2009 in Italy. This study included 946 cases with incident, histologically confirmed oral and pharyngeal cancer, and 2492 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed by a valid 78-item food frequency questionnaire and was adjusted for non-alcohol energy intake using the residual approach (E-DII)...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340238/cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-endotoxin-induced-lung-injury-and-pulmonary-edema-in-mice
#2
Jeffrey E Gotts, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Haru Yanagisawa, Naoki Takasaka, Stephen L Nishimura, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Introduction: Cigarette smoking (CS) remains a major public health concern and has recently been associated with an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) experiments in human volunteers have demonstrated that active smokers develop increased alveolar-epithelial barrier permeability to protein after inhaling lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we tested the hypothesis that short-term whole-body CS exposure would increase LPS-induced lung edema in mice...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340231/prevalence-and-determinants-of-premature-menopause-among-indian-women-issues-and-challenges-ahead
#3
Suresh Banayya Jungari, Bal Govind Chauhan
Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause in women less than 40 years of age. This heterogeneous disorder affects 1 percent and 0.1 percent of women less than 40 and 30 years of age, respectively. The study reported in this article attempts to understand the prevalence and determinants of premature menopause among Indian women by studying the effects of various socioeconomic indicators, such as age, education, wealth index, rural-urban settlement, work status, religion, and caste, on women. The study analyzed the National Family Health Survey-3, which is equivalent to the Demographic Health Survey in India...
March 9, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340195/nicotine-sales-to-minors-store-level-comparison-of-e-cigarette-vs-cigarette-violation-rates
#4
Arnold H Levinson
Introduction.: In recent years, e-cigarettes overtook cigarettes as the leading tobacco product used by U.S. adolescents. Most states, as well as federal regulations, have added e-cigarettes to laws prohibiting tobacco products sales to minors. We tested compliance with the newer regulation among Colorado urban retail businesses, speculating that violations might be more common for e-cigarettes than smokable cigarettes. Methods.: Supervised minors visited a random sample of urban businesses and sequentially attempted to purchase an e-cigarette product and cigarettes...
March 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340148/characteristics-of-hookah-tobacco-smoking-sessions-and-correlates-of-use-frequency-among-us-adults-findings-from-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#5
Joelle Robinson, Baoguang Wang, Kia Jackson, Elisabeth Donaldson, Chase Ryant
Introduction: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in the US. However, information on hookah use frequency and other characteristics of hookah use is limited. Methods: Investigators analyzed data from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of US youth and adults. Our analysis draws on baseline data from adult (ages ≥18 years) ever (N=10,624) and past year (n=3,947) hookah users...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340136/the-effect-of-a-class-smoke-free-pledge-on-breath-carbon-monoxide-in-arabic-male-adolescents
#6
Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Yousef S Khader, Smita Shah, Jessica K Roydhouse, Robyn Gallagher
Introduction: Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. Methods: We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340126/association-between-socioeconomic-status-and-access-to-care-and-quitting-smoking-with-and-without-assistance
#7
Sarah A Edwards, Russell C Callaghan, Robert E Mann, Susan J Bondy
Introduction: Socio-economic disparities in smoking rates persist, in Ontario, despite public health care and universal tobacco control policies. Mechanisms for continuing disparities are not fully understood. Unequal access or utilization of assistance for cessation may contribute. The objective of this research was to use longitudinal data on smokers to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and access to care measures and assisted and unassisted quit attempts. Methods: Data were taken from 3578 smokers with at least one follow-up interview participating in the Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS)...
March 10, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#8
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340034/estimating-demand-and-cross-price-elasticity-for-very-low-nicotine-content-vlnc-cigarettes-using-a-simulated-demand-task
#9
Megan R Tucker, Murray Laugesen, Randolph C Grace
Introduction: Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. Methods: 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340022/nicotine-content-and-physical-properties-of-large-cigars-and-cigarillos-in-the-united-states
#10
Bartosz Koszowski, Meridith Hill Thanner, Wallace B Pickworth, Kenneth M Taylor, Lynn C Hull, Megan J Schroeder
Introduction: Cigars are combusted tobacco products consisting of filler, binder, and wrapper, which are derived from tobacco. Despite the abundance of literature on the composition of traditional combusted cigarettes, research is limited on the physical and chemical properties of cigars. Therefore, research on cigar properties may be useful to better understand their health impact. Methods: In this study, twenty large cigar and cigarillo products were characterized for physical properties (ie, weight, length, and diameter), filler nicotine content, and tobacco pH...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339916/antenatal-tobacco-use-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-the-home-in-india
#11
Ritesh Mistry, Anjuli Dasika
Introduction: Antenatal tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure can have grave health consequences. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home among pregnant and reproductive age women in India, and identified sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: Data were from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006), a population-based cross-sectional survey. We measured current tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home, and used logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic risk factors...
March 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339863/cigarette-smoking-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-general-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#12
Jia Xia, Lin Wang, Zhiheng Ma, Liping Zhong, Ying Wang, Yachan Gao, Liqun He, Xiao Su
Background.: Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) development in people with diabetes. Conflicting evidence exists among representative community-based studies as to whether smoking is an independent risk factor for CKD. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the development of CKD in adult general populations. Methods.: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and Embase from their inception through 31 May 2016 for prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks of CKD with smoking status in the general population...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339800/the-dark-cloud-of-recreational-drugs-and-vaping
#13
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasing in popularity with 19% of UK smokers reporting to have used them. The ability to regulate the evaporation temperature in newer electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) facilitates the potential for use of these devices to 'vape' cannabis, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other recreational drugs. Vaping cannabis does have the potential to reduce tobacco use and combustible cannabis/tobacco-related disease, but with over one-third of UK adults reporting life-time use of recreational drugs and increasing e-cigarette uptake in adolescent groups the misuse of these devices poses a serious potential public health risk...
March 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339724/three-cis-regulatory-motifs-auxre-mycrs1-and-mycrs2-are-required-for-modulating-the-auxin-and-mycorrhiza-responsive-expression-of-a-tomato-gh3-gene
#14
Xiao Chen, Dehua Liao, Xiaofeng Yang, Minjie Ji, Shuangshuang Wang, Mian Gu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Auxin is well known to be a key regulator that acts in almost all physiological processes during plant growth, and in interactions between plants and microbes. However, to date, the regulatory mechanisms underlying auxin-mediated plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi symbiosis have not been well deciphered. Previously we identified a GH3 gene, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to both auxin induction and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we reported a refined dissection of the SlGH3.4 promoter activity using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339669/in-their-own-words-young-adults-menthol-cigarette-initiation-perceptions-experiences-and-regulation-perspectives
#15
Olivia A Wackowski, Kiameesha R Evans, Melissa B Harrell, Alexandra Loukas, M Jane Lewis, Cristine D Delnevo, Cheryl L Perry
Background: Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by young people and have been called smoking starter products. However, limited qualitative research exists on young adults' perceptions of and experiences with these products, with much of it based on document reviews of the tobacco industry's research. Methods: We conducted six focus groups with young adult (ages 18-24) menthol smokers in New Jersey (half with black smokers) between December 2014 and March 2015...
February 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339616/time-trends-in-smoking-onset-by-sex-and-race-ethnicity-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-findings-from-the-2006-2013-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health
#16
Azure B Thompson, Paul D Mowery, Jacob Kraemer Tebes, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: During the 2000s the number of adolescents who became new smokers in the United States declined while the number of young adults who did so increased. However, we do not know among which demographic groups these changes occurred. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 180 079). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess annual trends in smoking onset and log-binomial regression models to assess changes over time in the risk of smoking onset among young adults (18- to 25-years-old) relative adolescents (12- to 17-years-old)...
January 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339595/does-starting-to-smoke-cigars-trigger-onset-of-cannabis-blunt-smoking
#17
Brian J Fairman, James C Anthony
Introduction: Among United States teens during the 1990s, increasing cigar use coincided with increasing use of tobacco cigar shells filled with cannabis, called "blunts." Cigar smokers are more likely to use cannabis, and we hypothesized that starting to smoke cigars might be a probabilistic "trigger" of blunt smoking. We turned to the case-crossover approach to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods: Within US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2009-2013, we identified a nationally representative sample of newly incident blunt smokers aged 12- to 21-years-old (n = 4868) and compared month-of-onsets for smoking of cigars and blunts...
January 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339586/framing-tobacco-dependence-as-a-brain-disease-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#18
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Like other forms of drug dependence, tobacco dependence is increasingly being described as a "chronic brain disease." The potential consequences of this medical labelling have been examined in relation to other addictions, but the implications for tobacco control have been neglected. Some have posited that biomedical conceptions of addiction will reduce stigma and increase uptake of efficacious treatments. Others have countered that it could increase stigma, reduce treatment seeking, and deter unassisted quitting...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339576/a-descriptive-report-of-electronic-cigarette-use-after-participation-in-a-community-based-tobacco-cessation-trial
#19
Elana Curry, Julianna M Nemeth, Amy Wermert, Sara Conroy, Abigail Shoben, Amy K Ferketich, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Smokers are using electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, as a cessation aid, despite uncertainty about their efficacy. This report describes the association between use of e-cigarettes before and after cessation treatment and tobacco abstinence at 12 months. It also presents characteristics of e-cigarette users and reasons for use. Methods: A longitudinal observational secondary analysis of self-reported e-cigarette use was conducted among adult Appalachian smokers enrolled in a community-based tobacco dependence treatment trial (n = 217)...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339569/acrolein-yields-in-mainstream-smoke-from-commercial-cigarette-and-little-cigar-tobacco-products
#20
Todd L Cecil, Tim M Brewer, Mimy Young, Matthew R Holman
Introduction: Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature...
January 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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