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Tobacco use

Héctor Cervera, Silvia Ambrós, Guillermo P Bernet, Guillermo Rodrigo, Santiago F Elena
Determining the fitness of viral genotypes has become a standard practice in virology as it is essential to evaluate their evolutionary potential. Darwinian fitness, defined as the advantage of a given genotype with respect to a reference, is a complex property that captures, in a single figure, differences in performance at every stage of viral infection. To what extent does viral fitness result from specific molecular interactions with host factors and regulatory networks during infection? Can we identify host genes in functional classes whose expression depends on viral fitness? Here, we compared the transcriptomes of tobacco plants infected with seven genotypes of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) that differ in fitness...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or drugs of abuse exposure during pregnancy. Besides these adverse health effects, drug use during pregnancy also raises legal and social concerns. Identification and quantification of drug markers in maternal and newborn biological samples offers objective evidence of exposure and complements maternal questionnaires...
March 21, 2018: Bioanalysis
Michael F Orr, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Myles Finlay, Samantha C Martin, Olivia Brooks, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Emily Leickly, Michael McDonell, Ekaterina Burduli, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Matt Layton, John M Roll, Sterling M McPherson
Contingency management (CM) is associated with decreases in off-target drug and alcohol use during primary target treatment. The primary hypothesis for this trial was that targeting alcohol use or tobacco smoking would yield increased abstinence in the opposite, nontargeted drug. We used a 2 [CM vs. noncontingent control (NC) for alcohol]×2 (CM vs. NC for smoking tobacco) factorial design, with alcohol intake (through urinary ethyl glucuronide) and tobacco smoking (through urinary cotinine) as the primary outcomes...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Samantha G Farris, Angelo M DiBello, Erika Litvin Bloom, Ana M Abrantes
INTRODUCTION: The Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET; Adams et al. 2011) is a self-report measure designed to assess multiple reasons why and when smokers use cigarettes for appetite, weight, and shape management, that was initially developed and validated in young female smokers. PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SWEET measure among both male and female daily cigarette smokers...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Silke Wemmert, Maximilian Linxweiler, Cornelia Lerner, Florian Bochen, Philipp Kulas, Johannes Linxweiler, Sigrun Smola, Steffi Urbschat, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Bernhard Schick
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common human cancer types with a very poor prognosis despite improvements in therapeutic modalities. The major known risk factors are tobacco use and alcohol consumption or infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV), especially in oropharyngeal tumors. The current management based on the assessment of a variety of clinical and pathological parameters does not sufficiently predict outcome. METHODS: Chromosomal alterations detected in HNSCCs were characterized by metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and correlated with clinical parameters as well as survival time...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Karen M Butler, Melinda J Ickes, Mary Kay Rayens, Amanda T Wiggins, Kristin Ashford, Ellen J Hahn
Little is known about polytobacco use in college students. One nationally representative survey indicated 51.3% of tobacco-using college students used more than one product, which may increase risk of tobacco-related disease and premature death. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intention to quit smoking (ITQS) cigarettes with polytobacco use status, controlling for frequency of tobacco product use and cigarette smoking intensity as measured by cigarettes per day (CPD). Data are from a larger quasi-experimental study conducted at a large state university in the Southeastern United States...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Thiago M P Fernandes, Michael J Oliveira de Andrade, Jessica B Santana, Renata M Toscano Barreto Lyra Nogueira, Natanael A Dos Santos
Smoking prevalence in patients who are diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) is higher than in the general population. Chronic tobacco use in SCZ patients may reduce the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, thus serving as a self-medication for such side effects. Understanding the ways in which chronic tobacco use influences visual sensitivity has clinical implications, which may serve as a tool for non-invasively diagnosing early-stage visual processing deficits. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic tobacco use on visual sensitivity in SCZ patients...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alexa A Lopez, Ryan Redner, Allison N Kurti, Diana R Keith, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Megan E Roberts, Stephen T Higgins
This study examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age. Weighted data were obtained from women aged 15-44 years who were not currently pregnant in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Health and Tobacco (PATH, 2013-2014) study (N = 12,848). 20.1% of women were current cigarette smokers, 5.9% current e-cigarette users, 4.9% current cigar smokers, and 6.5% current hookah users...
March 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
G Muhaxheri, V Vucicevic Boras, A Fucic, D Plavec, M Sekerija, M Filipovic, K Grsic, B Stubljar, T Krnic, B Vrdoljak
Recent publications have highlighted a greater utility of routine blood tests in patients with various cancers than previously assumed. It appears that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be a good predictive biomarker for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Preoperative and postoperative NLR data for patients with head and neck cancers have yet to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative NLR in 182 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and to determine the association of NLR with OS and DFS...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Steven K M Lau, Bhavani S Gannavarapu, Kristen Carter, Ang Gao, Chul Ahn, Jeffrey J Meyer, David J Sher, Aminah Jatoi, Rodney Infante, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) influences health care outcomes, but the influence of primary payer on cancer-associated wasting is unknown. We hypothesized that primary payer as an indicator of SES would influence pretreatment cancer-associated weight loss and treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records identified 1,366 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consecutively treated at a tertiary care health system between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Maegan V Mazereeuw, Diana R Withrow, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Eduardo Vides, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada. METHODS: We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival...
March 19, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Omar Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Nour Al-Sawalha, Mohammad Bani Ahmad, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
PURPOSE: Acute exposure of experimental animals to waterpipe tobacco smoke has been shown to induce lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to waterpipe smoke on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in the mouse lung. METHOD: Using a whole-body exposure system, animals were exposed to waterpipe smoke for 6 weeks with a one-hour daily exposure for 5 days a week. RESULTS: Exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induced the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Hyukho Sheen, K Andrew White
Bacteriophage T7 promoter and RNA polymerase (T7-Pol) are widely used for recombinant protein expression in bacteria. In plants, there exists conflicting results regarding the efficacy of protein expression from T7-Pol-derived mRNAs. To reconcile these contradictory observations, the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from T7 constructs was evaluated in tobacco protoplasts. T7 constructs transcribed by a nuclear-targeted T7-Pol did not express GFP in plant protoplasts, however T7-Pol lacking a nuclear targeting signal was able to translate cytosolic-transcribed mRNAs, but only if the messages contained a viral translation enhancer...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Min Zhang, Zhanqing Wang, Lili Chi, Jing Sun, Yaling Shen
Escherichia coli is an essential host for large-scale expression of heterologous polypeptides. However, further applications are limited by the formation of potential protein aggregates. In this work, we developed a novel on-column tag removal and purification system based on Fh8 hydrophobic interaction chromatography purification and ΔI-CM self-cleavage to obtain soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We evaluated several methods to improve TRAIL solubility and finally demonstrated that the Fh8 tag was a powerful solubility enhancer...
March 16, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
D Thorne, M Hollings, A Seymour, J Adamson, A Dalrymple, M Ballantyne, M Gaca
There is a growing consensus that e-cigarettes hold the potential for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking. Recently published studies have reported in vitro testing of e-cigarettes, demonstrating reduced toxicological and biological effects. Few studies however have reported the use of e-cigarettes under extreme testing conditions. To assess the full mutagenic potential of a commercially available electronic-cigarette (Vype ePen), this study investigated the delivery of aerosol under extreme conditions, using a scaled-down 35 mm plate Ames bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
David T Levy, Trudy M A Wijnhoven, Jeffrey Levy, Zhe Yuan, Kristina Mauer-Stender
Background: While some WHO European Region countries are global tobacco control leaders, the South Eastern region of Europe has the highest tobacco smoking prevalence globally and a relatively low level of overall implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). An abridged version of SimSmoke has been developed to project the health impact of implementing tobacco control policies in line with the WHO FCTC. Methods: Data on population size, smoking prevalence, policy-specific effect sizes and formulas were applied in 11 South Eastern WHO European Region countries [Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska), Bulgaria, Croatia, Israel, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia] to project the relative reduction in smoking prevalence, number of smokers and number of smoking-attributable deaths resulting from implementing individual and/or combined six WHO FCTC measures...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Shaobo Li, Madushani Dharmarwardana, Raymond P Welch, Candace E Benjamin, Alexandra Shamir, Steven O Nielsen, Jeremiah J Gassensmith
Biomimetic mineralization with metal-organic frameworks (MOF), typically zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), is an emerging strategy to protect sensitive biological substances against denaturing environmental stressors like heat and proteolytic agents. Additionally, this same biomimetic mineralization process has the potential of being used to create distinct core-shell architectures using genetically or chemically modified viral nanoparticles. Despite the proliferation of examples for ZIF-8 growth on biological or proteinaceous substrates, systematic studies of these processes are few and far between...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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