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Yong-Hua Jiang, Kun-Huang Han, Shu-Hong Wang, Yun Chen, Yi-Lei Wang, Zi-Ping Zhang
As an important transcription and pluripotency factor, Sox2 plays its functions essentially in the regulation of self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic and neural stem cells, as well as embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis and regeneration. The data is lacking on Sox2 in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (Lc-Sox2) which is a limitation on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this study, Lc-sox2 was cloned by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and analyzed by Bioinformatics...
July 26, 2018: Theriogenology
Lisa S Chow, Rachel Zmora, Sisi Ma, Elizabeth R Seaquist, Pamela J Schreiner
Objective: We constructed a predictive model of long-term risk for severe hypoglycemia (SH: hypoglycemia requiring assistance) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Research design and methods: Data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study (original n=10 251, n=5135 used in the current analysis), a randomized, multicenter, double 2×2 factorial design study examining the effect of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diagnosed T2DM, were used...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Dan Lu, Yanfang Liu, Hongcheng Mai, Jiankun Zang, Lingling Shen, Yusheng Zhang, Anding Xu
Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication that stimulates inflammation during reperfusion therapy after acute ischemic stroke. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, might improve the outcome of HT by inhibiting neuroinflammation. This study aimed to explore the protective effects of rosuvastatin against HT after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in mice with experimental stroke via the attenuation of inflammation. A total of one hundred sixty-nine male BALB/c mice were used in the experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mohammad Alkhalil
Statins have been a major keystone in the management of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The benefits of inhibiting HMG CoA reductase, via statins, were translated into reduction in LDL-c (cholesterol) with proportionate decrease in cardiovascular events in response to the magnitude of LDL-c reduction. Despite major advances in pharmacological treatments, including the use of high-dose statins, there are urgent need to further reduce future cardiovascular risk. This is in particularly important since 1 out of 5 high-risk atherosclerotic patients who achieve low LDL-c return with a second cardiovascular event within five years...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Bi-Sheng Liu, Hong-Wei Xia, Sheng Zhou, Qing Liu, Qiu-Lin Tang, Na-Xi Bi, Ji-Tao Zhou, Qi-Yong Gong, Yong-Zhan Nie, Feng Bi
Mutant KRAS and BRAF are associated with primary EGFR inhibitor resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, other biomarkers that could predict EGFR inhibitor resistance remain elusive. In the present study, immunoblotting and cell proliferation results revealed that yes‑associated protein (YAP), a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, was positively associated with primary cetuximab resistance in CRC cells. YAP knockdown enhanced the cytotoxicity of cetuximab in CRC cells. Simvastatin, a 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑coenzyme A (HMG‑CoA) reductase inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway that inhibits YAP bioactivity through nuclear translocation and total YAP expression, increased the cytotoxicity of EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab and gefitinib) against CRC cells...
October 2018: Oncology Reports
Shaoying Yan, Xuefeng Shan, Ke Chen, Yuyang Liu, Gangfeng Yu, Qiuxu Chen, Tao Zeng, Liying Zhu, Hao Dang, Fengjiao Chen, Jiaji Ling, Ailong Huang, Hua Tang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators in a variety of diseases, including many tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the function and mechanisms responsible for these molecules in HCC are not thoroughly understood. In our previous study, we found that LINC00052 was acted as a tumor suppressor in HCC. In this study, we performed transcription microarray analysis to investigate the target gene of LINC00052, and found that knockdown of LINC00052 significantly increased the expression of SRY-related HMG-box gene 9 (SOX9), which plays an oncogenic role in HCC...
August 8, 2018: Gene
Jie Liu, Jie Zheng, Ya-Lan Lei, Xiao-Feng Wen
We explored the strategy of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) in the women with advanced maternal age (AMA). We first determined the age cut-off point of AMA by retrospective analysis of pregnancy outcomes in the patients undergoing FET. The patients with AMA were divided into 3 groups including natural cycle (NC) group, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) group, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) group, and simultaneously were divided into 2 groups including cleavage-stage embryo transfer (CET) group and blastocyst-stage embryo transfer (BET) group...
August 9, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Rami Mahmood Abazid, Mohamed Shoman, Osama A Smettie, Osama A Elamin
Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) is commonly used for ovulation induction and has been associated with arterial and venous thrombosis. We reported a case of BPVT related to in vitro fertilization in a 39-year-old female, who underwent redo mitral valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hMG-induced BPVT in a young female patient.
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
Yifan Kong, Lijun Cheng, Fengyi Mao, Zhuangzhuang Zhang, Yanquan Zhang, Elia Farah, Jacob Bosler, Yunfeng Bai, Nihal Ahmad, Shihuan Kuang, Lang Li, Xiaoqi Liu
Enzalutamide, a nonsteroidal second-generation antiandrogen, has been recently approved for the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although patients can benefit from enzalutamide at the beginning of this therapy, acquired enzalutamide resistance usually occurs within a short period. This motivated us to investigate the mechanism involved and possible approaches for overcoming enzalutamide resistance in CRPC. In the present study, we found that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), a crucial enzyme in the mevalonate pathway for sterol biosynthesis, is elevated in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cell lines...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sepideh Ghasemi, Hassan Hassani Kumleh, Mojtaba Kordrostami
Biotic and abiotic stresses cause special defense reactions in plant organs, which after a series of reactions, these stresses produce secondary metabolites. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), GPP synthases, Deoxyribonino heptulosinate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP), and Deoxy Xylose Phosphate Synthase (DXS)), and the association of these genes with different amounts of secondary metabolites (phenol, terpene, flavonoids, anthocyanins, alkaloids, lycopene, and beta-carotene) was investigated in this study...
August 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Takuya Abe, Ryotaro Kawasumi, Michele Giannattasio, Sabrina Dusi, Yui Yoshimoto, Keiji Miyata, Koyuki Umemura, Kouji Hirota, Dana Branzei
AND-1/Ctf4 bridges the CMG helicase and DNA polymerase alpha, facilitating replication. Using an inducible degron system in avian cells, we find that AND-1 depletion is incompatible with proliferation, owing to cells accumulating in G2 with activated DNA damage checkpoint. Replication without AND-1 causes fork speed slow-down and accumulation of long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps at the replication fork junction, with these regions being converted to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in G2. Strikingly, resected forks and DNA damage accumulation in G2, but not fork slow-down, are reverted by treatment with mirin, an MRE11 nuclease inhibitor...
August 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Ting Ren, Yuming You, Yuanli Luo, Yuanwei Wang, Xiong Liu
This study evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effects and potential metabolism of single and combined administrations of capsaicinoids and Lactobacillus plantarum SWUN5815 in ovariectomized rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 treatment groups. One group was sham-operated (with 1 mL/100 g BW physiological saline), and the 4 other groups were double-ovariectomized: OVX-CON (with 1 mL/100 g BW physiological saline), OVX-CAP (with 1 mL/100 g BW physiological saline and fed with food containing 0...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Shagufta Kamal, Naheed Akhter, Samreen Gul Khan, Shumaila Kiran, Tahir Farooq, Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Muhammad Akhlaq, Fahad Said, Jawad Zaheer
Lovastatin is a natural competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase and inhibits specifically rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Further, lovastatin in comparison with synthetic drugs has no well-reported side effects. Four pure isolated filamentous fungal strains including Aspergillus niger IBL, Aspergillus terreus FFCBP-1053, Aspergillus flavus PML and Aspergillus nidulans FFCBP-014 have been cultured by solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw as substrate for the synthesis of lovastatin...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xiaoqian Huo, Fang Lu, Liansheng Qiao, Gongyu Li, Yanling Zhang
Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease II. The abnormal rise of cholesterol in plasma is the main symptom. Cholesterol synthesis pathway is an important pathway of the origin of cholesterol, which is an essential pathway for the therapy of hypercholesterolemia. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), squalene synthase (SQS), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) are closely connected with the synthesis of cholesterol...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Alireza Abdanipour, Fatemeh Deheshjo, Davood Sohrabi, Iraj Jafari Anarkooli, Reza Nejatbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: Statins as inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. In this paper, we studied anti-apoptotic and regulatory effects of lovastatin using Pilocarpine rat model through downregulation of Mst1 (Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1) as a novel pro-apoptotic gene. METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups: non-treated epileptic rats, lovastatin treated, and two vehicle groups. Racine scale was used for behavioral assessment and animals with a score of 4-5 were selected for the study...
July 26, 2018: Neurological Research
Daniel P Duarte, Éden R Ferreira, Fabio M Lima, Franciane Batista, Michel De Groote, Eduardo Horjales, Luiz C Miletti, Diana Bahia
The mevalonate pathway is an essential part of isoprenoid biosynthesis leading to production of a diverse class of >30,000 biomolecules including cholesterol, heme, and all steroid hormones. In trypanosomatids, the mevalonate pathway also generates dolichols, which play an essential role in construction of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) molecules that anchor variable surface proteins (VSGs) to the plasma membrane. Isoprenoid biosynthesis involves one of the most highly regulated enzymes in nature, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Takuro Ishikawa, Yoshinao Z Hosaka, Colin Beckwitt, Alan Wells, Zoltán N Oltvai, Katsuhiko Warita
HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, statins, are potent cholesterol reducing drugs that exhibit anti-tumor effects in vitro and in animal models, including attenuation of metastasis formation, and their use correlates with reduced cancer-specific mortality in retrospective human cohort studies. However, E-cadherin expressing epithelial- and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal cancer cell lines (reflective of primary and outgrowing metastatic tumor cells, respectively) require higher statin concentrations than mesenchymal-like tumor cells (reflective of in-circulation metastatic tumor cells) to achieve the same degree of growth inhibition...
June 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Qian Zhang, Zhi-Yong Qian, Peng-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Li Zhou, Da-Long Zhang, Ning He, Jing Zhang, Ying-Hua Liu, Qing Gu
BACKGROUND: Supplementation with Selenium (Se) has been shown to lower blood cholesterol and increase tissue concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH); however, the effects of Se supplementation, in combination with supplemental magnesium, on high fat-induced hyperlipidemia have not been studied. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of oral selenium and magnesium co-supplementation on antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective, antioxidative activities, and related gene expression in a hyperlipidemic rat model...
July 21, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Liyuan Zhu, Xiaolong Hu, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Yongjie Feng, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Renyu Xue, Guangli Cao, Chengliang Gong
Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) enters permissive cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. However, the distinct entry mechanism for BmCPV is still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of gangliosides and cholesterol in BmCPV cell entry. The number of BmCPV virions attached to the cell surface and the expression level of BmCPV vp1 gene was significantly decreased by digestion of terminal sialic acids in gangliosides with neuraminidase (NA). Preincubation of different concentration of ganglioside GM1, GM2 or GM3 with BmCPV prior to infection, the reduction of BmCPV infectivity was found by GM2-treated in a dose-depend manner...
July 18, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhi-Peng Tai, Dan-Dan Li, Shi-Cheng Ling, Dian-Guang Zhang, Heng-Yang Cui, Xiao-Ying Tan
The goal of this study was to clone and characterize complete cDNA sequences of three important development-relevant genes of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, including lrp6, sox9a1 and fgfr2c, and explore their transcriptional responses in several tissues of P. fulvidraco to high fat diet. The predicted amino acid sequences of P. fulvidraco Lrp6, Sox9a1 and Fgfr2c contained all of the conserved structural features that were characteristic of these genes in other species, including YWTD domains, EGF-like repeats, LDLR ligand binding repeats, PPSP repeats motifs, HMG box, TA-binding functional domain, Ig I-III and PTK I-II...
July 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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