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Theories AND teamwork

Heather E Hoops, Michael R Burt, Karen Deveney, Karen J Brasel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the views and expectations that practicing general surgeons have of their junior colleagues who have recently finished training. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study performed using focus group data consisting of open-ended questions concentrating on essential qualities and attributes of surgeons, behaviors observed in newly-graduated surgeons, and appropriate oversight of junior partners. Qualitative analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology with transcripts coded by 3 independent reviewers...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Aaron S Dietz, Eduardo Salas, Peter J Pronovost, Florian Jentsch, Rhonda Wyskiel, Pedro Alejandro Mendez-Tellez, Cynthia Dwyer, Michael A Rosen
OBJECTIVE: Measuring teamwork is essential in critical care, but limited observational measurement systems exist for this environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a behavioral marker system for measuring teamwork in ICUs. DESIGN: Instances of teamwork were observed by two raters for three tasks: multidisciplinary rounds, nurse-to-nurse handoffs, and retrospective videos of medical students and instructors performing simulated codes...
September 21, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Huiqing Qiu, Youlan Zhang, Gonglin Hou, Zhongming Wang
As an important way to understand leadership based on voluntary contribution mechanisms, the importance of leading by example to teamwork is becoming more and more evident in recent years. However, existing theories based on signaling and reciprocity perspectives, respectively, provide incomplete theoretical explaining. This study adds clarity by conducting a cross-level study that indicates a possible integrative framework of both signaling and reciprocity perspective on leading by example. Results were using data gathered from 130 Chinese college students, which were allocated into one baseline group and three experimental groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sharon Mickan, Jessica Dawber, Julie Hulcombe
Objective Allied health structures and leadership positions vary throughout Australia and New Zealand in their design and implementation. It is not clear which organisational factors support allied health leaders and professionals to enhance clinical outcomes. The aim of this project was to identify key organisational contexts and corresponding mechanisms that influenced effective outcomes for allied health professionals. Methods A qualitative realist evaluation was chosen to describe key aspects of allied health organisational structures, identify positive outcomes and describe how context and processes are operationalised to influence outcomes for the allied health workforce and the populations they serve...
August 30, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Peter F Halpin, Yoav Bergner
The social combination theory of group problem solving is used to extend existing psychometric models to collaborative settings. A model for pairwise group work is proposed, the implications of the model for assessment design are considered, and its estimation is addressed. The results are illustrated with an empirical example in which dyads work together on a twelfth-grade level mathematics assessment. In conclusion, attention is given to avenues of research that seem most fruitful for advancing current initiatives concerning the assessment of collaboration, teamwork, and related constructs...
August 9, 2018: Psychometrika
Susan S Tavernier, Jia-Wen Guo, Jacqueline Eaton, Jeannine M Brant, Patricia Berry, Susan L Beck
BACKGROUND: Pain continues to be a problem in hospitalized patients. Contextual factors contribute to the success of pain quality improvement efforts. AIMS: This paper describes nurse team leaders' perceptions of organizational context and factors perceived to help and hinder the process of leading a unit-based improvement effort focused on pain. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive design. SETTING: Interviews took place over the telephone...
August 3, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Petru Lucian Curşeu, Remus Ilies, Delia Vîrgă, Laurenţiu Maricuţoiu, Florin A Sava
This study investigates the relationships between personality traits and contributions to teamwork that are often assumed to be linear. We use a theory-driven approach to propose that extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness have inverted U-shaped relationships with contributions to teamwork. In a sample of 220 participants asked to perform a creative task in teams, we found that extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness were curvilinearly associated with peer-rated contributions to teamwork in such a way that the associations were positive, with a decreasing slope, up to a peak, and then they became negative as personality scores further increased...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Sara Jansen Perry, Jason P Richter, Brad Beauvais
OBJECTIVE: To explore antecedents and outcomes of nurse self-reported job satisfaction and dissatisfaction-based turnover cognitions, theorizing (using Self-Determination Theory) that leaders can foster work conditions that help fulfill innate needs, thereby fostering satisfaction of nurses and patients, and reducing adverse events. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Primary and secondary data were collected within a 4-month period in 2015, from 2,596 nurses in 110 Army treatment facilities (hospitals and clinics) across 35 health care systems...
June 29, 2018: Health Services Research
Judith Belle Brown, Bridget L Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To identify the processes that influence the evolution of family health teams (FHTs). DESIGN: Qualitative study using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Family health teams in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 team members from 20 FHT sites in Ontario. METHODS: Individual semistructured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using initial coding, focused coding, and a constant comparison analysis...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Judy Currey, Debbie Massey, Josh Allen, Daryl Jones
INTRODUCTION: Critical care nurses have been involved in Rapid Response Teams since their inception, particularly in medically led RRTs, known as Medical Emergency Teams. It is assumed that critical care skills are required to escalate care for the deteriorating ward patient. However, evidence to support critical care nurses' involvement in METs is anecdotal. Currently, little is known about the educational requirements for nurses involved in RRT or METs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify and describe what nurses involved in a MET consider the most vital areas of knowledge and skill when delivering care to the deteriorating ward patient...
August 2018: Nurse Education Today
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao
Psychologists have studied small-group and team effectiveness for decades, and although there has been considerable progress, there remain significant challenges. Meta-analyses and systematic research have provided solid evidence for core team cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral processes that contribute to team effectiveness and empirical support for interventions that enhance team processes (e.g., team design, composition, training, and leadership); there has been substantial evidence for a science of team effectiveness...
May 2018: American Psychologist
John E Mathieu, Mikhail A Wolfson, Semin Park
Since the Hawthorne studies of the 1920s and 1930s, there has been tremendous progress in the science and the practice of work group effectiveness. We chronicle the evolution of 3 schools of thought concerning work groups that spawned about the time of those studies. We highlight the different emphases of each perspective and how they eventually merged into an integrated view of teamwork. We also illustrate the disciplinary ebbs and flows of work group research over the past quarter century and how many different scholars from diverse institutions are currently contributing to the literature...
May 2018: American Psychologist
John W Scott, Yihan Lin, Georges Ntakiyiruta, Zeta Mutabazi, William A Davis, Megan A Morris, Douglas S Smink, Robert Riviello, Steven Yule
OBJECTIVE: To identify the critical nontechnical skills (NTS) required for high performance in variable-resource contexts (VRC). BACKGROUND: As surgical training and capacity increase in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), new strategies for improving surgical education and care in these settings are required. NTS are critical for high performance in surgery around the world. However, the essential NTS used by surgeons operating in LMICs to overcome the challenges specific to their contexts have never been described...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Surgery
B Tosello, J Blanc, C Kelway, V Pellegrin, E Quarello, F Comte, C Zakarian, C D'Ercole
Though technology plays an increasingly important role in modern health systems, human performance remains a major determinant of safety, effectiveness and efficiency of patient care. This is especially true in the delivery room. Thus, the training of professionals must aim not only for the acquisition of theory and practical skills on an individual basis, but also for the learning of teamwork systematically. Training health professionals with simulation enhances their theoretical knowledge and meets formal requirements in literacy, technical skills and communication...
June 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Suzanne Phillips, Alison Bullock
Purpose UK fellowship schemes have been set up to address low-level engagement of doctors with leadership roles. Established in 2013, the Welsh Clinical Leadership Fellowship (WCLF) programme aims to recruit aspiring future clinical leaders and equip them with knowledge and skills to lead improvements in healthcare delivery. This paper aims to evaluate the 12-month WCLF programme in its first two years of operation. Design/methodology/approach Focused on the participants ( n = 8), the authors explored expectations of the programme, reactions to academic components (provided by Academi Wales) and learning from workplace projects and other opportunities...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
Tracy H Porter, James K Stoller, Scott J Allen
Purpose Since 1990, the Cleveland Clinic has trained physicians in team skills through various iterations of a program called Leading in Healthcare (LHC). In the present study, the authors utilize a case study approach to gain insight into the LHC curriculum, and more specifically, the team project. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the Cleveland Clinic's position on the issue and its approach to education - specifically among physicians. Design/methodology/approach The authors utilized a case study approach with four key program architects...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
Xiao Chi Zhang, Hyunjoo Lee, Carlos Rodriguez, Joshua Rudner, Teresa M Chan, Dimitrios Papanagnou
Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational 'Escape Rooms' have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively 'escape the room' in the time allotted...
March 2, 2018: Curēus
Julia Hafer, Xibin Wu, Steven Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical scribes are an increasingly popular strategy for reducing clerical burden, but little is known about their effect on medical student education. We aimed to evaluate the impact of scribes on medical students' self-reported learning experience. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods pilot study. Participants were medical students (third and fourth years) on a family medicine clerkship who worked with an attending physician who practiced with a scribe...
April 2018: Family Medicine
Jennifer McIntosh, Albert Alonso, Katie MacLure, Derek Stewart, Thomas Kempen, Alpana Mair, Margarida Castel-Branco, Carles Codina, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Glenda Fleming, Dimitra Gennimata, Ulrika Gillespie, Cathy Harrison, Maddalena Illario, Ulrike Junius-Walker, Christos F Kampolis, Przemyslaw Kardas, Pawel Lewek, João Malva, Enrica Menditto, Claire Scullin, Birgitt Wiese
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity and its associated polypharmacy contribute to an increase in adverse drug events, hospitalizations, and healthcare spending. This study aimed to address: what exists regarding polypharmacy management in the European Union (EU); why programs were, or were not, developed; and, how identified initiatives were developed, implemented, and sustained. METHODS: Change management principles (Kotter) and normalization process theory (NPT) informed data collection and analysis...
2018: PloS One
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