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Tobacco use cessation

Qiao-Li Wang, Shao-Hua Xie, Wen-Tao Li, Jesper Lagergren
Background: Tobacco smoking strongly increases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and moderately increases risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. How smoking cessation influences esophageal cancer risk across histological subtypes, time latencies, and geographic regions is not clear. Methods: Studies were systematically searched on Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Pooled estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were derived using a random effects model...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Paul Faulkner, Dara G Ghahremani, Rachel F Tyndale, Gerhard Hellemann, Edythe D London
Background: Although nicotine alters serotonergic neurochemistry, clinical trials of serotonergic medications for smoking cessation have provided mixed results. Understanding the role of serotonergic dysfunction in tobacco use disorder may advance development of novel pharmacotherapies. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure resting-state functional connectivity of the raphe nuclei as an indicator of serotonergic function. Connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei was compared between 18 young smokers (briefly-abstinent, ~40 minutes post-smoking) and 19 young non-smokers (16-21 years old); connectivity was also examined in a separate sample of overnight-abstinent smokers (18-25 years old), before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kelvin Choi, Julia Cen Chen, Andy S L Tan, Samir Soneji, Meghan B Moran
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether receipt of coupons-via direct mail or e-mail-was prospectively related to trajectories of smoking behaviours. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of US adults (n=26 447) who participated in wave 1 (2013-2014) and wave 2 (2014-2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Participants reported receipt of tobacco direct mail/email coupons in the past 6 months in wave 1 and their smoking status in both waves. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine demographic correlates of receiving tobacco direct mail/email coupons at wave 1 and to examine the prospective effect of receiving tobacco coupons on trajectories of smoking behaviours...
June 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
Caitlin Notley, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins, Richard Holland
BACKGROUND: We have little understanding of how vapers use e-cigarettes beyond cessation. E-cigarettes may have a role to play in reducing the health-related harms of tobacco smoking, through not only assisting smoking cessation attempts but also supporting long-term abstinence from smoking. However, there are fears that vaping may lead to the 'renormalisation' of smoking type behaviours. This study aimed to explore patterns of use and reported experiences of vapers quitting smoking using an e-cigarette in relation to long-term smoking status (abstinence or relapse)...
June 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Emily G Kaiser, Judith J Prochaska, Matthew S Kendra
Globally, tobacco use is a major modifiable risk factor and leading cause of many forms of cancer and cancer death. Tobacco use contributes to poorer prognosis in cancer care. This article reviews the current state of tobacco cessation treatment in oncology. Effective behavioral and pharmacological treatments exist for tobacco cessation, but are not being widely used in oncology treatment settings. Comprehensive tobacco treatment increases success with quitting smoking and can improve oncological and overall health outcomes...
June 19, 2018: Oncology
Raina D Pang, Mariel S Bello, Madalyn M Liautaud, Andrea H Weinberger, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Methods: Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Maki Komiyama, Hajime Yamakage, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Yuka Ozaki, Tatsuya Morimoto, Akira Shimatsu, Yuko Takahashi, Koji Hasegawa
Depressive tendency and nicotine dependency are factors related to the failure of smoking cessation. Women generally have a higher depressive tendency and difficulty in smoking cessation than men. However, the impact of sex differences on the relationship between nicotine dependency and depressive tendency remains unclear. We evaluated 727 patients (496 men and 231 women) who visited our outpatient clinic for smoking cessation therapy and compared various parameters measured between sexes during consultation...
June 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chizimuzo T C Okoli, Yazan D Al-Mrayat, Charles I Shelton, Milan Khara
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients have high tobacco use prevalence, dependence, and withdrawal severity. A tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization necessitates the management of nicotine withdrawal (NW) for tobacco using patients. NW management often requires the provision of approved nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to patients, which may also motivate tobacco users towards cessation. However, few studies have examined the associations between providing NRT, motivation to quit, and NW among psychiatric patients...
June 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mohammed Al Ghobain, Anwar Ahmed, Zynab Abdrabalnabi, Wjdan Mutairi, Ali Al Khathaami
Background: Tobacco smoking kills more than 5 million people annually and it is the most important cause of preventable death. Waterpipe smoking is common in the Middle East and is prevalent among young people. There is a misconception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Physicians are considered role models in the community and their behaviours and attitudes towards smoking can have direct effects on cessation. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate current prevalence, attitudes and associated factors in regard to waterpipe smoking among Saudi Arabian physicians...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Chizimuzo T C Okoli, Sarret Seng
INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) is predictive of greater nicotine dependence (ND) and poor smoking cessation (SC) outcomes. SHSe and its impact on ND and SC attempts in people with psychiatric disorders (PD) remain poorly understood. Hence, the objectives of this study were to (1) quantify SHSe, (2) examine the association of SHSe with ND, and (3) assess the association between SHSe and SC among tobacco users with PD. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of 118 tobacco users in an inpatient psychiatric facility was conducted...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a nicotine patch worn for four weeks before a quit attempt. DESIGN: Randomised controlled open label trial. SETTING: Primary care and smoking cessation clinics in England, 2012-15. PARTICIPANTS: 1792 adults who were daily smokers with tobacco dependence. 899 were allocated to the preloading arm and 893 to the control arm. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised 1:1, using concealed randomly permuted blocks stratified by centre, to either standard smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and behavioural support or the same treatment supplemented by four weeks of 21 mg nicotine patch use before quitting: "preloading...
June 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Isaac M Lipkus, Darren Mays
Introduction: Very little is known about how waterpipe tobacco smokers and nonsmokers compare on harm beliefs about waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and how these beliefs are related to risk appraisals and intentions to engage in WTS. We investigated these issues among young adult waterpipe tobacco smokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and non-susceptible nonsmokers. Methods: Young adults ages 18 to 30 who smoked waterpipe tobacco during the last 30 days or never used waterpipe tobacco were recruited online through Turkprime...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Long Wang, Ying Yang, Fangchao Liu, Aimin Yang, Qin Xu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Zuoqi Peng, Yuan He, Yuanyuan Wang, Jihong Xu, Jun Zhao, Hongguang Zhang, Ya Zhang, Qiaoyun Dai, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Paula A Keller, Raymond G Boyle, Rebecca K Lien, Bruce Christiansen, Kate Kobinsky
Although telephone quitlines are effective for helping smokeless tobacco (ST) users quit, ST users are underrepresented among quitline participants. After ClearWay Minnesota implemented multiple changes to its quitline service (QUITPLAN® Services), utilization increased dramatically, including by ST users. We examined data from Minnesota and Wisconsin to determine whether these changes were unique to Minnesota. Four years of quitline registration data were analyzed for both states. A significant increase in enrollees reporting any ST use was seen in Minnesota after changes were made to services; no change was seen in Wisconsin...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Ban A Majeed, Amy Nyman, Kymberle L Sterling, Paul Slovic
INTRODUCTION: Similar to cigarette smoking, consumption of cigars delivers nicotine and byproducts of tobacco combustion and elevates the risk of addiction, illness, and premature death. This study examined the relationship of affect, perceived relative harm, and LCC smoking behavior among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data were from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey conducted in 2015. The study included a probability based sample of 6051 adults (18+) drawn from an online research panel...
May 25, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
K Schaller, U Mons
E-cigarettes are electronic devices used to vaporize a flavored liquid resulting in aerosols to be inhaled by the user. The high variety of e-cigarettes and liquids makes it difficult to assess the health effects of e-cigarette use. The ingredients of the liquids - apart from nicotine - are generally recognized as safe for oral and dermal use, however, toxicological data on health effects upon chronic inhalation are missing. Studies have detected several harmful substances in e-cigarette aerosol, including carcinogens, but in lower concentrations than tobacco smoke...
June 2018: Pneumologie
Stephen R Baldassarri, Geoffrey L Chupp, Frank T Leone, Graham W Warren, Benjamin A Toll
Introduction: The emergence of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has become a growing phenomenon that has sharply split opinion among the public health community, physicians, and lawmakers. Aims: We sought to determine chest physician perceptions regarding ECs. Methods: We conducted a web-based survey of 18,000 American College of Chest Physician (CHEST) members to determine healthcare provider experiences with EC users and to characterize provider perceptions regarding ECs...
June 2018: Journal of Smoking Cessation
Faraz Mughal, Ahmed Rashid, Mohammed Jawad
BACKGROUND: Little is known around how general practitioners (GP) approach tobacco products beyond traditional cigarettes.AimTo examine GP perceptions of tobacco and electronic cigarette (EC) products, and their attitudes and behaviours towards product cessation. METHOD: A 13-item self-completed anonymous questionnaire measured awareness of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and smokeless tobacco (ST). Cessation advice provision, referral to cessation services, and the harm perception of these products were asked using five-point Likert scales that were dichotomised on analysis...
June 8, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Amanda L Graham, George D Papandonatos, Sarah Cha, Bahar Erar, Michael S Amato
Background: Partial adherence in Internet smoking cessation interventions presents treatment and evaluation challenges. Increasing adherence may improve outcomes. Purpose: To present smoking outcomes from an Internet randomized trial of two strategies to encourage adherence to tobacco dependence treatment components: (i) a social network (SN) strategy to integrate smokers into an online community and (ii) free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). In addition to intent-to-treat analyses, we used novel statistical methods to distinguish the impact of treatment assignment from treatment utilization...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
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