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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342844/a-system-dynamics-modelling-approach-to-assess-the-impact-of-launching-a-new-nicotine-product-on-population-health-outcomes
#1
Andrew Hill, Oscar M Camacho
In 2012 the US FDA suggested the use of mathematical models to assess the impact of releasing new nicotine or tobacco products on population health outcomes. A model based on system dynamics methodology was developed to project the potential effects of a new nicotine product at a population level. A model representing traditional smoking populations (never, current and former smokers) and calibrated using historical data was extended to a two-product model by including electronic cigarettes use statuses. Smoking mechanisms, such as product initiation, switching, transition to dual use, and cessation, were represented as flows between smoking statuses (stocks) and the potential effect of smoking renormalisation through a feedback system...
March 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342700/nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-survey-of-canadian-practice
#2
REVIEW
Ricky D Turgeon, Stephano J Chang, Charlotte Dandurand, Peter A Gooderham, Camille Hunt
Tobacco smoke increases the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), as well as complications such as vasospasm. Most patients presenting with aneurysmal SAH smoke, and many survivors continue to smoke after discharge. Neurosurgeons often hesitate to use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) during hospitalization of patients with SAH due to concerns of inducing vasospasm. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy, and patterns of use of NRT in smokers hospitalized for SAH. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, and unpublished sources of literature to October 2016 for randomized and observational studies comparing exposure to non-exposure of smoking cessation products in the acute phase of aneurysmal SAH...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340126/association-between-socioeconomic-status-and-access-to-care-and-quitting-smoking-with-and-without-assistance
#3
Sarah A Edwards, Russell C Callaghan, Robert E Mann, Susan J Bondy
Introduction: Socio-economic disparities in smoking rates persist, in Ontario, despite public health care and universal tobacco control policies. Mechanisms for continuing disparities are not fully understood. Unequal access or utilization of assistance for cessation may contribute. The objective of this research was to use longitudinal data on smokers to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and access to care measures and assisted and unassisted quit attempts. Methods: Data were taken from 3578 smokers with at least one follow-up interview participating in the Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS)...
March 10, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#4
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339863/cigarette-smoking-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-general-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#5
Jia Xia, Lin Wang, Zhiheng Ma, Liping Zhong, Ying Wang, Yachan Gao, Liqun He, Xiao Su
Background.: Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) development in people with diabetes. Conflicting evidence exists among representative community-based studies as to whether smoking is an independent risk factor for CKD. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the development of CKD in adult general populations. Methods.: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and Embase from their inception through 31 May 2016 for prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks of CKD with smoking status in the general population...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339576/a-descriptive-report-of-electronic-cigarette-use-after-participation-in-a-community-based-tobacco-cessation-trial
#6
Elana Curry, Julianna M Nemeth, Amy Wermert, Sara Conroy, Abigail Shoben, Amy K Ferketich, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Smokers are using electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, as a cessation aid, despite uncertainty about their efficacy. This report describes the association between use of e-cigarettes before and after cessation treatment and tobacco abstinence at 12 months. It also presents characteristics of e-cigarette users and reasons for use. Methods: A longitudinal observational secondary analysis of self-reported e-cigarette use was conducted among adult Appalachian smokers enrolled in a community-based tobacco dependence treatment trial (n = 217)...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336353/effectiveness-of-switching-smoking-cessation-medications-following-relapse
#7
Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Karin A Kasza, Ron Borland, Jessica L Burris, Geoffrey T Fong, Ann McNeill, Matthew J Carpenter
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. METHODS: Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328231/use-of-cell-phones-and-computers-for-health-promotion-and-tobacco-cessation-by-american-indian-college-students-in-montana
#8
Jo Ann W Dotson, Lonnie A Nelson, Sara L Young, Dedra Buchwald, John Roll
INTRODUCTION: Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men <i>and</i> women reporting current smoking...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327448/prenatal-tobacco-exposure-birthweight-and-offspring-psychopathology
#9
Ardesheer Talati, Priya J Wickramaratne, Rikke Wesselhoeft, Myrna M Weissman
Although prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) is associated with several adverse offspring mental health outcomes, mechanisms remain unclear. We test whether associations between PTE and offspring psychopathology are explained by birthweight, one of the earliest-occurring outcomes of PTE. The analysis focuses on 238 offspring from a family study of depression with (1) collected prenatal histories and (2) at least one clinical interview in adulthood to assess psychiatric problems. Exposure was categorized by maternal smoking of ≥10 cigarettes daily/nearly daily; diagnostic outcomes were confirmed by clinicians using the best-estimate procedure, blind to exposure...
March 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326291/applying-a-new-theory-to-smoking-cessation-case-of-multi-theory-model-mtm-for-health-behavior-change
#10
Manoj Sharma, Jagdish Khubchandani, Vinayak K Nahar
Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline therapy. The success rates with each of these approaches vary with clear need for improvement...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324226/tobacco-cessation-counseling-attitudes-and-practices-among-yemeni-dental-professionals
#11
Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri, Walid A Al-Soneidar, Amer AlMaqtari, Abdulrahman Hunaish, Ghadah Al-Sufyani, Esam Halboub
Tobacco use is a significant health problem in Yemen and worldwide. Dental practitioners can play a pivotal role in educating their patients on the risk of smoking and motivating them to quit. This study aimed to assess the attitudes towards and practices of tobacco cessation counseling (TCC) among Yemeni dental professionals and to evaluate whether such attitudes and practices are associated with gender, smoking status, and years since graduation. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire containing questions regarding the practice and attitudes towards TCC in dental clinic was used...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318307/stress-socializing-and-other-motivations-for-smoking-among-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-and-queer-community-in-new-york-city
#12
Deanna P Jannat-Khah, LeConté J Dill, Simone A Reynolds, Michael A Joseph
PURPOSE: This study contributes to the emerging literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) health disparities and tobacco use by examining the motivations for smoking among the New York City (NYC) LGBTQ population. APPROACH: We used grounded theory and blended methods from 3 grounded theorists-Strauss, Corbin, and Charmaz-for data collection, coding, and analysis. SETTING: NYC has extensive legislation to prevent smoking; however, the current smoking prevalence of homosexuals is double that of heterosexuals...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316562/changes-in-cigarette-smoking-initiation-cessation-and-relapse-among-u-s-adults-a-comparison-of-two-longitudinal-samples
#13
Zinan Yi, Maria E Mayorga, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Jennifer L Pearson
BACKGROUND: The tobacco epidemic in the U.S. has matured in the past decade. However, due to rapidly changing social policy and commercial environments, tailored prevention and interventions are needed to support further reduction in smoking. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2002-2003 and 2010-2011 longitudinal cohorts, five smoking states are defined including daily-heavy, daily-light, non-daily, former and non-smoker...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302919/tobacco-cessation-and-household-spending-on-non-tobacco-goods-results-from-the-us-consumer-expenditure-surveys
#14
Erin S Rogers, Dhaval M Dave, Alexis Pozen, Marianne Fahs, William T Gallo
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of tobacco cessation on household spending on non-tobacco goods in the USA. METHODS: Using 2006-2015 Consumer Expenditure Survey data, 9130 tobacco-consuming households were followed for four quarters. Households were categorised during the fourth quarter as having: (1) recent tobacco cessation, (2) long-term cessation, (3) relapsed cessation or (4) no cessation. Generalised linear models were used to compare fourth quarter expenditures on alcohol, food at home, food away from home, housing, healthcare, transportation, entertainment and other goods between the no-cessation households and those with recent, long-term or relapsed cessation...
March 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300972/a-review-of-smartphone-apps-for-smoking-cessation-available-in-portuguese
#15
Taynara Dutra Batista Formagini, Rafaela Russi Ervilha, Nathália Munck Machado, Bárbara Any Bianchi Bottaro de Andrade, Henrique Pinto Gomide, Telmo Mota Ronzani
Smartphone apps are being developed as a complement to smoking cessation treatment. The current study aimed to analyze the content of available apps in Portuguese in two operational systems, Android and iOS. Fifty-one apps were found in iTunes and 600 in Google Play. Content evaluation included apps that focused on smoking cessation, with a total of 12 apps in iOS and 3 in Android. Each app was categorized according to its approach to smoking cessation and scored according to level of adherence to the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence smoking cessation treatment guideline...
March 9, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295829/chondroradionecrosis-of-the-larynx-24-year-university-of-wisconsin-experience
#16
Thomas G Gessert, Christopher J Britt, Austin M W Maas, Aaron M Wieland, Paul M Harari, Gregory K Hartig
BACKGROUND: Chondroradionecrosis (CRN) is an uncommon but significant complication of laryngeal radiotherapy that presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians through its similarity in presentation to cancer recurrence. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-four patients underwent primary, adjuvant, or salvage radiation for laryngeal cancer from 1991 to 2015 at the University of Wisconsin. Medical records were reviewed to identify and characterize patients with a diagnosis of CRN...
March 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288999/cannabis-arteritis-ever-more-important-to-consider
#17
Rui Pedro Santos, Cristina Isabel Pinho Resende, Ana Paula Vieira, Celeste Brito
Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288601/babies-living-safe-smokefree-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-multilevel-multimodal-behavioral-intervention-to-reduce-low-income-children-s-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#18
Bradley N Collins, Stephen J Lepore
BACKGROUND: Addressing children's tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) remains a public health priority. However, there is low uptake and ineffectiveness of treatment, particularly in low-income populations that face numerous challenges to smoking behavior change. A multilevel intervention combining system-level health messaging and advice about TSE delivered at community clinics that disseminate the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), combined with nicotine replacement and intensive multimodal, individual-level behavioral intervention may improve TSE control efforts in such high-risk populations...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282080/-smoking-rates-among-students-of-medicine-at-a-university-institute-in-buenos-aires-cross-section-study
#19
Lucas E Gonzalez, Nicolás A Lescano, Sergio A Terrasa, María V Salgado
INTRODUCTION: Argentina has a smoking rate among adults of 22.1%; previous research has shown medical students smoke at the same rate than the general population. Physicians' smoking status affects their ability to provide anti-smoking advice. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study. In 2011 a survey was administered to medical students at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires School of Medicine asking about demographic and tobacco use characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes toward smoking...
July 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279662/in%C3%A2-vivo-interactions-between-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-nuclear-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-implication-for-nicotine-dependence
#20
Asti Jackson, Deniz Bagdas, Pretal P Muldoon, Aron H Lichtman, F Ivy Carroll, Mark Greenwald, Michael F Miles, M Imad Damaj
Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown...
March 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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