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Extraction Of Nicotine

Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Pia Cassanello-Peñarroya, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Albert Balaguer, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature about thirdhand smoke (THS). METHODS: Systematic review of all aspects of THS. Standard methodological procedures were used to search the following databases through April 2018: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science (WOS) in Indo-European languages. To identify published grey literature, the first 200 hits from Google Scholar™ were evaluated...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Research
David Kennedy, Edward Okello, Paul Chazot, Melanie-Jayne Howes, Samuel Ohiomokhare, Philippa Jackson, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, Julie Khan, Joanne Forster, Emma Wightman
Extracts of several members of the monoterpene-rich Lamiaceae sub-family Nepetoideae, including those from the Salvia (sage), Melissa ( Lemon balm ) and Rosmarinus (rosemary) genera, evince cognitive and mood effects in humans that are potentially related to their effects on cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. To date, despite promising in vitro properties, the cognitive and mood effects of the closely related Mentha spicata (spearmint) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) remain unexplored. This study therefore assessed the human cognitive/mood effects of the M...
August 7, 2018: Nutrients
A M Stabile, L Marinucci, S Balloni, A Giuliani, A Pistilli, M Bodo, M Rende
Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke induces severe injuries to respiratory system through several mechanisms, some of them are well defined, but many others are not yet elucidated. Beside its classical role in nervous system, we have previously shown that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and its receptors have a crucial role in airway inflammatory diseases, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. To expand our knowledge about the relevance of NGF and its receptors in airway diseases induced by cigarette smoking, we exposed for 16 weeks the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B to sub-toxic concentrations of whole cigarette smoke extract or pure nicotine...
August 1, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Adam Whitlatch, Suzaynn Schick
Introduction: Thirdhand cigarette smoke is the fraction of cigarette smoke that remains in the environment long after a cigarette is extinguished. Methods: The Truth Tobacco Documents collection at UCSF was searched for information on thirdhand smoke. Results: In 1991, scientists at Philip Morris Inc. conducted some of the first studies on thirdhand cigarette smoke. For 110 days, 8 hours a day, they ran sidestream cigarette smoke through a 30 m3 room that contained carpet, curtain and textured wallpaper...
July 20, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Huiyoung Kwon, Ji Wook Jung, Young Choon Lee, Jong Hoon Ryu, Dong Hyun Kim
Artemisia capillaris Thunberg is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine in many cultures. It is an effective remedy for liver problems including hepatitis. Recent pharmacological reports have indicated that Artemisia species can exert various neurological effects. Previously, we reported a memory-enhancing effect of Artemisia species. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of A. capillaris (AC) are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of AC on ischemic brain injury in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Clarence Mvalo Mbanga, Celestin Danwang, Valirie Ndip Agbor
OBJECTIVE: To summarise available data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with complications of lower limb cellulitis in Africa. METHODS: We did electronic searches on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and African Journals Online from 1 January 1986 to 30 October 2017, extracted and summarised data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with the complications of lower limb cellulitis from eligible literature. RESULTS: A total of seven studies were retained for final review after the search and screening processes...
July 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Marty Cauley, Brandon J Hall, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Shaqif Junaid, Hannah White, Abtin Kiany, Theodore A Slotkin, Edward D Levin
Tobacco exposure during development leads to neurobehavioral dysfunction in children, even when exposure is limited to secondhand smoke. We have previously shown in rats that developmental exposure to tobacco smoke extract (TSE), at levels mimicking secondhand smoke, starting preconception and extending throughout gestation, evoked subsequent locomotor hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. These effects were greater than those caused by equivalent exposures to nicotine alone, implying that other agents in tobacco smoke contributed to the adverse behavioral effects...
July 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kuo-Yao Hsu, Yun-Fang Tsai, Chu-Ching Huang, Wen-Ling Yeh, Kai-Ping Chang, Chen-Chun Lin, Ching-Yen Chen, Hsiu-Lan Lee
BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey)...
June 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Janyerson Dannys Pereira da Silva, Diego Vannucci Campos, Fabiana Moreira Nogueira-Bechara, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Maria Teresa R Lima-Landman, Antônio José Lapa, Caden Souccar
Dystrophin deficiency caused by mutations of the related gene leads to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Some patients with DMD also present with intellectual disability and various degrees of neurological disorders, which have been related to a decreased number of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs) in the hippocampus (HPC) and cerebellum (CBL). The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of dystrophin in the presynaptic GABAergic function in brain regions in which this protein is normally abundant...
September 2018: Neurochemistry International
Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Seema Chugh, Saswati Karmakar, Sanchita Rauth, Raghupathy Vengoji, Pranita Atri, Geoffrey A Talmon, Subodh M Lele, Lynette M Smith, Ishwor Thapa, Dhundy Bastola, Michel M Ouellette, Surinder K Batra, Moorthy P Ponnusamy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Aggressive pancreatic tumors contain cancer cells with stem cell features. We investigated whether cigarette smoke induces stem cell features in pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: KrasG12D ; Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or clean air (controls) for up to 20 weeks; pancreata were collected and analyzed by histology, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy...
June 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Samantha C Chepkin, Weiyu Ye, Chris Bullen, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), including gum, transdermal patch, intranasal spray and inhaled and oral preparations, for achieving long-term smoking cessation, compared to placebo or 'no NRT' interventions...
May 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Sana Abdolhosseini, Ali Reza Ghiasvand, Nahid Heidari
A stainless steel fiber was made porous and adhesive by platinization and then coated by nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy), using an appropriate electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The morphological surface structure and functional groups of the PPy-coated fiber were studied using SEM (Scanning electron microscope) instrument. The prepared fiber was used for comparison of direct immersion (DI) and electroenhanced direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (EE-DI-SPME) of nicotine in human plasma and urine samples followed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) determination...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xing Liu, Wan Lu, Sheng Liao, Zhongliang Deng, Zhongrong Zhang, Yun Liu, Weizhong Lu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a prevalent smoking cessation aid worldwide; however, a consensus regarding their efficacy and safety has yet to be reached. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature from related studies written in English or Chinese and published between January 1, 2003, and July 30, 2017. Eligible studies reporting the number of smokers who reduced or quit smoking and suffered from adverse events after e-cigarette use were selected according to predefined criteria; pertinent data were then extracted for a meta-analysis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jin Hui Paik, Soo Kang, Areum Durey, Ji Hye Kim, Ah Jin Kim
Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Takehito Inukai, Sanae Kaji, Hiroyuki Kataoka
Smoking not only increases the risk of lung cancer but is strongly related to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, passive smoking due to sidestream smoke is a critical public health problem. To assess active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, we developed a simple and sensitive method, consisting of on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to determine nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in hair samples. These compounds were separated within 5 min using a Polar-RP80A column and detected in the positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hongfei Zhang, Yongqiang Pang, Yanbo Luo, Xiangyu Li, Huan Chen, Shulei Han, Xingyi Jiang, Fengpeng Zhu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu
Evaluating the source of nicotine in e-liquid is a problem. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas tobacco-free nicotine products may not. Thus, we developed a new normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography method to determinate the enantiomeric composition of nicotine in 10 kinds of flue-cured tobacco, 3 kinds of burley, 1 kind of cigar tobacco, 2 kinds of oriental tobacco, 5 kinds of Virginia cigarette, 5 kinds of blend cigarette, 10 kinds of e-liquid, and 4 kinds of smokeless tobacco...
July 2018: Chirality
Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
BACKGROUND: The ammonia contained in tobacco fillers and mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers. Ammonia has been included in the non-exhaustive priority list of 39 tobacco components and emissions of cigarette published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. The development of a simple ammonia detection method will contribute to the establishment of tobacco product regulation under tobacco control policies and allow surveys to be conducted, even by laboratories with small research budgets...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Mayuko Hatai, Noriko Yoshikawa, Eriko Kinoshita, Shizuyo Horiyama, Satomi Kagota, Kazumasa Shinozuka, Kazuki Nakamura
We investigated the anti-metastatic action of nicotine- and tar-removed cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on highly metastatic mouse Colon-26 cells using syngeneic BALB/c mice. Colon-26 cells were injected into the spleen of mice, cells were grown in the spleen as the primary lesion, and some metastasized from the spleen to liver and established a metastatic lesion. CSE (10, 30, and 100%) was intraperitoneally administered daily to the mice for 14 days after tumor inoculation. As a result, the relative spleen weights of CSE-administered mice did not differ significantly from those of the control mice...
May 2018: In Vivo
Rym Belhareth, Soraya Mezouar, Amira Ben Amara, Céline Chartier, Eya Ben Azzouz, Eric Chabrière, Mohamed Amri, Jean-Louis Mege
The success of pregnancy depends on the maternal immune system's ability to promote tolerance and host defense. This equilibrium is compromised in inflammatory and infectious impairment of placenta. Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to severe complications which might result from an alteration in placenta macrophages (pMφ) functions. In this study, we assessed the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the functions of third trimester pMφs.CSE inhibited particles uptake and the formation of multinucleated giant cells, a recently reported property of pMφs based on their ability to fuse in vitro...
June 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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