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Extraction Of Nicotine

Hui Zhang, Rui Zhao, Chaochao Huang, Jun Li, Yunhai Shao, Jian Xu, Ming Shu, Weihong Zhong
Pseudomonas sp. JY-Q is a nicotine-degrading strain isolated from tobacco waste extract (TWE). In TWE, the nicotine is a toxic chemical and requires removal. However, it was found that glucose in TWE inhibited the degradation of nicotine. Bioinformatics analysis of JY-Q complete genome found five genes encoding the first-step enzymes of glucose metabolism, one glucokinase (gck, AA098_22370) and four glucose dehydrogenases (gdh, AA098_12490, 22860, 11910, and 05800). Homogonous recombinant strategy was utilized to delete all the five genes from JY-Q genome one by one...
October 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Courtney M Schaal, Namrata Bora-Singhal, Durairaj Mohan Kumar, Srikumar P Chellappan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths and its incidence is highly correlated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, cannot initiate tumors, but can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells in vitro and promote tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. This nicotine-mediated tumor promotion is facilitated through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit. More recently, nicotine has been implicated in promoting self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from lung cancers...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Yang Yang, Yichen Ge, Pengfei Tu, Hongyuan Zeng, Xihong Zhou, Dongsheng Zou, Kelin Wang, Qingru Zeng
Successful phytoextraction produces a large quantity of contaminated biomass, which will cause secondary pollution unless properly treated. This study investigated the disposal of contaminated tobacco biomass after phytoextraction. We detected significantly high Cadmium concentrations in tobacco, especially in their stems and leaves. From the latter, nearly all the Cd and nicotine were removed by extractions with 0.5% HCl + 70% ethanol, and the nicotine completely recovered via steam distillation, whereas the protein content remained unaffected in the leaves, thus making them safe for use as animal feed...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Subhash T Kumbhar, Shriniwas P Patil, Hemant D Une
Canna indica L. (Cannaceae) roots and rhizomes were reported to possess various biological properties like antimicrobial, anthelmintic potential and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition. In our previous studies, they showed antidiabetic activity on normal rats and rats co-addicted with caffeine and nicotine. In the pursuit of the phytochemical/s responsible for these biological activities, present study was aimed at phytochemical evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of C. indica L. roots and rhizomes; including preliminary screening, thin layer chromatography, H1 -NMR and HR-LC/MS-MS analysis...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yong-Hyun Kim, Young-Ji An, Seongwon Jo, Sang-Hyub Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee
Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for several diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The toxicity of the cigarette smoke can be determined in vitro. The cytotoxicity test of the cigarette smoke is commonly conducted using the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The CSC and CSE methods are well known for sampling of the particles and water-soluble compounds in the cigarette smoke, respectively. In this study, the CSC and CSE were analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system equipped with a wax column for separation of the volatile organic compounds...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Rita de Cássia S Sousa, Matheus M Pereira, Mara G Freire, João A P Coutinho
Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been largely investigated for the extraction, separation and/or purification of biomolecules. Recently, the use of ionic liquids (ILs) as additives in conventional polymer-based ABS was proposed to overcome the limited range of polarities of the coexisting phases. However, the impact of ILs on the partitioning of biomolecules on IL additivated ABS is not universal and is still poorly understood. Aiming at obtaining additional insights on this matter, the effects of the chemical structure of the IL, tie-line length (TLL) and biomolecule nature upon the partition of a series of model biomolecules were investigated...
May 8, 2018: Separation and Purification Technology
Changhong Gu, ZhengLin Zhao, Xiaodong Zhu, Tong Wu, Bong Hyo Lee, Yu Jiao, Chul Won Lee, Dae Hwa Jung, Chae Ha Yang, Rongjie Zhao, Sang Chan Kim
Anxiety during nicotine withdrawal (NicW) is a key risk factor for smoking relapse. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS), which is a prototypical hypnotic-sedative herb in Oriental medicine, has been clinically used to treat insomnia and general anxiety disorders for thousands of years. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of the aqueous extract of SZS (AESZS) on NicW-induced anxiety in male rats that received subcutaneous administrations of nicotine (Nic) (0.4 mg/kg, twice a day) for 7 d followed by 4 d of withdrawal...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sorivan Chhem-Kieth, Peter Bæk Skou, Rene Lametsch, Erik Torngaard Hansen, Jorge Ruiz-Carrascal
This study investigates the potential of novel heme-ligand complexes, derived from heme-iron isolated from porcine hemoglobin by enzymatic hydrolysis, to use as pigments for meat products. Five alternatives to sodium nitrite were identified as possible heme ligands and stabilizing agents of the red conformation of heme. The effects of 4-methylimidazole, methyl nicotinate, pyrrolidine, piperidine, pyrazine and sodium nitrite (as comparative benchmark) on the color of heme-iron extract and pure hemin standard were studied in solution...
October 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Nuha Alkhattabi, Ian Todd, Ola Negm, Patrick J Tighe, Lucy C Fairclough
Cigarette smoke has significant toxic effects on the immune system, and increases the risk of developing autoimmune diseases; one immunosuppressive effect of cigarette smoke is that it inhibits the T cell-stimulating, immunogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). As the functions of DCs are regulated by intra-cellular signaling pathways, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and nicotine on multiple signaling molecules and other regulatory proteins in human DCs to elucidate the molecular basis of the inhibition of DC maturation and function by CSE and nicotine...
September 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Satoru Munakata, Kanae Ishimori, Nobumasa Kitamura, Shinkichi Ishikawa, Yuichiro Takanami, Shigeaki Ito
The use of novel tobacco- and nicotine-containing vapor products that do not combust tobacco leaves is on the rise worldwide. The emissions of these products typically contain lower numbers and levels of potentially harmful chemicals compared with conventional cigarette smoke. These vapor products may therefore elicit fewer adverse biological effects. We compared the effects of emissions from different types of such products, i.e., our proprietary novel tobacco vapor product (NTV), a commercially available heat-not-burn tobacco product (HnB), and e-cigarette (E-CIG), and a combustible cigarette in a human bronchial epithelial cell line...
September 15, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Zoraida Verde, Catalina Santiago, Luis M Chicharro, Fernando Bandrés, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Jose Miguel Rodríguez González-Moro, Pilar de Lucas
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serotonin levels have been associated with COPD and smoking has been as a significant modulator. Elevated levels of serotonin are responsible for bronchoconstriction and pulmonary vasoconstriction and also nicotine dependence, thus serotonin response could be affected by genetic polymorphisms in transporters and receptors of serotonin. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to analyze the effect of SLC6A4 (5HTT_LPR) (rs25531) and HTR2A-1438G/A (rs6311) genetic polymorphisms on the relation between smoking habits and COPD...
September 12, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Walid E Zahran, Manal A Emam
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is an important factor in the pathogenesis of renal injury in smokers. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of Spirulina platensis extract (SP) against chronic nicotine administration in rats. METHODS: Nicotine intoxication was induced with 0.5 mg/kg BW. Rats received 500 mg SP/kg BW by gastric gavage over 4 weeks. RESULTS: Our data revealed that nicotine induced renal dysfunction manifested by significant abnormal levels of kidney function markers (creatinine and urea) accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress biomarker (malondialdehyde) and inflammatory markers (nitric oxide, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) while antioxidant status as glutathione level and glutathione S-transferase activity were found to be decreased significantly as compared with controls...
October 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Erikas Simonavicius, Ann McNeill, Lion Shahab, Leonie S Brose
OBJECTIVE: To review peer-reviewed evidence on heat-not-burn tobacco products (HnB), their secondhand emissions and use by humans; to identify differences between independent and industry-funded studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched up to 6 November 2017 for studies on HnB published after December 2009; reference lists were screened and other researchers contacted, yielding 637 records. STUDY SELECTION: Thirty-one publications on HnB secondhand emissions (n=16) or use by humans (n=15) were selected by two reviewers with excellent agreement (k=0...
September 4, 2018: Tobacco Control
Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Pia Cassanello-Peñarroya, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Albert Balaguer, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature about thirdhand smoke (THS). METHODS: Systematic review of all aspects of THS. Standard methodological procedures were used to search the following databases through April 2018: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science (WOS) in Indo-European languages. To identify published grey literature, the first 200 hits from Google Scholar™ were evaluated...
November 2018: Environmental Research
David Kennedy, Edward Okello, Paul Chazot, Melanie-Jayne Howes, Samuel Ohiomokhare, Philippa Jackson, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, Julie Khan, Joanne Forster, Emma Wightman
Extracts of several members of the monoterpene-rich Lamiaceae sub-family Nepetoideae, including those from the Salvia (sage), Melissa ( Lemon balm ) and Rosmarinus (rosemary) genera, evince cognitive and mood effects in humans that are potentially related to their effects on cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. To date, despite promising in vitro properties, the cognitive and mood effects of the closely related Mentha spicata (spearmint) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) remain unexplored. This study therefore assessed the human cognitive/mood effects of the M...
August 7, 2018: Nutrients
A M Stabile, L Marinucci, S Balloni, A Giuliani, A Pistilli, M Bodo, M Rende
Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke induces severe injuries to respiratory system through several mechanisms, some of them are well defined, but many others are not yet elucidated. Beside its classical role in nervous system, we have previously shown that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and its receptors have a crucial role in airway inflammatory diseases, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. To expand our knowledge about the relevance of NGF and its receptors in airway diseases induced by cigarette smoking, we exposed for 16 weeks the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B to sub-toxic concentrations of whole cigarette smoke extract or pure nicotine...
August 1, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Adam Whitlatch, Suzaynn Schick
Introduction: Thirdhand cigarette smoke is the fraction of cigarette smoke that remains in the environment long after a cigarette is extinguished. Methods: The Truth Tobacco Documents collection at UCSF was searched for information on thirdhand smoke. Results: In 1991, scientists at Philip Morris Inc. conducted some of the first studies on thirdhand cigarette smoke. For 110 days, 8 hours a day, they ran sidestream cigarette smoke through a 30 m3 room that contained carpet, curtain and textured wallpaper...
July 20, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Huiyoung Kwon, Ji Wook Jung, Young Choon Lee, Jong Hoon Ryu, Dong Hyun Kim
Artemisia capillaris Thunberg is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine in many cultures. It is an effective remedy for liver problems including hepatitis. Recent pharmacological reports have indicated that Artemisia species can exert various neurological effects. Previously, we reported a memory-enhancing effect of Artemisia species. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of A. capillaris (AC) are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of AC on ischemic brain injury in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Clarence Mvalo Mbanga, Celestin Danwang, Valirie Ndip Agbor
OBJECTIVE: To summarise available data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with complications of lower limb cellulitis in Africa. METHODS: We did electronic searches on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and African Journals Online from 1 January 1986 to 30 October 2017, extracted and summarised data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with the complications of lower limb cellulitis from eligible literature. RESULTS: A total of seven studies were retained for final review after the search and screening processes...
July 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Marty Cauley, Brandon J Hall, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Shaqif Junaid, Hannah White, Abtin Kiany, Theodore A Slotkin, Edward D Levin
Tobacco exposure during development leads to neurobehavioral dysfunction in children, even when exposure is limited to secondhand smoke. We have previously shown in rats that developmental exposure to tobacco smoke extract (TSE), at levels mimicking secondhand smoke, starting preconception and extending throughout gestation, evoked subsequent locomotor hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. These effects were greater than those caused by equivalent exposures to nicotine alone, implying that other agents in tobacco smoke contributed to the adverse behavioral effects...
September 2018: Neurotoxicology
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