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Extraction Of Nicotine

Jianbin Ye, Shanshan Zheng, Zhan Zhang, Feng Yang, Ke Ma, Yinjie Feng, Jianqiang Zheng, Duobin Mao, Xuepeng Yang
In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23767 using tobacco waste extract (TWE) as a carbon source. Nicotine was found to be an inhibitory factor for BC synthesis, but it can be removed at pH 9.0 by steam distillation. After removing nicotine, the BC production was 2.27 g/L in TWE prepared with solid-liquid (S-L) ratio at 1:10. To further enhance the BC production, two fermentation stages were performed over 16 days by re-adjusting the pH to 6.5 at 7 days, after the first fermentation stage was completed...
December 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Gihan S Gunaratne, Peiling Su, Jonathan S Marchant, James T Slama, Timothy F Walseth
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is an evolutionarily conserved second messenger, which mobilizes Ca2+ from acidic stores. The molecular identity of the NAADP receptor has yet to be defined. In pursuit of isolating and identifying NAADP-binding proteins, we synthesized and characterized a bifunctional probe that incorporates both a photoactivatable crosslinking azido moiety at the 5-position of the nicotinic ring and a 'clickable' ethynyl moiety to the 8-adenosyl position in NAADP. Microinjection of this 5N3 -8-ethynyl-NAADP into cultured U2OS cells induced robust Ca2+ responses...
December 4, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Ivann K C Martinez, Nicole R L Sparks, Joseph V Madrid, Henry Affeldt, Madeline K M Vera, Bir Bhanu, Nicole I Zur Nieden
Epidemiological studies suggest tobacco consumption as a probable environmental factor for a variety of congenital anomalies, including low bone mass and increased fracture risk. Despite intensive public health initiatives to publicize the detrimental effects of tobacco use during pregnancy, approximately 10-20% of women in the United States still consume tobacco during pregnancy, some opting for so-called harm-reduction tobacco. These include Snus, a type of orally-consumed yet spit-free chewing tobacco, which is purported to expose users to fewer harmful chemicals...
November 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xiaomeng Yue, Jeff Jianfei Guo, Patricia R Wigle
Background: Smoking remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease. Smoking-cessation medications provide patients a multitude of benefits and can prevent certain diseases, including some cancers. Because of the limited amount of studies on smoking-cessation medications, we wanted to find general trends about the use of these medications. Objective: To examine trends in the utilization, pharmacy reimbursement, and prices of smoking-cessation medications and nicotine replacement therapy in the US Medicaid-covered population...
September 2018: American Health & Drug Benefits
Meng Wang, Shuhui Duan, Zhicheng Zhou, Shibao Chen
Tobacco leaves usually accumulate and concentrate high levels of cadmium (Cd) when growing in contaminated soil, and the transfer of Cd through tobacco smoke to human body could cause serious health risks. In this study, we explored the impact of biofertilizers on alleviating Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco leaves. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was planted in three naturally Cd-polluted soils from Chinese main tobacco-planting areas. Adding biofertilizer alleviated Cd-induced degradation of tobacco leaves quality, represented by the balanced K, Cl, N, nicotine or sugar contents and their ratios; Cd reduction rate of tobacco leaves was increased and soil extractable Cd was decreased, when compared with CK (no extra biofertilizer addition)...
November 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Leonardo Essado Rios, Álex Moreira Herval, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Matias Freire
PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the prevalences of stages of change (Transtheoretical Model) for smoking cessation in adolescents and associated factors. METHODS: A systematic search of Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), SCOPUS (Elsevier), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO) and PsycINFO (APA) was conducted to identify eligible studies. Two calibrated reviewers selected studies independently, extracted data, and appraised studies. A qualitative synthesis of the findings and meta-analysis of the prevalences of the stages of change for smoking cessation were carried out...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Adama Kamissoko, Vincent Carré, Sébastien Schramm, Frédéric Aubriet
RATIONALE: The chemical composition of particulate phase of cigarette smoke inhaled by the active smoker is still poorly known in spite of its importance on a health point of view. A non-targeted approach is applied on cigarette smoke particles collected on a quartz filter to obtain an as complete as possible description of this complex mixture. METHODS: A home-made smoking machine including devices for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles sampling was used...
November 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Sandeep Saini, Chander Jyoti Thakur, Varinder Kumar, Suchita Tandon, Varuni Bhardwaj, Sonia Maggar, Stanzin Namgyal, Gurpreet Kaur
Current re-emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) in India caused 11 deaths so far and many patients were kept in quarantine. A thorough study of previous outbreaks occurred in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India represents cases with high rate of fatality due to acute encephalitis. Our work involves genome analysis of NiV for prediction of miRNAs and their targeted genes in human in order to understand encephalitis origin. Ab-intio program-VMir was used for initial screening of genome, obtained nine pre-miRNAs was analyzed by ViralMir to check for any pseudo pre-miRNAs...
September 2018: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Yun Pei, Zhexiao Jiao, Wanting Dong, Linguo Pei, Xia He, Hui Wang, Dan Xu
Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) can cause hypersensitivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring with intrauterine growth retardation. The purpose of this study was to explore the original mechanism of intrauterine development that mediates hypersensitivity of the HPA axis in offspring due to PNE. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 2 mg/kg·d of nicotine on the 9th to the 20th gestational day (GD9-GD20) and the fetuses were extracted at GD20. Compared with the control group, fetal rats by PNE showed increased hippocampal apoptosis, reduced synaptic plasticity and downregulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway, whereas glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression was upregulated...
October 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hui Li, Junzheng Chen, Caiming Chen, Zeping Xu, Jinzhong Xu, Wenhui Lin, Junnan Wu, Guohua Li, Heng Xu, Yimin Kang, Fan Wang, Yanlong Liu
Glutamate is involved in mental disorders and nicotine addiction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and mental status in Chinese heavy smokers. Participants comprised 41 non-smokers and 77 heavy smokers (n = 118). Cerebrospinal fluid was extracted and glutamate levels were measured. We recorded age, years of education, BMI, the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)...
October 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
J O Lee, T M Jones, R Kosterman, C Cambron, I C Rhew, T I Herrenkohl, K G Hill
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the (a) childhood neighborhood context predicts alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, and cannabis use disorder symptoms at the age of 39 years; and (b) socio-economic status during young adulthood mediates these relationships. Gender differences were also examined. STUDY DESIGN: The Seattle Social Development Project is a prospective longitudinal study of 808 individuals followed up from ages 10 to 39 years in Seattle, Washington, United States...
October 25, 2018: Public Health
Taher Darreh-Shori, Sareh Rezaeianyazdi, Erica Lana, Sumonto Mitra, Anna Gellerbring, Azadeh Karami, Nenad Bogdanovic, Christina Unger Lithner, Bengt Winblad, Homira Behbahani
OMI/HTRA2 (high-temperature requirement serine protease A2) is a mitochondrial serine protease involved in several cellular processes, including autophagy, chaperone activity, and apoptosis. Few studies on the role of OMI/HTRA2 in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are available, but none on its relationship with the cholinergic system and neurotrophic factors as well as other AD-related proteins. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AD patients had a higher cytosolic distribution of OMI/HTRA2 protein compared to controls...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Bryce C Simes, Joshua P Moore, Terry C Brown, Tyler J Rushforth, Angela L Bookout, Chante L Richardson
Background: Hyperhidrosis affects 220 million people worldwide. The hallmark of this condition is excessive sweating, which negatively impacts the social, emotional, and occupational lives of these individuals. A familial predisposition has been established; however, the specific genes involved have yet to be identified. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible genetic variations contributing to primary hyperhidrosis, specifically single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Liang-Chih Liu, Yung-Hsiang Lin, Ying-Chao Lin, Chi-Tang Ho, Chao-Ming Hung, Tzong-DER Way, DA-Tian Bau
BACKGROUND/AIM: The banana flower is used for ameliorating urinary disturbance. However, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy or mechanism of action of banana flower against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In the present study, the anti-BPH activity and mechanisms of banana flower extracts were investigated in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The banana flower extract is a water-soluble extract obtained by sonication. MTT assay was used to examine whether banana flower extract exhibited cytotoxic effects on BPH-1 cells...
November 2018: In Vivo
Azeem Alam, Zac Hana, Zhaosheng Jin, Ka Chun Suen, Daqing Ma
Trauma experienced during surgery can contribute to the development of a systemic inflammatory response that can cause multi-organ dysfunction or even failure. Post-surgical neuroinflammation is a documented phenomenon that results in synaptic impairment, neuronal dysfunction and death, and impaired neurogenesis. Various pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, maintain a state of chronic neuroinflammation, manifesting as post-operative cognitive dysfunction and post-operative delirium. Furthermore, elderly patients with post-operative cognitive dysfunction or delirium are three times more likely to experience permanent cognitive impairment or dementia...
October 19, 2018: EBioMedicine
Hui Zhang, Rui Zhao, Chaochao Huang, Jun Li, Yunhai Shao, Jian Xu, Ming Shu, Weihong Zhong
Pseudomonas sp. JY-Q is a nicotine-degrading strain isolated from tobacco waste extract (TWE). In TWE, the nicotine is a toxic chemical and requires removal. However, it was found that glucose in TWE inhibited the degradation of nicotine. Bioinformatics analysis of JY-Q complete genome found five genes encoding the first-step enzymes of glucose metabolism, one glucokinase (gck, AA098_22370) and four glucose dehydrogenases (gdh, AA098_12490, 22860, 11910, and 05800). Homogonous recombinant strategy was utilized to delete all the five genes from JY-Q genome one by one...
October 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Courtney M Schaal, Namrata Bora-Singhal, Durairaj Mohan Kumar, Srikumar P Chellappan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths and its incidence is highly correlated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, cannot initiate tumors, but can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells in vitro and promote tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. This nicotine-mediated tumor promotion is facilitated through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit. More recently, nicotine has been implicated in promoting self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from lung cancers...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Yang Yang, Yichen Ge, Pengfei Tu, Hongyuan Zeng, Xihong Zhou, Dongsheng Zou, Kelin Wang, Qingru Zeng
Successful phytoextraction produces a large quantity of contaminated biomass, which will cause secondary pollution unless properly treated. This study investigated the disposal of contaminated tobacco biomass after phytoextraction. We detected significantly high Cadmium concentrations in tobacco, especially in their stems and leaves. From the latter, nearly all the Cd and nicotine were removed by extractions with 0.5% HCl + 70% ethanol, and the nicotine completely recovered via steam distillation, whereas the protein content remained unaffected in the leaves, thus making them safe for use as animal feed...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Subhash T Kumbhar, Shriniwas P Patil, Hemant D Une
Canna indica L. (Cannaceae) roots and rhizomes were reported to possess various biological properties like antimicrobial, anthelmintic potential and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition. In our previous studies, they showed antidiabetic activity on normal rats and rats co-addicted with caffeine and nicotine. In the pursuit of the phytochemical/s responsible for these biological activities, present study was aimed at phytochemical evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of C. indica L. roots and rhizomes; including preliminary screening, thin layer chromatography, H1 -NMR and HR-LC/MS-MS analysis...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yong-Hyun Kim, Young-Ji An, Seongwon Jo, Sang-Hyub Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee
Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for several diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The toxicity of the cigarette smoke can be determined in vitro. The cytotoxicity test of the cigarette smoke is commonly conducted using the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The CSC and CSE methods are well known for sampling of the particles and water-soluble compounds in the cigarette smoke, respectively. In this study, the CSC and CSE were analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system equipped with a wax column for separation of the volatile organic compounds...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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