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drug abuse among homeless

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324539/chronic-disease-burden-of-the-homeless-a-descriptive-study-of-student-run-free-clinics-in-tampa-florida
#1
Abby Pribish, Nadia Khalil, Rahul Mhaskar, Laurie Woodard, Abu-Sayeef Mirza
Variation between homeless populations due to socioeconomic and environmental factors necessitates tailoring medical, health policy, and public health interventions to the unique needs of the homeless population served. Despite the relatively large size of the homeless population in Florida, there is a paucity of research that characterizes the homeless population who frequent homeless clinics within the state. This project describes the demographics, disease prevalence, and other risk factors among homeless individuals in Tampa, Florida...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300214/predictors-of-antiretroviral-adherence-self-efficacy-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-a-canadian-setting
#2
William K Lee, M J S Milloy, Ekaterina Nosova, John Walsh, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who use illicit drugs remains an ongoing health concern. Although health outcomes associated with adherence self-efficacy have been well-documented, there is dearth research exploring the predictors of this construct. This study sought to identify possible determinants of adherence self-efficacy among a cohort of PLWHA who use illicit drugs. METHODS: From December 2004 to May 2014, we collected data from the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services, a prospective cohort of adult PLWHA who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141722/bullying-at-school-and-on-the-street-risk-factors-and-outcomes-among-homeless-youth
#3
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz
Though rates of bullying among general population youth are high, there is elevated prevalence among certain subgroups, in particular sexual minority homeless youth. Enduring bullying can have devastating consequences, including poor mental health, revictimization, and substance abuse. The current study compares risk factors (i.e., sexual orientation, gender, and child abuse) for being bullied both at school and on the street among homeless youth. We also examine the associations of both contexts of bullying (i...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046402/addiction-and-religiosity-in-facing-suicide-a-qualitative-study-on-meaning-of-life-and-death-among-homeless-people
#4
Ines Testoni, Salvatore Russotto, Adriano Zamperini, Diego De Leo
This qualitative research explores the relationship between religiosity, suicide thoughts and drug abuse among 55 homeless people, interviewed with interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analyzing the thematic structure of the participants' narrations, important main themes appeared in order to avoid suicide, among which family, the certainty of finding a solution and the will to live. However, the suicide ideation inheres in about 30% of participants, almost all believers, addicted and/or alcoholics. Results suggest that religiosity and meaning of death neither prevent from substances abuse and alcoholism, nor is a protective factor against suicide ideation...
May 15, 2018: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871852/using-mhealth-to-increase-treatment-utilization-among-recently-incarcerated-homeless-adults-link2care-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Michael S Businelle, Darla Kendzor, Michele Staton, Carol S North, Michael Swartz
BACKGROUND: There is a significant revolving door of incarceration among homeless adults. Homeless adults who receive professional coordination of individualized care (ie, case management) during the period following their release from jail experience fewer mental health and substance use problems, are more likely to obtain stable housing, and are less likely to be reincarcerated. This is because case managers work to meet the various needs of their clients by helping them to overcome barriers to needed services (eg, food, clothing, housing, job training, substance abuse and mental health treatment, medical care, medication, social support, proof of identification, and legal aid)...
June 5, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862902/hiv-infection-high-risk-behaviors-and-substance-use-in-homeless-men-sheltered-in-therapeutic-communities-in-central-brazil
#6
Sandra M Brunini, Cleiciane V de Lima Barros, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Hélio Galdino Júnior, Giovanni Rezza, Jordana Rs Santos, Vanessa E da Cunha, Johnatan M Sousa, Priscilla M Ferreira, David A Costa Barros
Homeless men present high vulnerability to HIV infection, mainly due to sexual risk behaviors and substance use. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection, risk behaviors and substance use in homeless men. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 homeless men recruited in four therapeutic communities in the Goiás State, Central Brazil. All were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and risk behaviors. Furthermore, all were tested for HIV. Poisson regression was used to verify factors associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780850/canada-wide-epidemic-of-emm74-group-a-streptococcus-invasive-disease
#7
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728148/an-evidence-based-co-occurring-disorder-intervention-in-va-homeless-programs-outcomes-from-a-hybrid-iii-trial
#8
David A Smelson, Matthew Chinman, Gordon Hannah, Thomas Byrne, Sharon McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based treatment for co-occurring disorders is needed within programs that serve homeless Veterans to assist with increasing engagement in care and to prevent future housing loss. A specialized co-occurring disorders treatment engagement intervention called Maintaining Independence and Sobriety Through Systems Integration, Outreach and Networking - Veterans Edition (MISSION-Vet) was implemented within the Housing and Urban Development - Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Programs with and without an implementation strategy called Getting To Outcomes (GTO)...
May 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678119/exchange-sex-among-people-receiving-medical-care-for-hiv-in-the-united-states-medical-monitoring-project-2009-2013
#9
Oluwatosin Olaiya, Lina Nerlander, Christine L Mattson, Linda Beer
Many studies of persons who exchange sex for money or drugs have focused on their HIV acquisition risk, and are often limited to select populations and/or geographical locations. National estimates of exchange sex among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are in medical care, and its correlates, are lacking. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a surveillance system that produces nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of PLWH receiving medical care in the United States, to estimate the weighted prevalence of exchange sex overall, and by selected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics...
October 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529669/risk-of-complications-after-tha-increases-among-patients-who-are-coinfected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c
#10
Siddharth A Mahure, Joseph A Bosco, James D Slover, Jonathan Vigdorchik, Richard Iorio, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine whether patients with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524951/prevalence-of-hav-ab-hev-igg-hsv2-igg-and-syphilis-among-sheltered-homeless-adults-in-tehran-2012
#11
Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Abbas Sedaghat, Noushin Fahimfar, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Using enzyme-linked immunoassay, and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we evaluated the seroprevalence of HAV anti-body, HEV IgG, herpes, HSV2 IgG, and syphilis among sheltered homeless in Tehran...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494795/concurrent-disorders-and-health-care-utilization-among-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-persons-in-canada
#12
Linda Zhang, Monica Norena, Anne Gadermann, Anita Hubley, Lara Russell, Tim Aubry, Matthew J To, Susan Farrell, Stephen Hwang, Anita Palepu
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who are homeless or vulnerably housed have a higher prevalence of concurrent disorders, defined as having a mental health diagnosis and problematic substance use, compared to the general housed population. The study objective was to investigate the effect of having concurrent disorders on health care utilization among homeless or vulnerably housed individuals, using longitudinal data from the Health and Housing in Transition Study. METHODS: In 2009, 1190 homeless or vulnerably housed adults were recruited in Ottawa, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada...
January 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327358/opioid-medication-use-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-diagnoses-vs-unexplained-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-the-us-veterans-health-administration
#13
G S Sayuk, N Kanuri, C P Gyawali, B M Gott, B D Nix, R A Rosenheck
BACKGROUND: While opioid prescriptions have increased alarmingly in the United States (US), their use for unexplained chronic gastrointestinal (GI) pain (eg, irritable bowel syndrome) carries an especially high risk for adverse effects and questionable benefit. AIM: To compare opioid use among US veterans with structural GI diagnoses (SGID) and those with unexplained GI symptoms or functional GI diagnoses (FGID), a group for whom opioids have no accepted role. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data from fiscal year 2012 were used to identify veterans with diagnostic codes recorded for SGID and FGID...
March 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245022/cost-effective-way-to-reduce-stimulant-abuse-among-gay-bisexual-men-and-transgender-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial-with-a-cost-comparison
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
S X Zhang, S Shoptaw, C J Reback, K Yadav, A M Nyamathi
OBJECTIVES: A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). STUDY DESIGN: Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners...
January 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826127/-i-love-having-benzos-after-my-coke-shot-the-use-of-psychotropic-medication-among-cocaine-users-in-downtown-montreal
#15
Rossio Motta-Ochoa, Karine Bertrand, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Élise Roy
BACKGROUND: Cocaine abuse is a major public health issue due to its role in the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics in North America. A significant area of concern among people who use cocaine (PWUC), injected or smoked, is their frequent misuse of prescription drugs, particularly psychotropic medication (PM), such as tranquilizers, sedatives, stimulants, and antipsychotics. This paper aims to describe and understand practices of PM use among PWUC in downtown Montreal. METHOD: Ethnographic methods including participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used in an iterative manner...
November 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747094/a-comparison-of-socioeconomic-status-and-mental-health-among-inner-city-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-women
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kevin Hamdullahpur, Kahá Wi J Jacobs, Kathryn J Gill
Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678621/mental-health-substance-abuse-and-suicide-among-homeless-adults
#17
Kyoung Hag Lee, Jung Sim Jun, Yi Jin Kim, Soonhee Roh, Sung Seek Moon, Ngoyi Bukonda, Lisa Hines
This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters...
July 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542351/risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-seropositivity-among-young-people-who-inject-drugs-in-new-york-city-implications-for-prevention
#18
Benjamin Eckhardt, Emily R Winkelstein, Marla A Shu, Michael R Carden, Courtney McKnight, Don C Des Jarlais, Marshall J Glesby, Kristen Marks, Brian R Edlin
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a significant problem in the United States, with people who inject drugs (PWID) disproportionately afflicted. Over the last decade rates of heroin use have more than doubled, with young persons (18-25 years) demonstrating the largest increase. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in New York City from 2005 to 2012 among young people who injected illicit drugs, and were age 18 to 35 or had injected drugs for ≤5 years, to examine potentially modifiable factors associated with HCV among young adults who began injecting during the era of syringe services...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426546/methamphetamine-use-and-dependence-in-vulnerable-female-populations
#19
REVIEW
Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon, Soontaree Srikosai, Apisak Wittayanookulluk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414530/hope-amidst-horror-documenting-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-among-female-sex-workers-and-their-intimate-partners-in-tijuana-mexico
#20
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Angela Robertson Bazzi, María Luisa Mittal
Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war...
August 2017: Medical Anthropology
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