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Zhengwei Zhou, Xiaoming Bi, Janet Wei, Hsin-Jung Yang, Rohan Dharmakumar, Reza Arsanjani, C Noel Bairey Merz, Debiao Li, Behzad Sharif
PURPOSE: The presence of subendocardial dark-rim artifact (DRA) remains an ongoing challenge in first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a free-breathing FPP imaging scheme with Cartesian sampling that is optimized to minimize the DRA and readily enables near-instantaneous image reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed FPP method suppresses Gibbs ringing effects-a major underlying factor for the DRA-by "shaping" the underlying point spread function through a two-step process: 1) an undersampled Cartesian sampling scheme that widens the k-space coverage compared to the conventional scheme; and 2) a modified parallel-imaging scheme that incorporates optimized apodization (k-space data filtering) to suppress Gibbs-ringing effects...
February 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Katrin Geisler, Niels Berg Jensen, Macaire M S Yuen, Lina Madilao, Jörg Bohlmann
Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I-IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs...
May 2016: Plant Physiology
Daniel Headland, Shruti Nirantar, Withawat Withayachumnankul, Philipp Gutruf, Derek Abbott, Madhu Bhaskaran, Christophe Fumeaux, Sharath Sriram
Single-crystal silicon is bonded to a metal-coated substrate and etched in order to form an array of microcylinder passive terahertz dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). The DRAs exhibit a magnetic response, and hence the array behaves as an efficient artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), with potential for terahertz antenna and sensing applications.
November 25, 2015: Advanced Materials
Yuk Lin Yong, Aline Plançon, Yen Hui Lau, Dana M Hostetler, Facundo M Fernández, Michael D Green, Sourisak Sounvoravong, Suon Nara, Mam Boravann, Thitikornkovit Dumrong, Nurjaya Bangsawan, Min Yong Low, Chin-Chin Lim, Ruth Lee Choo Ai, Paul N Newton
Counterfeit (or falsified) and substandard medicines pose a major public health risk. We describe the findings of Operation Storm I and II conducted in 2008-2009 to combat counterfeit medicines through partnership between national customs, Drug Regulatory Agencies (DRAs), and police in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Samples were obtained from seizures and market surveillance by national DRAs. Laboratory analysis using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques and examination of packaging were performed...
June 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Simona Paro, Jean-Luc Imler, Carine Meignin
Induction of antiviral immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates relies on members of the RIG-I-like receptor and Dicer families, respectively. Although these proteins have different size and domain composition, members of both families share a conserved DECH-box helicase domain. This helicase, also known as a duplex RNA activated ATPase, or DRA domain, plays an important role in viral RNA sensing. Crystallographic and electron microscopy studies of the RIG-I and Dicer DRA domains indicate a common structure and that similar conformational changes are induced by dsRNA binding...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Immunology
Joel Lexchin
Some drugs eventually have to be removed from the market because of a negative benefit-to-harm ratio, including an excess of mortality. Drug safety is the result of multiple factors, commencing with how clinical trials are designed, the information generated by and/or hidden through these trials, trial analysis by drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) and the amount of information that DRAs choose to release, the amount of published information regarding drug safety, the effectiveness of postmarket surveillance systems in recognizing and reporting adverse drug reactions, and the structure of DRAs such as the United States Food and Drug Administration and its equivalent in other countries...
2015: BMC Medicine
Deniz Arslan, Alparslan Merdin, Deniz Tural, Mustafa Temizel, Olgun Akın, Seyda Gündüz, Ali Murat Tatlı, Fatma Avcı, Mükremin Uysal
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune disease with chronic complications that is becoming more frequent as life expectancy of diabetics has increased owing to improved methods of detection and better management. In this study, we investigated whether the presence of autoimmunity can be used in predicting the development time of microvascular complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study included 52 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mariane Martins da Silva Sandri, Marismary Horsth De Seta, Vera Lucia Luiza
OBJECTIVE: To describe the organization of national drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru through the analysis of categories representing organizational rules. METHODS: The DRAs were selected using the following criteria: being in a South American country, having been identified as DRAs at Encuentros de Autoridades Competentes en Medicamentos de los Países Iberoamericanos (Conferences of Ibero-American Drug Regulatory Authorities), and having good availability of electronic data regarding organizational structure and the process of drug regulation...
September 2013: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Draško B Mašović, Dragana S Šumarac Pavlović, Miomir M Mijić
A standard proposal for rating airborne sound insulation in buildings [ISO 16717-1 (2012)] defines the reference noise spectra. Since their shapes influence the calculated values of single-number descriptors, reference spectra should approximate well typical noise spectra in buildings. There is, however, very little data in the existing literature on a typical noise spectrum in dwellings. A spectral analysis of common noise sources in dwellings is presented in this paper, as a result of an extensive monitoring of various noisy household activities...
November 2013: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Agnieszka Strózik, Mariola Minkina-Pędras, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Wojciech Młynarski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Janusz Gumprecht
Lipodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting adipose tissue distribution. Familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigantype (FPLD) is a rare autosomal, dominant disorder caused by missense mutations in lamin A/C (LMNA) gene where selective loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue from the limbs and trunk, and accumulation of fat in the neck and face, is usually associated with a variety of metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and high blood pressure...
2013: Endokrynologia Polska
Elżbieta Berdej-Szczot, Małgorzata Firek-Pędras, Lesław Szydłowski, Joanna Krzystolik-Ładzińska, Katarzyna Klimek, Ewa Małecka-Tendera
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) remains a diagnostic challenge due to its nonspecific clinical symptoms. Delayed treatment initiation increases the risk of coronary complications. AIM: To evaluate the risk of coronary artery involvement and perform a prospective analysis of its course in children hospitalised due to KD. METHODS: KD was diagnosed in 38 children, including 25 boys and 13 girls, aged 1.5-118 months (median 37.5 months). We assessed the risk of cardiac complications in relation to the presence of a complete or incomplete form of the disease, age, gender and laboratory test results, as well as the timing of treatment initiation...
2013: Kardiologia Polska
D Bardelay
Members and correspondents of the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) from 23 countries responded to a questionnaire assessing the degree of transparency of their national Drug Regulatory Agency (DRA).The access to unpublished data on drug efficacy, safety or utilisation appears to vary enormously among the selected countries. The majority of DRAs provide little information on new drugs (or on new therapeutic indications for older drugs) and less on drug side effects, even when this is specifically requested...
1996: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Longfang Zou, Withawat Withayachumnankul, Charan M Shah, Arnan Mitchell, Madhu Bhaskaran, Sharath Sriram, Christophe Fumeaux
Drawing inspiration from radio-frequency technologies, we propose a realization of nano-scale optical dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) functioning in their fundamental mode. These DRAs operate via displacement current in a low-loss high-permittivity dielectric, resulting in reduced energy dissipation in the resonators. The designed nonuniform planar DRA array on a metallic plane imparts a sequence of phase shifts across the wavefront to create beam deflection off the direction of specular reflection. The realized array clearly demonstrates beam deflection at 633 nm...
January 14, 2013: Optics Express
Gilliard N Malheiros-Silveira, Gustavo S Wiederhecker, Hugo E Hernández-Figueroa
Optical nanoantennas, especially of the dipole type, have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by many research groups. Likewise, the plasmonic waveguides and optical circuits have experienced significant advances. In radio frequencies and microwaves a category of antenna known as dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), whose radiant element is a dielectric resonator (DR), has been designed for several applications, including satellite and radar systems. In this letter, we explore the possibilities and advantages to design nano DRAs (NDRAs), i...
January 14, 2013: Optics Express
Dawn E Hall, Philipp Zerbe, Sharon Jancsik, Alfonso Lara Quesada, Harpreet Dullat, Lina L Madilao, Macaire Yuen, Jörg Bohlmann
Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites...
February 2013: Plant Physiology
Catherine J Sanders, Peter Vogel, Jennifer L McClaren, Resha Bajracharya, Peter C Doherty, Paul G Thomas
During influenza virus infection, it is unclear how much alveolar cell loss can be tolerated before the host succumbs to the disease. We sought to define relevant correlates of disease severity in the mouse influenza model, hypothesizing that a susceptibility threshold exists for alveolar epithelial cell loss. We compared lung pathology, virus spread, alveolar epithelial cell depletion, arterial blood oxygenation, physiological responses measured by unrestrained plethysmography, and oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production by gas analysis in mice at intervals after infection with virus strains and doses that cause mild (x31) or severe (PR/8) influenza...
April 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yildiz Zengin-Toktas, Nicolas Authier, Hélène Denizot, Carine Chassain, Aziz Hafidi, Pierre M Llorca, Franck Durif
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). We hypothesize that DRT can induce a potential rewarding effect in an animal model of PD. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of L-dopa, dopamine receptor agonists (DRAs), and cocaine in rat with a bilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In 6-OHDA animals, D1 receptors agonist (SKF81297) revealed significantly a conditioned place aversion (CPA) at 3 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg doses...
July 2013: Neuropharmacology
Dahai Luo, Andrew Kohlway, Anna Marie Pyle
Double-stranded RNAs are an important class of functional macromolecules in living systems. They are usually found as part of highly specialized intracellular machines that control diverse cellular events, ranging from virus replication, antiviral defense, RNA interference, to regulation of gene activities and genomic integrity. Within different intracellular machines, the RNA duplex is often found in association with specific RNA-dependent ATPases, including Dicer, RIG-I and DRH-3 proteins. These duplex RNA-activated ATPases represent an emerging group of motor proteins within the large and diverse super family 2 nucleic acid-dependent ATPases (which are historically defined as SF2 helicases)...
January 2013: RNA Biology
Toshiyoshi Tominaga, Yuki Ando, Tatsuya Kondo
The past several years saw various countries' drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) internationalizing their activities in response to the rapid globalization of pharmaceutical affairs. This is the second surge of internationalization, coming after the first in the 1990s, when the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) and the Global Harmonization Task Force were founded. For maximum effect, a DRA needs to carefully strategize its international activities. The significance of international master plans is discussed in relation to the recently published International Vision of Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA)...
September 2012: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Victoria Mgbemena, Jesus A Segovia, Te-Hung Chang, Su-Yu Tsai, Garry T Cole, Chiung-Yu Hung, Santanu Bose
Influenza A virus (flu) is a respiratory tract pathogen causing high morbidity and mortality among the human population. NO is a cellular mediator involved in tissue damage through its apoptosis of target cells and resulting enhancement of local inflammation. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is involved in the production of NO following infection. Although NO is a key player in the development of exaggerated lung disease during flu infection, the underlying mechanism, including the role of NO in apoptosis during infection, has not been reported...
July 15, 2012: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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