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Hypertension prevention

Feng J He, Norm R C Campbell, Yuan Ma, Graham A MacGregor, Mary E Cogswell, Nancy R Cook
Background: Several cohort studies with inaccurate estimates of sodium reported a J-shaped relationship with mortality. We compared various estimated sodium intakes with that measured by the gold-standard method of multiple non-consecutive 24-h urine collections and assessed their relationship with mortality. Methods: We analysed the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed in four ways: (i) average measured (gold standard): mean of three to seven 24-h urinary sodium measurements during the trial periods; (ii) average estimated: mean of three to seven estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretions from sodium concentration of 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula; (iii) first measured: 24-h urinary sodium measured at the beginning of each trial; (iv) first estimated: 24-h urinary sodium estimated from sodium concentration of the first 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Joshua H Gordon, Michael J LaMonte, Jiwei Zhao, Robert J Genco, Thomas R Cimato, Kathleen M Hovey, Matthew A Allison, Charles P Mouton, Jean Wactawski-Wende
BACKGROUND: Multiple cross-sectional epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and tooth loss and hypertension, but the temporality of these associations remains unclear. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of baseline self-reported periodontal disease and edentulism with incident hypertension. METHODS: Study participants were 36,692 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study who were followed annually from initial periodontal assessment (1998-2003) through 2015 (mean follow-up 8...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Susanne Muehlschlegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is a type of hemorrhagic stroke and is a neurologic emergency with substantial morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the most common and potentially life-threatening neurologic and medical complications to promote their early recognition and prevent secondary brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past 30 years, the incidence of SAH has remained stable; yet, likely because of improved care in specialized neurocritical care units, discharge mortality has considerably decreased...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Duygu Koçyiğit, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Servet Altay, Sinan Aydoğdu, Cem Barçın, Cem Bostan, Hüseyin Altuğ Çakmak, Alp Burak Çatakoğlu, Samim Emet, Oktay Ergene, Ali Kemal Kalkan, Barış Kaya, Cansın Kaya, Cihangir Kaymaz, Nevrez Koylan, Hakan Kültürsay, Aytekin Oğuz, Ebru Özpelit, Serkan Ünlü
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that women receive fewer preventive recommendations regarding pharmacological treatment, lifestyle modifications, and cardiac rehabilitation compared with men who have a similar risk profile. This study was an investigation of the impact of gender on cardiovascular risk profile and secondary prevention measures for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Turkish population. METHODS: Statistical analyses were based on the European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE)-IV cross-sectional survey data obtained from 17 centers in Turkey...
December 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Hao Li, Haochen Xu, Hongyan Wen, Tianlong Liu, Yingying Sun, Ning Xiao, Congxia Bai, Jing Ge, Xuliang Wang, Li Song, Yan Song, Yinhui Zhang, Jingzhou Chen
Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating cerebrovascular disease with no effective treatment. Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is essential for collagen IV intermolecular crosslinking and stabilization. Deficiency in LH3 affects the assembly and secretion of collagen IV and basement membrane (BM) integrity of vessels. Here, we investigated whether LH3 has significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention. Spontaneous hypertensive ICH of mice was induced by angiotensin II and L-NAME treatment...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Manuel Wallbach, Nadine Lach, Johanna Stock, Henrik Hiller, Eirini Mavropoulou, Myra-Lynn Chavanon, Hartmud Neurath, Sabine Blaschke, Elena Lowin, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Gerhard A Müller, Michael J Koziolek
Though drug adherence is supposed to be low in hypertensive crisis (HTN-C), there are no data available from direct adherence assessments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adherence to prescribed antihypertensives and potential interactions of concomitant drugs and foods with prescribed antihypertensives in patients with HTN-C by a direct evaluation via biochemical urine analysis. In the present cross-sectional study, 100 patients with HTN-C, admitted to the emergency department (ED), were included...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
C Antza, I Doundoulakis, M Natsis, V Kotsis
Artery disease can be identified from ankle-brachial index (peripheral artery disease), pulse wave velocity (arterial stiffness), carotid intima media thickness (atherosclerosis) and flow-mediated dilation (endothelial disfunction). Arterial stiffness is a marker of cardiovascular disease associated with cardiovascular events. Increased vascular ageing is the acceleration of arterial stiffness inappropriate for the given chronological age. Treatment of early vascular ageing seems to be important if we target on primary cardiovascular prevention...
December 4, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Amy Rees, Georgina F Dodd, Jeremy P E Spencer
Research has suggested a number of beneficial effects arising from the consumption of dietary flavonoids, found in foods such as cocoa, apples, tea, citrus fruits and berries on cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. These effects are thought to have a significant impact upon both vascular and cerebrovascular health, ultimately with the potential to prevent cardiovascular and potentially neurodegenerative disease with a vascular component, for example vascular dementia...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Simon Bulley, Carlos Fernández-Peña, Raquibul Hasan, M Dennis Leo, Padmapriya Muralidharan, Charles E Mackay, Kirk W Evanson, Luiz Moreira-Junior, Alejandro Mata-Daboin, Sarah K Burris, Qian Wang, Korah P Kuruvilla, Jonathan H Jaggar
Systemic blood pressure is determined, in part, by arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes). Several Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are proposed to be expressed in arterial myocytes, but it is unclear if these proteins control physiological blood pressure and contribute to hypertension in vivo. We generated the first inducible, smooth muscle-specific knockout mice for a TRP channel, namely for PKD2 (TRPP1), to investigate arterial myocyte and blood pressure regulation by this protein. Using this model, we show that intravascular pressure and α1 -adrenoceptors activate PKD2 channels in arterial myocytes of different systemic organs...
December 4, 2018: ELife
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Mousa Abujbara, Anwar Batieha, Yousef Khader, Hashem Jaddou, Mohammed El-Khateeb, Kamel Ajlouni
Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major modifiable risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type two diabetes mellitus. Knowing the current prevalence of dyslipidemia is an important step for increasing awareness of the problem and for proper planning of health programs for prevention of its negative clinical effects. Methods: A national population based household sample was selected from north, middle, and south regions of Jordan in 2017...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Seon Jin Lee, Da Yeon Kim, Jisoo Yun, Sung Hyun Choi, Seok Yun Jung, Songhwa Kang, Ji Hye Park, Yeon Ju Kim, Jong Seong Ha, Seung Taek Ji, Woong Bi Jang, Dong Hyung Lee, Dongjun Lee, Sang-Mo Kwon
Cross talks between the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system, and vascular homeostasis are tightly coordinated in hypertension. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key factor in RAS, when abnormally activated, affects the number and bioactivity of circulating human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) in hypertensive patients. In this study, we investigated how the augmentation of Ang II regulates adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling and angiogenic bioactivities of hEPCs. Interestingly, the short-term treatment of hEPCs with Ang II drastically attenuated the expression of beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), but did not alter the expression of beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Fatima Ghaddar, Pascale Salameh, Nadine Saleh, Firas Farhat, Ramez Chahine, Nathalie Lahoud, Mira Hleyhel, Rouba K Zeidan
Background: Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death in Lebanon, with cardiovascular diseases accounting for almost half of the annual deaths. Purpose: We aimed to determine awareness of noncardiac Lebanese hospitalized patients for their coronary artery disease risk factors, their level of adherence to medications or lifestyle modifications, and assess factors associated with awareness. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 hospitals with a total of 382 patients...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
F Aghakhanian, C Wong, J S Y Tan, L F Yeo, A Ramadas, J Edo, B P Hoh, B A K Khalid, M E Phipps
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Orang Asli (OA), the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia. OA consist of Negrito, Proto-Malay, and Senoi groups who collectively comprise only 0.76% of the population of Peninsular Malaysia. Owing to the challenges in accessing their remote villages, these groups are often excluded in larger government health surveys. Although tropical diseases were scourges in the past, with rapid national development, many OA communities have been gradually urbanized...
November 30, 2018: Public Health
Letizia Spinelli, Antonio Pisani, Giuseppe Giugliano, Bruno Trimarco, Eleonora Riccio, Bianca Visciano, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Piero Ruggenenti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cardiac abnormalities have been observed before the onset of hypertension or renal dysfunction. We sought to characterize, in ADPKD patients, left ventricular (LV) function and its changes after somatostatin-analogue octreotide-LAR treatment. METHODS: In a 1:1:1 cross-sectional study, we evaluated LV function by speckle-tracking echocardiography in 34 ADPKD patients from one ALADIN-trial center and in 34 age- and gender-matched healthy controls and 34 equally-matched renal controls with non-cystic chronic kidney disease...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Tamiru Adugna, Hailu Merga, Esayas Kebede Gudina
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the worldwide Public Health problem, is also one of the rising non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries. Its early detection and treatment using readily available, inexpensive therapies can slow or prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), high grade albuminuria, and associated factors among adult patients admitted to Jimma University Medical Center in South west Ethiopia...
December 4, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Jingbo Hu, Yongzhong Du
During the years, while treatment strategy for diabetes mellitus has improved, the incidence of diabetes worldwide increases continuously. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major diabetic microvascular complications, and a primary cause leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The progression to ESRD, affected by hyperglycemia and hypertension, is characterized by microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. With advances in understanding the pathogenesis of CKD in diabetic patients, many novel therapeutic targets have been proposed, and the corresponding agents are being developed continually to prevent the progression of CKD...
December 3, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Takashi Tamura, Yuka Kadomatsu, Mineko Tsukamoto, Rieko Okada, Tae Sasakabe, Sayo Kawai, Asahi Hishida, Megumi Hara, Keitaro Tanaka, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Toshiro Takezaki, Isao Watanabe, Daisuke Matsui, Takeshi Nishiyama, Sadao Suzuki, Kaori Endoh, Kiyonori Kuriki, Yoshikuni Kita, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Kokichi Arisawa, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Norihiro Furusyo, Yuriko N Koyanagi, Isao Oze, Yohko Nakamura, Haruo Mikami, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
Brief exposure to passive smoking immediately elevates blood pressure. However, little is known about the association between exposure to passive smoking and chronic hypertension. We aimed to examine this association in a cross-sectional study, after controlling multiple potential confounders.Participants included 32,098 lifetime nonsmokers (7,216 men and 24,882 women) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Passive smoking was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The single question about exposure to passive smoking had five response options: "sometimes or almost never," "almost every day, 2 hours/day or less," "almost every day, 2 to 4 hours/day," "almost every day, 4 to 6 hours/day," and "almost every day, 6 hours/day or longer...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Masanari Kuwabara, Yaswanth Chintaluru, Mehmet Kanbay, Koichiro Niwa, Ichiro Hisatome, Ana Andres-Hernando, Carlos Roncal-Jimenez, Minoru Ohno, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify whether higher fasting blood glucose levels is predictive of hypertension by a large-scale longitudinal design. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective 5-year cohort study using the data from 13 201 Japanese individuals who underwent annual medical examinations in 2004 and were reevaluated 5 years later. This study included individuals without diabetes or hypertension between ages 30 and 85 years in 2004. The cumulative incidences of hypertension over 5 years in each 10 mg/dl of fasting blood glucose levels were calculated...
January 2019: Journal of Hypertension
Andréia Machado Cardoso, Leandro Henrique Manfredi, Daniela Zanini, Margarete Dulce Bagatini, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Fabiano Carvalho, Alain Tremblay, Adriane Belló-Klein, Maribel Antonello Rubin, Vera Maria Morsch, Jean Sévigny, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
: Background: Central nervous system function has been emerging as an approach to understand hypertension-mediated memory dysfunction, and chronic exercise is able to modulate the purinergic system. METHOD: Herein, we investigated the effect of chronic swimming training on the purinergic system in cortex and hippocampus of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, Exercise, L-NAME and Exercise L-NAME. Inhibitory avoidance test was used to assess memory status...
January 2019: Journal of Hypertension
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