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Hypertension prevention

Doron Aronson, Varda Shalev, Rachel Katz, Gabriel Chodick, Diab Mutlak
PURPOSE:  We used a large real-world data from community settings to develop and validate a 10-year risk score for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and calculate its net benefit performance. METHODS:  Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate effects of risk factors in the derivation cohort ( n  = 96,778) and to derive a risk equation. Measures of calibration and discrimination were calculated in the validation cohort ( n  = 48,404)...
August 13, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Jay S Mishra, Amar S More, Kathirvel Gopalakrishnan, Sathish Kumar
Sex hormone-dependent vascular reactivity is an underlying factor contributing to sex differences in blood pressure. Inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in vascular dysfunction and hypertension. This study evaluated the role of androgens (testosterone) in angiotensin II (Ang II) -induced increase in blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Eight weeks-old male Wistar rats underwent sham operation, castration, or castration with testosterone replacement...
August 8, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Ulrike M M Bauer, Marc-André Körten, Gerhard-Paul Diller, Paul Helm, Helmut Baumgartner, Peter Ewert, Oktay Tutarel
BACKGROUND: As adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are aging, a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is encountered similar to the general population. Currently, data regarding the primary and secondary prevention of acquired cardiovascular disease in ACHD is lacking. METHODS: The German National Register of Congenital Heart Defects was systematically screened for ACHD patients with established cardiovascular risk factors or documented acquired cardiovascular conditions...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jordan A Holmes, Roger F Anderson, Leroy G Hoffman, Timothy N Showalter, Mohit Kasibhatla, Sean P Collins, Michael A Papagikos, Brittany D Barbosa, Lori J Stravers, Zahra Mahbooba, Andrew Z Wang, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer survivors who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. They require coordinated care between cancer specialist and primary care physicians (PCPs) to monitor for cancer control and manage cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 103 men receiving ADT with radiotherapy from 7 institutions to assess cardiovascular risk factors and survivorship care. Medical records, fasting labs, and patient-reported outcomes using a validated instrument were assessed at baseline (pre-treatment) and 1 year post-RT...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Kristin M Hirahatake, David R Jacobs, Myron D Gross, Kirsten B Bibbins-Domingo, Michael G Shlipak, Holly Mattix-Kramer, Andrew O Odegaard
OBJECTIVE: Nutritional intervention targeting dietary intake modification is a major component of treatment for chronic kidney disease; however, little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and kidney function decline in individuals with preserved kidney function. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study we examined the association of biomarkers of dietary intake with kidney function decline over a 5-year interval in 2,152 men and women with cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate > 60 mL/minute/1...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Liana Shvachiy, Vera Geraldes, Ângela Amaro-Leal, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Exposures to lead (Pb) during developmental phases can alter the normal course of development, with lifelong health consequences. Permanent Pb exposure leads to behavioral changes, cognitive impairment, sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, hypertension and autonomic dysfunction. However, the effects of an intermittent lead exposure are not yet studied. This pattern of exposure has been recently increasing due to migrations, implementation of school exchange programs and/or residential changes...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Yanjun Guo, Xin Yang, Jialin He, Jingjing Liu, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Ca2+ -sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of G protein-coupled receptor family, is widely expressed in the vascular system, including perivascular neurons, vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). When stimulated, CaSR can further increase the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt ) in two ways: intracellular Ca2+ release from endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and extracellular Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ -permeable cation channels. In endothelium, increased Ca2+ subsequently activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and intermediate conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (IKCa), resulting in vasodilation through NOS-mediated NO release or membrane hyperpolarization...
August 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Kalina Rajaobelina, Courtney Dow, Francesca Romana Mancini, Laureen Dartois, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Guy Fagherazzi
BACKGROUND: Though many type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors have been identified, little is known on their contributions to the diabetes burden at the population level. METHODS: The study included, 72 655 French women from the E3N prospective cohort followed between 1993 and 2011. We used Cox multivariable models including the main T2D risk factors (metabolic, dietary, clinical, socio-economic and hormonal), as well as a healthy lifestyle index combining five characteristics (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity) to estimate hazard ratios and population attributable fractions (PAFs) for T2D...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Simina-Ramona Selejan, Dominik Linz, Anna-Maria Tatu, Mathias Hohl, Thimoteus Speer, Sebastian Ewen, Felix Mahfoud, Ingrid Kindermann, Olesja Zamyatkin, Andrey Kazakov, Ulrich Laufs, Michael Böhm
Receptors-for-Advanced-Glycation-End-products (RAGE) activate pro-inflammatory programs mediated by carboxymethyllysine (CML) and high-mobility-group-box1 protein (HMGB1). The soluble isoform sRAGE neutralizes RAGE-ligands preventing cardiovascular complications in conditions associated with increased sympathetic activation like hypertension and diabetes. The effects of sympathetic modulation on RAGE/sRAGE-balance and end-organ damage in metabolic syndrome on top of hypertension remains unknown. We hypothesized that increased sympathoadrenergic activity might lead to an unfavourable RAGE/sRAGE regulation...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Ken Lee Chin, Andrea J Curtis, Ella Zomer, Sophia Zoungas, Danny Liew
Population aging along with the rising burden of chronic medical conditions (CMCs) is challenging the sustainability of health care systems globally. The authors sought to characterize contemporary patterns of multimorbidity among older adults (aged ≥65 years) in high-income countries (HICs). Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched in January 2018 for English-language articles that reported the prevalence of multimorbidity (defined as co-occurrence of ≥2 CMCs in an individual without defining an index disease) among older adults in HICs, or the proportions with ≥3 or ≥5 CMCs...
August 10, 2018: Population Health Management
Maya Ram, Howard Berger, Michael Geary, Sarah D McDonald, Beth Murray-Davis, Catherine Riddell, Haroon Hasan, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether routine induction of labor at 38 or 39 weeks in women with chronic hypertension is associated with the risk of superimposed preeclampsia or cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based study of women with chronic hypertension who had a singleton hospital birth at 38 0/7 weeks of gestation of gestation in Ontario, Canada, between 2012 and 2016. Women who underwent induction of labor at 38 0/7 to 38 6/7 weeks of gestation for chronic hypertension (n=281) were compared with those who were managed expectantly during that week and remained undelivered at 39 0/7 weeks of gestation (n=1,606)...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maria Victoria Ruiz Arzalluz, Natalia Burgos-Alonso, Arturo Garcia-Alvarez, Maria Cruz Gomez Fernandez, Ernest Vinyoles, Gonzalo Grandes
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that evening intake of aspirin has antihypertensive effect in healthy adults, which has not been proven in patients with cardiovascular disease, who mostly take aspirin in the morning. We have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of bedtime administration of aspirin in patients with cardiovascular disease already treated for hypertension. METHODS: This is a multicenter randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, with hypertensive patients treated with aspirin for secondary prevention...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Zitao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Yixin Chen
Sufficient drainage is very important for preventing wound complications after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of calcaneal fractures. However, the drainage amount varies among patients. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with increased postoperative drainage after ORIF of calcaneal fractures.A retrospective study including 87 patients with 92 calcaneal fractures in our hospital was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they had increased drainage, which was defined as a total drainage of ≥340 mL (50th percentile)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
F Potier, J-M Degryse, G Aubouy, S Henrard, B Bihin, F Debacq-Chainiaux, H Martens, M de Saint-Hubert
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that providing care for a disabled elderly person may have implications for the caregiver's own health (decreased immunity, hypertension, and depression). OBJECTIVE: Explore if older spousal caregivers are at greater risks of frailty compared to older people without a load of care. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Participants were assessed at home in Wallonia, Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: Cases: community-dwelling spousal caregivers of older patients, recruited mainly by the geriatric outpatient clinic...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
A M Coates, A M Hill, S Y Tan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the consumption of tree nuts and peanuts and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality as well as CVD risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: A greater consumption of tree nuts and peanuts is associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, as well as lower CVD events. Furthermore, risk factors associated with the development of CVD such as dyslipidemia, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are improved with regular tree nut and peanut consumption through a range of mechanism associated with their nutrient-rich profiles...
August 9, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Randall S Stafford
The recently released 2017 High Blood Pressure Guidelines depart from past guidelines in both their approach and recommendations. Developed by multiple health organizations, including the American College of Preventive Medicine, the guidelines continue to define normal blood pressure as <120/80 mmHg, but now define hypertension as ≥130/80 mmHg (previously ≥140/90 mmHg). This change categorizes 101 million Americans (46% of adults) as hypertensive (compared to 32% previously). The guidelines rely heavily on findings from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rachel M Harris, Angela M C Rose, Ian R Hambleton, Christina Howitt, Nita G Forouhi, Anselm J M Hennis, T Alafia Samuels, Nigel Unwin
BACKGROUND: High sodium diets with inadequate potassium and high sodium-to-potassium ratios are a known determinant of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high prevalence of hypertension and mortality from CVD. Our objectives were to estimate sodium and potassium excretion, to compare estimated levels with recommended intakes and to identify the main food sources of sodium in Barbadian adults. METHODS: A sub-sample (n = 364; 25-64 years) was randomly selected from the representative population-based Health of the Nation cross-sectional study (n = 1234), in 2012-13...
August 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Fabio S Pimenta, Maria Luaces-Regueira, Alyne Mm Ton, Bianca P Campagnaro, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago Mc Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
The gut microbiota maintains a complex mutual interaction with different organs of the host. Whereas in normal conditions this natural community of trillions of microorganisms greatly contributes to the human health, gut dysbiosis is related with onset or worsening of diverse chronic systemic diseases. Thus, the reestablishment of gut microbiota homeostasis with consumption of prebiotics and probiotics may be a relevant strategy to prevent or attenuate several cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Among these functional foods, the synbiotic kefir, which is a fermented milk composed of a mixture of bacteria and yeasts, is currently the most used and has attracted the attention of health care professionals...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jingbo Dai, Qiyuan Zhou, Haiyang Tang, Tianji Chen, Jing Li, Pradip Raychaudhuri, Jason X-J Yuan, Guofei Zhou
RATIONALE: Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a transcription factor that promotes cell proliferation by regulating a broad spectrum of genes that participate in cell cycle regulation, such as Cyclin B, CDC25B, and Aurora B Kinase. We have shown that hypoxia, a well-known stimulus for pulmonary hypertension (PH), induces FoxM1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) in a HIF-dependent pathway, resulting in PASMC proliferation, while the suppression of FoxM1 prevents hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation...
August 6, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Robert P Jankov, Kathrine Louise Daniel, Shira Iny, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Naya Ben Fadel, Amish Jain
Deficient nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Physiological NO signaling is regulated by S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), which act both as a reservoir for NO and as a reversible modulator of protein function. We have previously reported that therapy with inhaled NO (iNO) increased peroxynitrite-mediated nitration in the juvenile rat lung, while having minimal reversing effects on vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that sodium nitrite (NaNO2) would be superior to iNO in enhancing lung SNOs, thereby contributing to reversal of chronic hypoxic PHT...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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