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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796620/transport-of-liposome-encapsulated-drugs-in-voxelized-computational-model-of-human-brain-tumors
#1
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
There are many obstacles to transport of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor cells that lead to irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumors. Study of these transport problems will help in accurate prediction of drug transport and optimizing treatment strategy. To this end, liposome mediated drug delivery has emerged as an excellent anticancer therapy due to its ability to deliver drugs at site of action and reducing the chances of side effects to the healthy tissues. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on realistic vasculature of human brain tumor is presented...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772981/cellulose-fibre-reinforced-biofoam-for-structural-applications
#2
Jasmina Obradovic, Mikko Voutilainen, Pasi Virtanen, Lippo Lassila, Pedro Fardim
Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable material for foam production. In this study, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and variable amounts of cellulose fibres were used in the production of bio-based foam. The developed macroporous bio-based architectures were characterised by several techniques, including porosity measurements, nanoindentation testing, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis...
June 6, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743990/formulating-formation-mechanism-of-natural-gas-hydrates
#3
Avinash V Palodkar, Amiya K Jana
A large amount of energy, perhaps twice the total amount of all other hydrocarbon reserves combined, is trapped within gas hydrate deposits. Despite emerging as a potential energy source for the world over the next several hundred years and one of the key factors in causing future climate change, gas hydrate is poorly known in terms of its formation mechanism. To address this issue, a mathematical formulation is proposed in the form of a model to represent the physical insight into the process of hydrate growth that occurs on the surface and in the irregular nanometer-sized pores of the distributed porous particles...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726351/correction-of-horizontal-neck-lines-our-preliminary-experience-with-hyaluronic-acid-fillers
#4
Soo-Keun Lee, Hei Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend shifting the esthetic focus downward from the face with a significant number of new treatments aimed at the aging neck. Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection is widely performed into the horizontal neck lines in Korea, but there are few reports assessing its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HA filler injection in the treatment of horizontal neck lines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on cases of horizontal neck lines treated with HA fillers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724774/histopathology-of-veins-obtained-at-hemodialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-creation-surgery
#5
Charles E Alpers, Peter B Imrey, Kelly L Hudkins, Tomasz A Wietecha, Milena Radeva, Michael Allon, Alfred K Cheung, Laura M Dember, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Yan-Ting Shiu, Christi M Terry, Alik Farber, Gerald J Beck, Harold I Feldman, John W Kusek, Jonathan Himmelfarb
Stenosis from venous neointimal hyperplasia is common in native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the preexisting histologic characteristics of veins at fistula creation, and associations thereof with baseline patient factors, have not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted histologic analysis of a segment of the vein used for anastomosis creation, obtained during AVF creation from 554 of the 602 participants in the multicenter Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Cohort Study. We quantified intimal and medial areas and lengths of the internal and external elastic lamina by morphometry and assessed venous wall cells by immunohistochemistry, extracellular matrix with Movat stain, and calcium deposition by alizarin red stain...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#6
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687735/effect-of-carrier-confinement-on-effective-mass-of-excitons-and-estimation-of-ultralow-disorder-in-al-x-ga1-x-as-gaas-quantum-wells-by-magneto-photoluminescence
#7
S Haldar, V K Dixit, Geetanjali Vashisht, Shailesh Kumar Khamari, S Porwal, T K Sharma, S M Oak
Effect of charge carrier confinement and ultra-low disorder acquainted in AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well system is investigated via Magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Significant increase of effective mass is observed for the confined exciton in narrow QWs. The foremost reason behind such an observation is due to the induced non-parabolicity in bands. Moreover, as the thickness of the QW are reduced, confined excitons in QW experience atomic irregularities at the hetero-junctions and their effects are prominent in the photoluminescence linewidth...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680073/investigation-of-the-degradation-of-pitch-based-carbon-fibers-properties-upon-insufficient-or-excess-thermal-treatment
#8
Tae Hwan Lim, Sang Young Yeo
To overcome the disadvantages of discontinuous conventional batch extruders, a continuous screw extruder is introduced to manufacture pitch-based carbon fibers. For a carbon fiber preparation process, an oxidation time of 8 h was determined to be optimal for obtaining desirable mechanical properties of the fibers acquiring employing the screw extruder. It is hypothesized that the differences in the properties of the carbon fibers fabricated utilizing the batch and screw extruders originate from the melt spinning time; therefore, a combined equation for the total amount of heat treatment from the pitch precursor through the oxidation process is established in this study...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678948/effectiveness-of-various-irrigation-protocols-for-the-removal-of-calcium-hydroxide-from-artificial-standardized-grooves
#9
Hakan Gokturk, Ismail Ozkocak, Feyzi Buyukgebiz, Osman Demir
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of laser-activated irrigation (LAI), XP-endo Finisher, CanalBrush, Vibringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation systems on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) from simulated root canal irregularities. Material and Methods: The root canals of one hundred and five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented using Reciproc rotary files up to size R40. The teeth were split longitudinally...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676748/regularity-of-center-of-pressure-trajectories-in-expert-gymnasts-during-bipedal-closed-eyes-quiet-standing
#10
Brice Isableu, Petra Hlavackova, Bruno Diot, Nicolas Vuillerme
We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G) to that of non-gymnasts (NG) during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP) trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666985/keratins-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-mitochondrial-morphology-motility-and-homeostasis
#11
Jonas S G Silvander, Sofie M Kvarnström, Angeli Kumari-Ilieva, Anup Shrestha, Catharina M Alam, Diana M Toivola
Loss of the epithelial intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) in murine β-cells leads to irregular insulin vesicles and decreased insulin levels. Because mitochondria are central in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, the relationship between keratins and β-cell mitochondrial function and morphology was investigated. β-cells in murine K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) islets of Langerhans have increased numbers of mitochondria, which are rounder and have diffuse cristae, as seen by electron microscopy. The mitochondrial network in primary cultured K8(-/-) β-cells is more fragmented compared with K8(+/+) mitochondria, correlating with decreased levels of mitofusin 2 and the mitofusin 2- and keratin-binding protein trichoplein...
June 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636347/structure-and-dynamics-of-alginate-gels-cross-linked-by-polyvalent-ions-probed-via-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#12
Jiri Brus, Martina Urbanova, Jiri Czernek, Miroslava Pavelkova, Katerina Kubova, Jakub Vyslouzil, Sabina Abbrent, Rafal Konefal, Jiri Horský, David Vetchy, Jan Vysloužil, Pavel Kulich
Alginate gels are an outstanding biomaterial widely applicable in tissue engineering, medicine, and pharmacy for cell transplantation, wound healing and efficient bioactive agent delivery, respectively. This contribution provides new and comprehensive insight into the atomic-resolution structure and dynamics of polyvalent ion-cross-linked alginate gels in microbead formulations. By applying various advanced solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy techniques, we verified the homogeneous distribution of the cross-linking ions in the alginate gels and the high degree of ion exchange...
July 3, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611133/long-term-clinical-outcome-of-femtosecond-laser-assisted-lamellar-keratectomy-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-in-anterior-corneal-stromal-dystrophy
#13
Jonghyun Lee, Jin Hyoung Kim, Doh Lee, Ji Woong Chang, Joo Youn Shin, Ji Won Seo, Min Hwan Seo, Nam Ju Moon
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcome of femtosecond laser-assisted lamellar keratectomy (FLK) with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in patients with anterior corneal stromal dystrophies. METHODS: A total of 10 eyes from seven patients who underwent FLK were included. The patients had suffered from recurrent corneal erosion or visual disturbance in anterior corneal dystrophies (five Avellino dystrophies and two lattice dystrophies). Planar-shaped lamellar keratectomy was performed using femtosecond laser...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595049/space-time-dynamics-of-membrane-currents-evolve-to-shape-excitation-spiking-and-inhibition-in-the-cortex-at-small-and-large-scales
#14
REVIEW
Per E Roland
In the cerebral cortex, membrane currents, i.e., action potentials and other membrane currents, express many forms of space-time dynamics. In the spontaneous asynchronous irregular state, their space-time dynamics are local non-propagating fluctuations and sparse spiking appearing at unpredictable positions. After transition to active spiking states, larger structured zones with active spiking neurons appear, propagating through the cortical network, driving it into various forms of widespread excitation, and engaging the network from microscopic scales to whole cortical areas...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592291/tightly-controlled-mrtf-a-activity-regulates-epithelial-differentiation-during-formation-of-mammary-acini
#15
Anja Seifert, Guido Posern
BACKGROUND: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) A and B link actin dynamics and mechanotransduction to gene expression. In mice, MRTF-A is involved in mammary gland differentiation, but its role in human mammary epithelial cells remains unclear. METHODS: Three-dimensional cultures of human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells were used to model acinar morphogenesis. Stable MRTF-A knockdown, MRTF-A/B rescue and MRTF-A/B overexpression was established to characterize the functional role during morphogenesis using confocal microscopy and expression analysis...
June 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589162/age-specific-prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-humeral-medial-epicondyle-apophysitis-and-osteochondritis-dissecans-ultrasonographic-assessment-of-4249-players
#16
Kenichi Otoshi, Shinichi Kikuchi, Kinshi Kato, Ryohei Sato, Takahiro Igari, Takahiro Kaga, Shinichi Konno
BACKGROUND: Traction apophysitis of medial epicondyle (MEC) lesions and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum are common elbow injuries in adolescent baseball players. However, the age-specific prevalence of these pathologies and their influence on elbow pain remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the age-specific prevalence of each MEC lesion and capitellar OCD and to identify the incidence of elbow pain in each condition. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574133/technical-feasibility-of-isolated-bowman-layer-graft-preparation-by-femtosecond-laser-a-pilot-study
#17
Jack S Parker, Forest Huls, Elizabeth Cooper, Paul Graves, Esther A Groeneveld-van Beek, Jessica Lie, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE: To evaluate the technical feasibility of isolated Bowman layer (BL) graft preparation by femtosecond laser (FSL) and to compare the ultrastructural morphology to manually dissected grafts. METHODS: Five whole globes were placed in custom-made eye holders and debrided of epithelium. After programming a dissection depth of 20 μm, the FSL was docked into position and 5 isolated BL grafts were created. From 5 additional globes, corneoscleral buttons were procured, mounted in artificial anterior chambers, and stripped of BL via the previously described manual technique...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573458/an-in-vivo-whole-plant-experimental-system-for-the-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-extraradical-mycorrhizal-mycelium
#18
Alessandra Pepe, Cristiana Sbrana, Nuria Ferrol, Manuela Giovannetti
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish beneficial mutualistic symbioses with land plants, receiving carbon in exchange for mineral nutrients absorbed by the extraradical mycelium (ERM). With the aim of obtaining in vivo produced ERM for gene expression analyses, a whole-plant bi-dimensional experimental system was devised and tested with three host plants and three fungal symbionts. In such a system, Funneliformis mosseae in symbiosis with Cichorium intybus var. foliosum, Lactuca sativa, and Medicago sativa produced ERM whose lengths ranged from 9...
June 1, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569009/myeloid-sarcoma-identified-on-liquid-based-cervical-cytology-samples-a-report-of-two-cases
#19
Jessica S Snider, Yekaterina Eichel, Alisa M Caudell, Olga S Chajewski, Jack Yang, Kathryn G Lindsey
The purpose of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is to detect primary squamous lesions of the uterine cervix. Although most successful at detection of squamous lesions, the Pap may also detect metastatic carcinomas, sarcomas, and melanomas. We report two rare cases of myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the uterine cervix identified on screening Pap smears with concurrent confirmatory cervical biopsies. The purpose of our study is to identify and report cytologic features of MS on Pap smears utilizing a liquid-based ThinPrep method, which has not been previously documented in literature...
May 31, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566855/assessment-of-bracket-surface-morphology-and-dimensional-change
#20
Pillai Devu Radhakrishnan, N K Sapna Varma, V V Ajith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the surface morphology and dimensional stability of the bracket slot at the onset of treatment and after 12 months of intraoral exposure. The study also compared the amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel loss among the three orthodontic brackets following debonding after 12 months of intraoral exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 60 (0.022" MBT) canine brackets. They were divided into three groups: self-ligating, ceramic bracket with metal slot, and stainless steel (SS) brackets...
January 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
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