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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926242/structure-function-studies-of-artemisia-tridentata-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-and-chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-synthase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-morphogenesis
#1
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, in addition to coupling IPP to DMAPP...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905706/classification-of-actinoplanes-sp-atcc-33076-an-actinomycete-that-produces-the-glycolipodepsipeptide-antibiotic-ramoplanin-as-actinoplanes-ramoplaninifer-sp-nov
#2
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Marcella Reguzzoni, Luciano Gastaldo, Claudia Dalmastri, Flavia Marinelli
Strain ATCC 33076, which produces the antibiotic ramoplanin, was isolated from a soil sample collected in India, and it was classified as a member of the genus Actinoplanes on the basis of morphology and cell-wall composition. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain forms a distinct clade within the genus Actinoplanes, and it is most closely related to Actinoplanes deccanensis IFO 13994T (98.71 % similarity) and Actinoplanes atraurantiacus Y16T (98.33 %). The strain forms an extensively branched substrate mycelium; the sporangia are formed very scantily and are globose with irregular surface...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892180/long-term-exposure-to-bisphenol-s-damages-the-visual-system-and-reduces-the-tracking-capability-of-male-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#3
Wenmin Liu, Xiaona Zhang, Penghao Wei, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Bisphenol S (BPS) is widely detected in aquatic environments and in human bodies. BPS has reproductive and thyroid disrupting effects, but its effect on the visual system remains unknown. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to BPS at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg l(-1) until 120 days post-fertilization in a semistatic system, and the effect of BPS on the visual behavior was examined using the optokinetic response and the optomotor response tests in male zebrafish. The retinal histology, mRNA expression of photoreceptor opsin genes (zfrho, zfblue, zfgr1, zfred and zfuv) and apoptosis-related genes (bax and bcl-2) were also assessed...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885596/research-on-high-layer-thickness-fabricated-of-316l-by-selective-laser-melting
#4
Shuo Wang, Yude Liu, Wentian Shi, Bin Qi, Jin Yang, Feifei Zhang, Dong Han, Yingyi Ma
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a potential additive manufacturing (AM) technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and hollow powders can be reduced by using fine powder. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down process parameter windows. Multi-layer fabrication relative density can be reached 99.99% at the exposure time-point distance-hatch space of 120 μs-40 μm-240 μm...
September 8, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878688/dynamics-of-stride-interval-characteristics-during-continuous-stairmill-climbing
#5
Peter C Raffalt, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Jessica J Renz, Mukul Mukherjee, Nicholas Stergiou
It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous stairmill climbing and if the strength is dependent on stepping rate. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were collected from nine healthy participants during 3 min of stairmill climbing at 100, 110, and 120% of their preferred stepping rate (PSR) and 5 min of treadmill walking at preferred walking speed (PWS)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851644/bactericidal-finishing-of-loomstate-scoured-and-bleached-cotton-fibres-via-sustainable-in-situ-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles
#6
Mehrez E El-Naggar, S Shaarawy, A A Hebeish
Loomstate-, scoured- and bleached cotton fabrics were first activated by treatment with ethanolamine and; thus obtained three fabrics were submitted independently to in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in absence of other external precursor. The magnitude of AgNPs on the fabric increases by increasing AgNO3 concentrations during synthesis of AgNPs loaded fabrics irrespective of the fabric used. Loomstate- and scoured cotton fabrics with the highest amount of AgNPs exhibit spherical shape with less aggregates; opposite to their bleached mate where AgNPs are irregularly shaped with bigger size due to aggregation...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796620/transport-of-liposome-encapsulated-drugs-in-voxelized-computational-model-of-human-brain-tumors
#7
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
There are many obstacles to transport of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor cells that lead to irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumors. Study of these transport problems will help in accurate prediction of drug transport and optimizing treatment strategy. To this end, liposome mediated drug delivery has emerged as an excellent anticancer therapy due to its ability to deliver drugs at site of action and reducing the chances of side effects to the healthy tissues. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on realistic vasculature of human brain tumor is presented...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772981/cellulose-fibre-reinforced-biofoam-for-structural-applications
#8
Jasmina Obradovic, Mikko Voutilainen, Pasi Virtanen, Lippo Lassila, Pedro Fardim
Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable material for foam production. In this study, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and variable amounts of cellulose fibres were used in the production of bio-based foam. The developed macroporous bio-based architectures were characterised by several techniques, including porosity measurements, nanoindentation testing, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis...
June 6, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743990/formulating-formation-mechanism-of-natural-gas-hydrates
#9
Avinash V Palodkar, Amiya K Jana
A large amount of energy, perhaps twice the total amount of all other hydrocarbon reserves combined, is trapped within gas hydrate deposits. Despite emerging as a potential energy source for the world over the next several hundred years and one of the key factors in causing future climate change, gas hydrate is poorly known in terms of its formation mechanism. To address this issue, a mathematical formulation is proposed in the form of a model to represent the physical insight into the process of hydrate growth that occurs on the surface and in the irregular nanometer-sized pores of the distributed porous particles...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726351/correction-of-horizontal-neck-lines-our-preliminary-experience-with-hyaluronic-acid-fillers
#10
Soo-Keun Lee, Hei Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend shifting the esthetic focus downward from the face with a significant number of new treatments aimed at the aging neck. Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection is widely performed into the horizontal neck lines in Korea, but there are few reports assessing its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HA filler injection in the treatment of horizontal neck lines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on cases of horizontal neck lines treated with HA fillers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724774/histopathology-of-veins-obtained-at-hemodialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-creation-surgery
#11
Charles E Alpers, Peter B Imrey, Kelly L Hudkins, Tomasz A Wietecha, Milena Radeva, Michael Allon, Alfred K Cheung, Laura M Dember, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Yan-Ting Shiu, Christi M Terry, Alik Farber, Gerald J Beck, Harold I Feldman, John W Kusek, Jonathan Himmelfarb
Stenosis from venous neointimal hyperplasia is common in native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the preexisting histologic characteristics of veins at fistula creation, and associations thereof with baseline patient factors, have not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted histologic analysis of a segment of the vein used for anastomosis creation, obtained during AVF creation from 554 of the 602 participants in the multicenter Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Cohort Study. We quantified intimal and medial areas and lengths of the internal and external elastic lamina by morphometry and assessed venous wall cells by immunohistochemistry, extracellular matrix with Movat stain, and calcium deposition by alizarin red stain...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#12
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687735/effect-of-carrier-confinement-on-effective-mass-of-excitons-and-estimation-of-ultralow-disorder-in-al-x-ga1-x-as-gaas-quantum-wells-by-magneto-photoluminescence
#13
S Haldar, V K Dixit, Geetanjali Vashisht, Shailesh Kumar Khamari, S Porwal, T K Sharma, S M Oak
Effect of charge carrier confinement and ultra-low disorder acquainted in AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well system is investigated via Magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Significant increase of effective mass is observed for the confined exciton in narrow QWs. The foremost reason behind such an observation is due to the induced non-parabolicity in bands. Moreover, as the thickness of the QW are reduced, confined excitons in QW experience atomic irregularities at the hetero-junctions and their effects are prominent in the photoluminescence linewidth...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680073/investigation-of-the-degradation-of-pitch-based-carbon-fibers-properties-upon-insufficient-or-excess-thermal-treatment
#14
Tae Hwan Lim, Sang Young Yeo
To overcome the disadvantages of discontinuous conventional batch extruders, a continuous screw extruder is introduced to manufacture pitch-based carbon fibers. For a carbon fiber preparation process, an oxidation time of 8 h was determined to be optimal for obtaining desirable mechanical properties of the fibers acquiring employing the screw extruder. It is hypothesized that the differences in the properties of the carbon fibers fabricated utilizing the batch and screw extruders originate from the melt spinning time; therefore, a combined equation for the total amount of heat treatment from the pitch precursor through the oxidation process is established in this study...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678948/effectiveness-of-various-irrigation-protocols-for-the-removal-of-calcium-hydroxide-from-artificial-standardized-grooves
#15
Hakan Gokturk, Ismail Ozkocak, Feyzi Buyukgebiz, Osman Demir
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of laser-activated irrigation (LAI), XP-endo Finisher, CanalBrush, Vibringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation systems on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) from simulated root canal irregularities. Material and Methods: The root canals of one hundred and five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented using Reciproc rotary files up to size R40. The teeth were split longitudinally...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676748/regularity-of-center-of-pressure-trajectories-in-expert-gymnasts-during-bipedal-closed-eyes-quiet-standing
#16
Brice Isableu, Petra Hlavackova, Bruno Diot, Nicolas Vuillerme
We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G) to that of non-gymnasts (NG) during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP) trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666985/keratins-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-mitochondrial-morphology-motility-and-homeostasis
#17
Jonas S G Silvander, Sofie M Kvarnström, Angeli Kumari-Ilieva, Anup Shrestha, Catharina M Alam, Diana M Toivola
Loss of the epithelial intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) in murine β-cells leads to irregular insulin vesicles and decreased insulin levels. Because mitochondria are central in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, the relationship between keratins and β-cell mitochondrial function and morphology was investigated. β-cells in murine K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) islets of Langerhans have increased numbers of mitochondria, which are rounder and have diffuse cristae, as seen by electron microscopy. The mitochondrial network in primary cultured K8(-/-) β-cells is more fragmented compared with K8(+/+) mitochondria, correlating with decreased levels of mitofusin 2 and the mitofusin 2- and keratin-binding protein trichoplein...
June 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636347/structure-and-dynamics-of-alginate-gels-cross-linked-by-polyvalent-ions-probed-via-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#18
Jiri Brus, Martina Urbanova, Jiri Czernek, Miroslava Pavelkova, Katerina Kubova, Jakub Vyslouzil, Sabina Abbrent, Rafal Konefal, Jiri Horský, David Vetchy, Jan Vysloužil, Pavel Kulich
Alginate gels are an outstanding biomaterial widely applicable in tissue engineering, medicine, and pharmacy for cell transplantation, wound healing and efficient bioactive agent delivery, respectively. This contribution provides new and comprehensive insight into the atomic-resolution structure and dynamics of polyvalent ion-cross-linked alginate gels in microbead formulations. By applying various advanced solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy techniques, we verified the homogeneous distribution of the cross-linking ions in the alginate gels and the high degree of ion exchange...
July 3, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611133/long-term-clinical-outcome-of-femtosecond-laser-assisted-lamellar-keratectomy-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-in-anterior-corneal-stromal-dystrophy
#19
Jonghyun Lee, Jin Hyoung Kim, Doh Lee, Ji Woong Chang, Joo Youn Shin, Ji Won Seo, Min Hwan Seo, Nam Ju Moon
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcome of femtosecond laser-assisted lamellar keratectomy (FLK) with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in patients with anterior corneal stromal dystrophies. METHODS: A total of 10 eyes from seven patients who underwent FLK were included. The patients had suffered from recurrent corneal erosion or visual disturbance in anterior corneal dystrophies (five Avellino dystrophies and two lattice dystrophies). Planar-shaped lamellar keratectomy was performed using femtosecond laser...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595049/space-time-dynamics-of-membrane-currents-evolve-to-shape-excitation-spiking-and-inhibition-in-the-cortex-at-small-and-large-scales
#20
REVIEW
Per E Roland
In the cerebral cortex, membrane currents, i.e., action potentials and other membrane currents, express many forms of space-time dynamics. In the spontaneous asynchronous irregular state, their space-time dynamics are local non-propagating fluctuations and sparse spiking appearing at unpredictable positions. After transition to active spiking states, larger structured zones with active spiking neurons appear, propagating through the cortical network, driving it into various forms of widespread excitation, and engaging the network from microscopic scales to whole cortical areas...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
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