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Saar van T Hof, Alexander R Delaney, Hilâl Tekatli, Jos Twisk, Ben J Slotman, Suresh Senan, Max Dahele, Wilko Far Verbakel
PURPOSE: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for lung tumors ≥5cm, can be associated with more toxicity. We investigated the relationship between dosimetry and toxicity and used a knowledge-based planning solution to retrospectively perform individualized treatment plan quality assurance (QA) with the aim of identifying where planning could have been improved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prior retrospective analysis of 53 patients with primary or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer ≥5cm, treated with 5 or 8-fraction volumetric modulated arc therapy SABR, between 2008-2014, showed 30% ≥grade (G) 3 toxicity...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ravi Kiran Attota
Rapid increase in interest and applications of through-focus (TF) or volumetric type of optical imaging in biology and other areas has resulted in the development of several TF image collection methods. Achieving quantitative results from images requires standardization and optimization of image acquisition protocols. Several standardization protocols are available for conventional optical microscopy where a best-focus image is used, but to date, rigorous testing protocols do not exist for TF optical imaging...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Peng Li, Wenhui Shi, Wenxian Liu, Yafei Chen, Xilian Xu, Shaofeng Ye, Ruilian Yin, Lin Zhang, Lixin Xu, Xiehong Cao
MXenes have emerged as promising electrode materials for microsupercapacitors (MSCs) owing to their high volumetric and areal capacitances. In addition to the development of novel electrode materials, fabrication of interdigital electrode is another key to realize high-performance MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate the patterning of few-layered Ti3C2Tx nanosheets on various substrates for MSCs by a facile, fast, and nearly zero-cost "scratch" strategy. The fabricated Ti3C2Tx-based all-solid-state MSC achieves a high areal capacitance of 25...
August 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Debarghya China, Alfredo Illanes, Prabal Poudel, Michael Friebe, Pabitra Mitra, Debdoot Sheet
Ultrasound (US) is a widely used as a low-cost alternative to computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) and primarily for preliminary imaging. Since speckle intensity in US images is inherently stochastic, readers are often challenged in their ability to identify the pathological regions in a volume of a large number of images. This paper introduces a generalized approach for volumetric segmentation of structures in US images and volumes. We employ an iterative random walks (IRW) solver, random forest (RF) learning model, and a gradient vector flow (GVF) based inter-frame belief propagation technique for achieving cross-frame volumetric segmentation...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Dan Li, Jisheng Zhou, Xiaohong Chen, Huaihe Song
Sodium ion battery (SIB) has been a promising alternative for sustainable electrochemical energy-storage devices. However, it still needs great efforts to develop electrode materials with ultrafast gravimetric and volumetric Na-storage performance, due to difficult balance between Na-ion diffusion kinetics and pressing density of materials. In this work, Bi2Se3/graphene composites, synthesized by a selenization reaction, are investigated as anode materials for SIBs. Na-ion storage mechanism of Bi2Se3 should be attributed to a combined conversion-alloying one by a series of ex-situ measurements...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chung-Wei Kung, Ana E Platero-Prats, Riki J Drout, Junmo Kang, Timothy C Wang, Cornelius O Audu, Mark C Hersam, Karena W Chapman, Omar K Farha, Joseph T Hupp
A representative mesoporous metal-organic-framework (MOF) material, NU-1000, has been rendered electronically conductive via a robust inorganic approach that permits retention of MOF crystallinity and porosity. The approach is based on condensed-phase grafting of molecular tin species onto the MOF nodes via irreversible reaction with hydroxyl and aqua ligands presented at the node surface, a self-limiting process termed Solvothermal Installation (of metal ions) in MOFs (SIM, a solution-phase analog of atomic layer deposition in MOFs)...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shang-Wen Xu, Ji-Hui Xi, Chen Lin, Xiao-Yang Wang, Li-Yuan Fu, Stephen Francis Kralik, Zi-Qian Chen
Noninvasive imaging plays a pivotal role in assessing the brain structural and functional changes in presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients. Our goal was to study the relationship between the changes of cerebral white matter (WM) and cognitive functions in MTLE patients.Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) MRI were performed on 24 right-handed MTLE patients (12 with left MTLE and 12 with right MTLE) and 12 matching healthy controls. Gray matter (GM), WM, and whole brain (WB) volumes were measured with VBM while fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were measured with TBSS...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Lucibello, T Verdolotti, F M Giordano, L Lapenta, A Infante, F Piludu, T Tartaglione, D Chieffo, C Colosimo, E Mercuri, R Battini
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to use a combined imaging and clinical approach to identify possible patterns of clinical and imaging findings in a cohort of preschool age Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to identify imaging patterns that could be related to specific clinical features, a selected group of ASD patients (age range 3-6 years) without dysmorphic features, epilepsy or other major neurological signs, malformations or other lesions at MRI was subjected to brain volumetric analysis using semiautomatic brain segmentation...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Saeed Ahmed, Jeff Kapatoes, Geoffrey Zhang, Eduardo G Moros, Vladimir Feygelman
A commercial semi-empirical volumetric dose verification system (PerFraction [PF], Sun Nuclear Corp.) extracts multi-leaf collimator positions from the electronic portal imaging device movies collected during a pre-treatment run, while the rest of the delivered control point information is harvested from the accelerator log files. This combination is used to reconstruct dose on a patient CT dataset with a fast superposition/convolution algorithm. The method was validated for single-isocenter multi-target SRS VMAT treatments against absolute radiochromic film measurements in a cylindrical phantom...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Rafael Medero, Carson Hoffman, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate
Four-dimensional (4D) Flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the acquisition and assessment of complex hemodynamics in vivo from different vascular territories. This study investigated the viability of stereoscopic and tomographic particle image velocimetry (stereo- and tomo-PIV, respectively) as experimental validation techniques for 4D Flow MRI. The experiments were performed using continuous and pulsatile flows through an idealized carotid artery bifurcation model. Transverse and longitudinal planes were extracted from the acquired velocity data sets at different regions of interest and were analyzed with a point-by-point comparison...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Xiangpeng Li, Juan Hu, Christopher J Easley
A fully automated droplet generation and analysis device based on pressure driven push-up valves for precise pumping of fluid and volumetric metering has been developed for high resolution hormone secretion sampling and measurement. The device consists of a 3D-printer templated reservoir for single cells or single tissue culturing, a Y-shaped channel for reagents and sample mixing, a T-junction channel for droplet formation, a reference channel to overcome drifts in fluorescence signal, and a long droplet storage channel allowing incubation for homogeneous immunoassays...
August 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Anna Urciuolo, Paolo De Coppi
Several acquired or congenital pathological conditions can affect skeletal muscle leading to volumetric muscle loss (VML), i.e., an irreversible loss of muscle mass and function. Decellularized tissues are natural scaffolds derived from tissues or organs, in which the cellular and nuclear contents are eliminated, but the tridimensional (3D) structure and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are preserved. Such scaffolds retain biological activity, are biocompatible and do not show immune rejection upon allogeneic or xenogeneic transplantation...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jacob Levman, Lana Vasung, Patrick MacDonald, Sean Rowley, Natalie Stewart, Ashley Lim, Bryan Ewenson, Albert Galaburda, Emi Takahashi
Autism is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, restricted and repetitive behavior. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 1,996 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain from 1,769 autistic and neurologically typically developing patients (aged 0 to 32 years), and extracted regional volumetric measurements distributed across 463 brain regions of each patient. The youngest autistic patients (< 2.5 years) were diagnosed after imaging and identified retrospectively...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Viacheslav Soyfer, Benjamin W Corn, Yaron Meir, Diana Matceyevsky, Nir Honig, Natan Shtraus
BACKGROUND: Family physicians and internal medicine specialists play an essential role in treating cancer patients. Modern technological advances in radiotherapy are not widely appreciated by primary care physicians. Bone metastases are a frequent complication of cancer. Palliative radiation therapy, as a component of modern advances in radiation treatments, should not subject normal bodily structures to excessive doses of irradiation. The sacrum is a common destination site for bone metastases, yet its concave shape along with its proximity to the rectum, intestines, and femoral heads creates treatment-planning challenges...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Reinhilde Jacobs, Myrthel Vranckx, Tony Vanderstuyft, Marc Quirynen, Benjamin Salmon
AIM: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CBCT compared with 2D imaging and clinical gold standard techniques in peri-implant bone defect detection and measurement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases up to July 2017. Clinical, ex vivo, in vitro and animal studies that assessed and measured peri-implant bone defects using different imaging modalities were included in this review...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Miguel Angel Tejada Neyra, Ulf Neuberger, Annekathrin Reinhardt, Gianluca Brugnara, David Bonekamp, Martin Sill, Antje Wick, David T W Jones, Alexander Radbruch, Andreas Unterberg, Jürgen Debus, Sabine Heiland, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Christel Herold-Mende, Stefan Pfister, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, David Capper, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Kickingereder
Background: This study aims to evaluate the impact of tumor location on key molecular alterations on a single voxel level in patients with newly-diagnosed glioma. Methods: A consecutive series of n=237 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and n=131 patients with lower-grade glioma was analyzed. Volumetric tumor segmentation was performed on preoperative MRI with a semi-automated approach and images were registered to the standard Montreal Neurological Institute-152 space...
August 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Unn K Haukvik, Christian K Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid Agartz
The hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15-887 subjects)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Kristina Lukacova, Johan Van Audekerke, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
The first months of life are characterized by massive neuroplastic processes that parallel the acquisition of skills and abilities vital for proper functioning in later life. Likewise, juvenile songbirds learn the song sung by their tutor during the first months after hatching. To date, most studies targeting brain development in songbirds exclusively focus on the song control and auditory pathways. To gain a comprehensive insight into structural developmental plasticity of the entire zebra finch brain throughout the different subphases of song learning, we designed a longitudinal study in a group of male (16) and female (19) zebra finches...
August 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Vibha Singhal, Landy P Torre Flores, Fatima C Stanford, Alexander T Toth, Brian Carmine, Madhusmita Misra, Miriam A Bredella
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in humans is distributed differentially across age and skeletal site. We have shown impaired microarchitecture and reduced bone strength at appendicular sites in conditions associated with high MAT of the axial skeleton in adults (including conditions of over- and undernutrition). Data are lacking regarding differences in MAT content of the appendicular versus the axial skeleton, and its relationship with bone microarchitecture and strength. Furthermore, data are conspicuously lacking in adolescents, a time when hematopoietic marrow is progressively converted to fatty marrow...
August 11, 2018: Bone
Ning Liu, Lin Ma
This Letter reports a hybrid three-dimensional (3D) visualization approach for turbulent flows at the kilohertz range. The approach, named scanning volumetric laser induced fluorescence (SVLIF), combines 3D tomography with scanning to significantly enhance spatial resolution of 3D measurements in a given domain (or equivalently, to enlarge the domain size under a given resolution) compared to past tomographic approaches. The SVLIF technique (1) divides a large measurement domain into smaller sub-domains, (2) performs 3D tomographic measurement in each sub-domain by scanning the excitation laser pulses across them consecutively, and (3) combines the measurements in all sub-domains to form a final measurement...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
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