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Antonio Rahal Junior, Priscila Mina Falsarella, Guilherme Falleiros Mendes, Jairo Tabacow Hidal, Danielle Macellaro Andreoni, José Flávio Ferreira Lúcio, Marcos Roberto Gomes de Queiroz, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and effectiveness of nodule volume reduction and thyroid function after percutaneous laser ablation treatment in patients with benign nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. METHODS: Prospective single-center study, from January 2011 to October 2012, which evaluated 30 euthyroid and thyroid antibodies negative patients with benign solitary or dominant nodule with indication of treatment due to compressive symptoms and aesthetic disturbances...
November 29, 2018: Einstein
Timothy A Damron, Kenneth A Mann
Introduction: Synthetic bone graft materials are commonly used to fill defects after curettage of benign bone lesions. Ultraporous beta tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a popular synthetic compound used in this situation. Prior clinical studies based on plain X-ray analysis suggest incorporation of TCP is incomplete, even when combined with bone marrow (BMA). Purpose: The purpose was to analyze volumetric CT-based changes in defects grafted with TCP with/without BMA in a completed prospective RCT to objectively determine (1) relationship between size and age versus TCP incorporation and (2) whether there is an advantage to addition of BMA...
2018: Advances in Orthopedics
Weilin Long, Jing Li, Yiwen Liu, Hongwei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the sealing ability of two root canal obturation techniques by using micro-computed tomography imaging and a push-out test. METHODS: The root canals of 40 human maxillary premolar teeth were instrumented and divided into four groups: (A) single cone (SC) followed by immediate post space preparation, (B) continuous wave of condensation (CWC) followed by immediate post space preparation, (C) SC followed by delayed post space preparation, and (D) CWC followed by delayed post space preparation...
December 5, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Özge Lalegül-Ülker, Şükran Şeker, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
Repair of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries is a complicated endeavour which necessitates the collaborative use of different regenerative approaches and technologies. Herein is proposed the development of fibrin-based microbeads (FMs) alone or as a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation matrix for modular muscle engineering. FMs were generated through the ionotropic gelation of alginate and fibrinogen obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of whole blood, and then removing the alginate by citrate treatment...
December 4, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Trine Norgaard, Marcos Paradelo, Per Moldrup, Sheela Katuwal, Lis W de Jonge
The mobilization and transport of colloid particles in soils can have negative agronomic and environmental effects. This work investigates the controls of particle release and transport from undisturbed soil columns sampled from an agricultural, loamy field with clay and silt contents of 0.05 to 0.14 and 0.07 to 0.16 kg kg, respectively. Forty-five soil columns (20 × 20 cm) were collected from the field and exposed to a constant irrigation of 10 mm h for 8 h. The accumulated mass of particles in the outflow from each column was highly correlated ( = 0...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mark A Jenkins, Nicolas H Hart, Timo Rantalainen, Paola Chivers, Robert U Newton, Sophia Nimphius
OBJECTIVES: To quantify between-day reliability of upper-body diaphyseal measurements (radius, ulna, humerus) using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). METHODS: Fourteen males (age: 25.8±2.3 years,) underwent repeat pQCT scans (one to two days apart) at mid-shaft ulna (60%), mid-shaft radius (60%) and mid-shaft humerus (50%) cross-sections of the non-dominant limb. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV) were determined for musculoskeletal morphology variables...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Sarim Ather, Frank Anthony Proudlock, Thomas Welton, Paul S Morgan, Viral Sheth, Irene Gottlob, Rob A Dineen
Albinism refers to a group of genetic abnormalities in melanogenesis that are associated neuronal misrouting through the optic chiasm. We perform quantitative assessment of visual pathway structure and function in 23 persons with albinism (PWA) and 20 matched controls using optical coherence tomography (OCT), volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and visual evoked potentials (VEP). PWA had a higher streamline decussation index (percentage of total tractography streamlines decussating at the chiasm) compared with controls (Z = -2...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Travis W Sawyer, Swati Chandra, Photini F S Rice, Jennifer W Koevary, Jennifer K Barton
Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all gynecologic cancers due to predominantly late diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied successfully to experimentally image the ovaries in vivo; however, a robust method for analysis is still required to provide quantitative diagnostic information. Recently, texture analysis has proved to be a useful tool for tissue characterization; unfortunately, existing work in the scope of OCT ovarian imaging is limited to only analyzing 2D sub-regions of the image data, discarding information encoded in the full image area, as well as in the depth dimension...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Vasant Kearney, Jason W Chan, Samuel Haaf, Martina Descovich, Timothy D Solberg
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel fully-convolutional volumetric dose prediction neural network (DoseNet) and test its performance on a cohort of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. DoseNet is suggested as a superior alternative to U-Net and fully connected distance map-based neural networks for non-coplanar SBRT prostate dose prediction. DoseNet utilizes 3D convolutional downsampling with corresponding 3D deconvolutional upsampling to preserve memory while simultaneously increasing the receptive field of the network...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yak-Nam Wang, Tatiana D Khokhlova, Sergey Buravkov, Valeriy Chernikov, Wayne Kreider, Ari Partanen, Navid Farr, Adam Maxwell, George R Schade, Vera A Khokhlova
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is rapidly advancing as an alternative therapy for non-invasively treating specific cancers and other pathological tissues through thermal ablation. A new type of HIFU therapy-boiling histotripsy (BH)-aims at mechanical fractionation of into subcellular fragments, with a range of accompanying thermal effects that can be tuned from none to substantial depending on the requirements of the application. The degree of mechanical tissue damage induced by BH has been shown to depend on the tissue type, with collagenous structures being most resistant, and cellular structures being most sensitive...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Siyi Yu, Fen Feng, Qi Zhang, Zhifu Shen, Zhengyan Wang, Youping Hu, Liang Gong
Studies have explored brain structural abnormalities in patients with primary insomnia (PI). However, most of them are based on volumetric measures, in a specific region of interest, and have small sample sizes. Here, we investigated changes in cortical morphology (thickness and volume) in PI using an advanced surface-based morphometric method. Sixty-seven patients with PI and 55 matched healthy controls were recruited for this study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. The reconstructed cortical surface was processed by Freesurfer 6...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Erin D Bigler, Marc Skiles, Benjamin S C Wade, Tracy J Abildskov, Nick J Tustison, Randall S Scheibel, Mary R Newsome, Andrew R Mayer, James R Stone, Brian A Taylor, David F Tate, William C Walker, Harvey S Levin, Elisabeth A Wilde
Automated neuroimaging methods like FreeSurfer ( ) have revolutionized quantitative neuroimaging analyses. Such analyses provide a variety of metrics used for image quantification, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetrics. With the release of FreeSurfer version 6.0, it is important to assess its comparability to the widely-used previous version 5.3. The current study used data from the initial 249 participants in the ongoing Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium (CENC) multicenter observational study to compare the volumetric output of versions 5...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kaerli Christensen, Anne Kennedy, Robin Kim, Eryberto Martinez, Jeffrey Campsen
Unlike pediatric kidney donors, there is no literature regarding the growth of pediatric donor pancreatic transplant grafts. Our center prospectively followed three pediatric donor grafts after transplant by measuring two dimensions of the graft at postoperative day one and then at one, two, and three months post-transplant surgery with the hypothesis that the grafted pancreas would not grow like pediatric kidney donors given the fundamental physiologic differences between these two organs. Two grafts were stable to minimally larger in size, the third case decreased in size...
September 26, 2018: Curēus
Preena Tanna, Michalis Georgiou, Jonathan Aboshiha, Rupert W Strauss, Neruban Kumaran, Angelos Kalitzeos, Richard G Weleber, Michel Michaelides
Purpose: We assess cross-sectional and longitudinal microperimetry and full-field static perimetry-derived retinal sensitivity with conventional and volumetric indices of retinal function in childhood-onset Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods: Subjects with molecularly confirmed childhood-onset STGD1 underwent full-field static perimetry and/or microperimetry using custom designed grids. Mean sensitivity (MS) and total volume (VTOT ) were computed for each microperimetry test...
November 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Rui Zhang, Zhuhuang Zhou, Weiwei Wu, Chung-Chih Lin, Po-Hsiang Tsui, Shuicai Wu
In this paper, an improved fuzzy connectedness (FC) method was proposed for automatic three-dimensional (3D) liver vessel segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images. The vessel-enhanced image (i.e., vesselness image) was incorporated into the fuzzy affinity function of FC, rather than the intensity image used by traditional FC. An improved vesselness filter was proposed by incorporating adaptive sigmoid filtering and a background-suppressing item. The fuzzy scene of FC was automatically initialized by using the Otsu segmentation algorithm and one single seed generated adaptively, while traditional FC required multiple seeds...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Yi Wang, Kun Huang, Jie Chen, Yanji Luo, Yu Zhang, Yingmei Jia, Ling Xu, Minhu Chen, Bingsheng Huang, Dong Ni, Zi-Ping Li, Shi-Ting Feng
Objective: We propose a computer-aided method to assess response to drug treatment, using CT imaging-based volumetric and density measures in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and diffuse liver metastases. Methods: Twenty-five patients with GEP-NETs with diffuse liver metastases were enrolled. Pre- and posttreatment CT examinations were retrospectively analyzed. Total tumor volume (volume) and mean volumetric tumor density (density) were calculated based on tumor segmentation on CT images...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Lesley-Anne Bissell, Bara Erhayiem, Graham Fent, Elizabeth M A Hensor, Agata Burska, Helena Donica, Sven Plein, Maya H Buch, John P Greenwood, Jacqueline Andrews
BACKGROUND: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has utility in stratification of the accelerated cardiovascular risk seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the technique has limitations. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a useful research tool in the general population, but has yet to be applied in RA populations. Our objectives were to describe the utility of carotid artery MRI (carotid-MRI) in patients with RA in comparison to healthy controls and to describe the association with RA disease phenotype...
December 3, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Cengiz Gemici, Gokhan Yaprak, Sevim Ozdemir, Tamer Baysal, Ozgur Ozan Seseogullari, Hazan Ozyurt
BACKGROUND: Volumetric shrinkage of normal tissues such as salivary glands, kidneys, hippocampus are observed after radiotherapy. We aimed to assess the alterations in pancreatic volume of patients who received abdominal radiotherapy and define pancreas as an organ at risk for radiation treatment planning. MATERIAL-METHODS: Forty-nine patients operated for gastric adenocarcinoma who received adjuvant abdominal radiotherapy were in the study group, 27 patients with early stage disease who did not need adjuvant treatment after surgery comprised the control group...
December 3, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Ashley A Albert, William N Duggar, Rahul P Bhandari, Toms Vengaloor Thomas, Satyaseelan Packianathan, Robert M Allbright, Madhava R Kanakamedala, Divyang Mehta, Chunli Claus Yang, Srinivasan Vijayakumar
BACKGROUND: Peer review systems within radiation oncology are important to ensure quality radiation care. Several individualized methods for radiation oncology peer review have been described. However, despite the importance of peer review in radiation oncology barriers may exist to its effective implementation in practice. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of plan changes based on our group peer review process as well as the quantify amount of time and resources needed for this process...
December 3, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Juan Martin Silva Garcia, Alyssa Panitch, Sarah Calve
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) occurs when skeletal muscle injury is too large for the body to fully self-repair. Typically, fibrotic tissue fills the void, which reduces muscle functionality and limb movement. Although a wide variety of natural and synthetic scaffolds have been studied with the purpose of providing the appropriate structural support, to date no scaffold has significantly restored muscle functionality after VML. Satellite cells, adult stem cells within the muscle capable of restoring smaller injuries, are sensitive to the stiffness and composition of the surrounding environment...
November 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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