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Rik Ossenkoppele, Gil D Rabinovici, Ruben Smith, Hanna Cho, Michael Schöll, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Niklas Mattsson, Shorena Janelidze, Alexander Santillo, Tomas Ohlsson, Jonas Jögi, Richard Tsai, Renaud La Joie, Joel Kramer, Adam L Boxer, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L Miller, Jae Y Choi, Young H Ryu, Chul H Lyoo, Oskar Hansson
Importance: The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]flortaucipir allows in vivo quantification of paired helical filament tau, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but its diagnostic utility is unclear. Objective: To examine the discriminative accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir for AD vs non-AD neurodegenerative disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 719 participants were recruited from 3 dementia centers in South Korea, Sweden, and the United States between June 2014 and November 2017 (160 cognitively normal controls, 126 patients with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], of whom 65...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Serkan Tuylu, Atac Bascetin, Deniz Adiguzel
Environmental impacts resulting from conventional tailings disposal such as tailings dam accidents are a common problem for base metal mines around the world. In this context, laboratory-scale studies have been carried out on the Surface Paste Disposal (SPD) method, which is one of the alternative surface storage methods. In this study, three different SPD designs were tested; and volumetric water content, oxygen consumption, and matric suction sensors in first, fifth and 10th paste layers plus pH- electric conductivity (EC) values were all measured...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nachiket A Nadkarni, Salma Bougacha, Clément Garin, Marc Dhenain, Jean-Luc Picq
The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a small prosimian of growing interest for studies of primate biology and evolution, and notably as a model organism of brain aging. As brain atlases are essential tools for brain investigation, the objective of the current work was to create the first 3D digital atlas of the mouse lemur brain. For this, a template image was constructed from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 34 animals. This template was then manually segmented into 40 cortical, 74 subcortical and 6 cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) regions...
October 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Thiago Junqueira R Rezende, Alberto Rolim M Martinez, Ingrid Faber, Karen Girotto, Melina P Martins, Fabrício D de Lima, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcondes C França
INTRODUCTION: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal-recessive ataxia worldwide; it is characterized by early onset, sensory abnormalities and slowly progressive ataxia. Besides that, all MRI-based studies have focused in the evaluation of adult patients. Therefore, we designed a cross sectional multimodal MRI-based study to investigate the anatomical substrates involved in the early stages of FRDA. METHODS: We enrolled 37 patients (12 children) and 38 controls...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Jacoba A van de Kreeke, H Ton Nguyen, Elles Konijnenberg, Jori Tomassen, Anouk den Braber, Mara Ten Kate, Carole H Sudre, Frederik Barkhof, Dorret I Boomsma, H Stevie Tan, Frank D Verbraak, Pieter Jelle Visser
Purpose: Retinal microvasculopathy may reflect small vessel disease in the brain. Here we test the relationships between retinal vascular parameters and small vessel disease, the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on these relationships, and their common genetic background in a monozygotic twin cohort. Methods: We selected 134 cognitively healthy individuals (67 monozygotic twin pairs) aged ≥60 years from the Netherlands Twin Register for the EMIF-AD PreclinAD study...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Anna Ianiro, Giuseppina Sallustio, Silvia Cammelli, Milly Buwenge, Gian Carlo Mattiucci, Vincenzo Valentini, Alessio G Morganti
OBJECTIVE: A multi arm phase I clinical trial was performed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered by non-coplanar conformal beams or Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy technique in 7 predefined clinical settings. METHODS: The (a) and (b) arms investigated primary and metastatic lung cancer differentiated by site of onset, arm (c) included primary or metastatic lesions outside the thorax, the (d) and (e) arms were for in-field re-irradiation of recurrence, and finally, the (f) and (g) arms were for boost irradiation to the lesions after an adjuvant RT prescribed dose...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Adriana Czerwik, Marta Płonek, Przemyslaw Podgórski, Marcin Wrzosek
BACKGROUND: In humans, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is a type of focal epilepsy occurring mainly in the mesial TLE (mTLE), commonly associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). OBJECTIVES: According to recent studies, TLE might also occur in dogs and could be associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA)/HS. To date, hippocampal lesions have not been correlated with electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in epileptic dogs. ANIMALS: An EEG examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and volumetric assessment of the hippocampus were performed in 16 nonepileptic and 41 epileptic dogs...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Roger Seiler, Lena M Öhrström, Patrick Eppenberger, Dominic Gascho, Frank J Rühli, Francesco M Galassi
Frontal sinus osteoma is a relatively common finding in the modern clinical setting. Although its paleopathological record is not in dispute, its presence in Ancient Egypt has never been clarified. The aim of this article is to contribute to the debate. An Egyptian mummy head from the Musée d'Éthnographie de Neuchâtel (Switzerland) was studied radiologically and the paleopathological evidence obtained was contextualized in the wider frame of evolutionary medicine. A 128-slice CT scanner was used for further investigation; datasets were processed with OsiriX-64 bit (version 5...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Ghislain Vieilledent, Fabian Jörg Fischer, Jérôme Chave, Daniel Guibal, Patrick Langbour, Jean Gérard
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Basic wood density is an important ecological trait for woody plants. It is used to characterize species performance and fitness in community ecology and to compute tree and forest biomass in carbon cycle studies. While wood density has been historically measured at 12% moisture, it is convenient for ecological purposes to convert this measure to basic wood density, i.e., the ratio of dry mass over green volume. Basic wood density can then be used to compute tree dry biomass from living tree volume...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Otília C d'Almeida, Inês R Violante, Bruno Quendera, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: It has remained a mystery why some genetic mitochondrial disorders affect predominantly specific cell types such as the retinal ganglion cell. This is particularly intriguing concerning retinal and cortical function since they are tightly linked in health and disease. Autosomal dominant optic neuropathy (ADOA) is a mitochondrial disease that affects the ganglion cell. However, it is unknown whether alterations are also present in the visual cortex, namely in excitation/inhibition balance...
October 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Julián Pérez-Beteta, David Molina-García, Alicia Martínez-González, Araceli Henares-Molina, Mariano Amo, Belén Luque, Elena Arregui, Manuel Calvo, José M Borrás, Juan Martino, Carlos Velásquez, Bárbara Meléndez-Asensio, Ángel Rodríguez de Lope, Raquel Moreno, Juan A Barcia, Beatriz Asenjo, Manuel Benavides, Ismael Herruzo, Pedro C Lara, Raquel Cabrera, David Albillo, Miguel Navarro, Luis A Pérez-Romasanta, Antonio Revert, Estanislao Arana, Víctor M Pérez-García
OBJECTIVES: We wished to determine whether tumor morphology descriptors obtained from pretreatment magnetic resonance images and clinical variables could predict survival for glioblastoma patients. METHODS: A cohort of 404 glioblastoma patients (311 discoveries and 93 validations) was used in the study. Pretreatment volumetric postcontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were segmented to obtain the relevant morphological measures. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, correlations, and Harrell's concordance indexes (c-indexes) were used for the statistical analysis...
October 15, 2018: European Radiology
Tarun K Podder, Elisha T Fredman, Rodney J Ellis
Major categories of radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (CaP) treatment are: (1) external beam RT (EBRT), and (2) brachytherapy (BT). EBRT are performed using different techniques like three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), intensity modulated RT (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), etc., using a variety of radiation delivery machines, such as a linear accelerator (Linac), Cyberknife robotic system, Gamma knife, Tomotherapy and proton beam machine...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marco Quarta, Melinda J Cromie Lear, Justin Blonigan, Patrick Paine, Robert Chacon, Thomas A Rando
Despite the regenerative capacity of muscle, tissue volume is not restored after volumetric muscle loss (VML), perhaps due to a loss-of-structural extracellular matrix. We recently demonstrated the structural and functional restoration of muscle tissue in a mouse model of VML using an engineered "bioconstruct," comprising an extracellular matrix scaffold (decellularized muscle), muscle stem cells (MuSCs), and muscle-resident cells (MRCs). To test the ability of the cell-based bioconstruct to restore whole-muscle biomechanics, we measured biomechanical parameters in uninjured muscles, muscles injured to produce VML lesions, and in muscles that were injured and then treated by implanting either the scaffolds alone or with bioconstructs containing the scaffolds, MuSCs, and MRCs...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Bowen Wang, Qun Wu, Yan Xu, Baoguo Sun
Chinese starter Jiuqu , traditionally produced by spontaneous fermentation and always squeezed into bricks, serves as a vital saccharifying agent for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Chinese Baijiu. It is important to reveal the key saccharifying microbiota and the driving force to improve the quality of Jiuqu . Here we studied the compositions of the microbiota by high-throughput amplicons sequencing analysis in Jiuqu , and revealed eight bacterial and seven fungal genera as the dominant community members...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christel Genoud, Benjamin Titze, Alexandra Graff-Meyer, Rainer W Friedrich
Fixation and staining of large tissue samples are critical for the acquisition of volumetric electron microscopic image datasets and the subsequent reconstruction of neuronal circuits. Efficient protocols exist for the staining of small samples, but uniform contrast is often difficult to achieve when the sample diameter exceeds a few hundred micrometers. Recently, a protocol (BROPA, brain-wide reduced-osmium staining with pyrogallol-mediated amplification) was developed that achieves homogeneous staining of the entire mouse brain but requires very long sample preparation times...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
I Cho, J W Park, B Cho, J Kwak, S M Yoon, J P Nesseler, J Park, J H Kim
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a promising treatment modality for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. To determine the optimal radiation treatment, we compared the plan characteristics of volumetric-modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy when administered with stereotactic body radiation therapy to treat pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy at a dose of 24-32Gy in four fractions with marker-guided gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Chunhao Wang, Ergys Subashi, Fang-Fang Yin, Zheng Chang, Jing Cai
PURPOSE: To develop a spatiotemporal-constrained sorting technique for motion-robust 4D-MRI. METHODS: This sorting method implemented two new approaches for 4D imaging: 1) an optimized sparse k-space acquisition trajectory with self-gating signal derivation, and 2) a retrospective k-space sorting for reconstruction using a novel spatiotemporal-constrained strategy to minimize breathing variation induced motion artifacts. Such sorting was regularized by a spatiotemporal index (STI)...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Dallas P Veitch, Michael W Weiner, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outline how this knowledge may improve clinical trials. METHODS: We used standard methods to identify nearly 600 publications using ADNI data from 2016 and 2017 (listed in Supplementary material and searchable at http://adni...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
V V Bazylev, E V Nemchenko, A I Mikuliak, V A Karnakhin
The purpose of the study was to analyse the remote results of bypass grafting for myocardial bridges. Our retrospective single-centre study included a total of 17 patients subjected to coronary bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery (ADA) in connection with a detected myocardial bridge (MB). All patients underwent assessment of the coronary bypass grafts (CBG) by means of intraoperative flowmetry - transit time flow measurement (TTFM), as well as angiographic control of the CBGs in the remote period...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
M A Cherniavskiĭ, A G Edemskiĭ, Iu A Kudaev, A M Cherniavskiĭ
Analysed herein are the results of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) performed in a total of 169 patients presenting with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) at the National Medical Research Centre named after Academician E.N. Meshalkin over the period from 2004 to 2014. Pulmonary endarterectomy was carried out according to the standard technique in the conditions of assisted circulation with the use of hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The duration of follow up of patients after surgical treatment amounted to 10 years...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
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