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organophosphate flame retardants

Javier Castro-Jiménez, Richard Sempéré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michiel Bastiaensen, Fuchao Xu, Frederic Been, Nele Van den Eede, Adrian Covaci
Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) are a group of chemicals widely added to consumer products. PFRs are quickly metabolized in the human body into two types of metabolites, (1) dialkyl and diaryl phosphate esters (DAPs), such as diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP); and (2) hydroxylated PFRs (HO-PFRs), such as 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP). Existing analytical methods usually focus on DAPs; therefore, human biomonitoring data on HO-PFRs remain scarce...
October 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Andreia Alves, Claudio Erratico, Luisa Lucattini, Matthias Cuykx, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Pim E G Leonards, Stefan Voorspoels, Adrian Covaci
The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of two emerging organophosphate flame retardants, namely tetrekis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6) and bisphenol-A bis-diphenyl phosphate (BDP) in human liver microsomes (HLMs), HLM S9 fractions and in human serum. In particular, the role of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes and/or paraoxonases (PONs) in the formation of V6 and BDP phase I metabolites was studied. Mono-, di-hydroxylated and hydrolytic phase I metabolites of V6 were mainly formed by CYPs in HLMs, while hydrolytic and O-dealkylated phase I metabolites of BDP were generated by PONs mainly in serum experiments...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Tadiyose Girma Bekele, Hongxia Zhao, Yan Wang, Jingqiu Jiang, Feng Tan
The increase in the production and usage plus the toxicity nature of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has become a concern. However, limited information is available about the bioaccumulation potential of OPFRs in fish. In this study, we determined the 96 h LC50 s, and evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of six most frequently reported OPFRs in gill, kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for 48 d, and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed to predict bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the remaining 16 OPFRs...
December 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Pim E G Leonards, Margot van de Bor
Consumer products such as furniture foam and electronic device casings are treated with flame retardant chemicals (FRs) to prevent the spread of fire. Many FRs are able to leach out of a product and end up in house dust. FRs in house dust can be taken up by humans through inhalation, ingestion or dermal adsorption. This study aims to identify factors in the home environment that are associated with FR levels in house dust. House dust and a wide range of data on characteristics of electronics, including age and use, interior decoration, domestic house and cleaning patterns, were collected from 50 households in the Netherlands...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
María Lorenzo, Julián Campo, María Morales Suárez-Varela, Yolanda Picó
The analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in the different environmental compartments of a characteristic coastal wetland, the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain), is required for understanding the transport, accumulation and fate of these pollutants in an area under high anthropogenic pressure. Samples included 13 wastewater treatment plant influents, 13 effluents, 12 surface water, 19 sediment samples and 10 fish individuals from the Albufera Natural Park and the surrounding area...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Timothy F M Rodgers, Jimmy W Truong, Liisa M Jantunen, Paul A Helm, Miriam L Diamond
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, occur at relatively high concentrations in urban air and surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that some OPEs could be considered persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs), using the poly-parameter linear free energy relationship-modified Multimedia Urban Model (ppLFER-MUM) in Toronto, Canada, as a case study. Modelled air emissions of ∑6 OPEs of 3,300 (190 - 190,000) kg yr-1 were 10 - 100 times higher than emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑5 PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑5 PBDEs)...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dandan Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Xiulei Fan, Xun Wang, Bin Hu
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives to polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in various environmental matrices. Owing to urbanization and industrial pollution, co-contamination of OPFRs and heavy metals is ubiquitous in the environment. The toxicity of OPFRs in aqueous phase is a significant concern, but uncertainty still exists regarding the co-toxicity to benthic organisms of OPFRs and metals in sediments. Hence, we explored the physiological response of Corbicula fluminea to OPFRs and Cd in sediments...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Stephanie C Hammel, Allison L Phillips, Kate Hoffman, Heather M Stapleton
Biomarkers remain the gold standard for assessing chemical exposure. However, silicone wristbands may provide some added benefits for characterizing personal exposures compared to single biomarker measurements, such as decreased costs, noninvasive sampling, and increased ease of analysis. Previously, we validated their use in characterizing exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs). However, it is unclear whether these results would extend to chemicals like polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which biomagnify and have longer half-lives than PFRs in the body...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Qing Luo, Yue Shan, Adeel Muhammad, Shiyu Wang, Lina Sun, Hui Wang
Seventy-four soil samples from the road greenbelts, residential areas, drylands, waste grasslands, education lands, industrial areas, city parks, and rural homesteads of Shenyang city, China, were collected and analyzed for 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs). OPEs were detected in all analyzed soil samples, which indicate that OPEs are ubiquitously environmental contaminants. The ∑13 OPEs concentrations ranged from 0.039 to 0.95 mg/kg dry weight (dw), with the mean and median concentrations of 0.23 and 0.16 mg/kg dw, respectively...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tamer Shoeib, Glenys M Webster, Yasmeen Hassan, Sedef Tepe, Melis Yalcin, Cafer Turgut, Perihan Binnur Kurt-Karakuş, Liisa Jantunen
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are commonly used as flame retardants (FRs) and plasticizers. The usage of OPEs has increased recently due to the ban of several brominated flame retardants, but information on levels in the environment, including the indoor environment is still limited. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of 12 OPEs in urban house dust from Vancouver, Canada; Istanbul, Turkey; and Cairo, Egypt. The median ∑OPE concentration was 41.4 μg/g in the Vancouver samples while median levels in Istanbul and Cairo were significantly lower...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Monclús, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Javier De la Puente, Adrian Covaci, Veerle L B Jaspers
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are still globally distributed and some have been shown to interact with the endocrine system of birds. However, the relationship between POPs and the stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is still poorly understood. Raising concerns are now focused on the toxic properties of emergent organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs), but whether OPEs interact with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. We measured corticosterone concentrations in feathers (CORTf) as a long-term biomarker of the bird HPA axis response and we investigated their relationship with POP and OPE concentrations in down feathers of nestling cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus)...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Bo Zhang, Shaoyou Lu, Mingzhi Huang, Meizhou Zhou, Ziqing Zhou, Hangcong Zheng, Yongchen Jiang, Xueyuan Bai, Tao Zhang
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been commonly observed in indoor dust, food, and drinking water in China, but little is known about their exposure levels or factors leading to exposure in Chinese children. In this study, we measured eight metabolites of OPFRs (mOPFRs) in 227 urine samples collected from 0- to 5-year-old children in China. The high detection rates of mOPFRs (60%-100%) in the collected urine samples demonstrated the widespread exposure of this population to OPFRs. The median concentrations indicated that bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (BCEP, 0...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kun Wei, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), an organophosphate flame retardant, was detected in river water samples collected from an electronic waste recycling area in Guiyu, Southern China. The concentrations of TPHP ranged from not detected to 347.2 ng/L, with an average of 138.8 ng/L. The bioaugmentation potential of Brevibacillus brevis on TPHP biodegradation by aerobic microcosms contained in river water from Guiyu was assessed. The results showed that TPHP degradation efficiency was significantly improved to 97...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ioanna Pantelaki, Dimitra Voutsa
Nowadays, there is an increasing concern for organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) due to high production and use following the phase out and stringent regulation in the use of brominated flame retardants. OPFRs represent a group of compounds with a wide range in their polarity, solubility and persistence. OPFRs are widely used as flame retardants in various consumer products such as textiles, electronics, industrial materials and furniture to prevent the risk of fire. They are also utilized as plasticizers, antifoaming or anti-wear agents in lacquers, hydraulic fluids and floor polishing agents...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Subham Dasgupta, Vanessa Cheng, Sara M F Vliet, Constance A Mitchell, David C Volz
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant used around the world. Within zebrafish, we previously showed that initiation of TDCIPP exposure during cleavage (0.75 h post-fertilization, hpf) results in epiboly disruption at 6 hpf, leading to dorsalized embryos by 24 hpf, a phenotype that mimics the effects of dorsomorphin (DMP), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist that dorsalizes embryos in the absence of epiboly defects. The objective of this study was to (1) investigate the role of BMP signaling in TDCIPP-induced toxicity during early embryogenesis, (2) identify other pathways and processes targeted by TDCIPP, and (3) characterize the downstream impacts of early developmental defects...
September 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xinyue Zeng, Hong Sun, Yangyang Huang, Jue Liu, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), as one of the most widely used organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), is applied in nearly all manufactured items and materials. It has been reported that TBOEP could cause developmental impairments and disrupt the endocrine regulation of fish growth during acute toxic experiments. However, concentrations to which fish were exposed in these studies were greater than environmentally relevant concentrations ever reported. This study examined effects on growth associated with exposure of zebrafish to 0, 0...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Anne-Marie Saillenfait, Sophie Ndaw, Alain Robert, Jean-Philippe Sabaté
Organophosphate triesters (PEFRs) are used increasingly as flame retardants and plasticizers in a variety of applications, such as building materials, textiles, and electric and electronic equipment. They have been proposed as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. This updated review shows that biomonitoring has gained incrementally greater importance in evaluating human exposure to PEFRs, and it holds the advantage of taking into account the multiple potential sources and various intake pathways of PEFRs...
September 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Aniela Burant, William Selbig, Edward T Furlong, Christopher P Higgins
Urban development has led to an increase in urban runoff, accompanied with a decrease in water quality during rain events. One of the major causes of the decrease in water quality is the presence of trace organic contaminants in urban runoff. However, little is known about the sources of organic contaminants in urban runoff, especially related to land-use and temporal trends in those associated land uses. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and concentration trends of organic contaminants for a high-density residential site and commercial strip site in Madison, WI...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huiru Li, Mark J La Guardia, Hehuan Liu, Robert C Hale, T Matteson Mainor, Ellen Harvey, Guoying Sheng, Jiamo Fu, Ping'an Peng
e-Waste recycling using crude techniques releases a complex, yet incompletely characterized mixture of hazardous materials, including flame retardants (FRs), to the environment. Their migration downstream and the associated risks also remain undocumented. We examined 26 FRs (18 brominated (BFRs: 12 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, plus 6 alternatives) and 8 organophosphate esters (OPEs)) in surficial sediments of the Lian River. Sampling encompassed the river's origin, through the Guiyu e-waste recycling zone, to its mouth, as well as associated tributaries...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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