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organophosphate flame retardants

Anne-Marie Saillenfait, Sophie Ndaw, Alain Robert, Jean-Philippe Sabaté
Organophosphate triesters (PEFRs) are used increasingly as flame retardants and plasticizers in a variety of applications, such as building materials, textiles, and electric and electronic equipment. They have been proposed as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. This updated review shows that biomonitoring has gained incrementally greater importance in evaluating human exposure to PEFRs, and it holds the advantage of taking into account the multiple potential sources and various intake pathways of PEFRs...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Aniela Burant, William Selbig, Edward T Furlong, Christopher P Higgins
Urban development has led to an increase in urban runoff, accompanied with a decrease in water quality during rain events. One of the major causes of the decrease in water quality is the presence of trace organic contaminants in urban runoff. However, little is known about the sources of organic contaminants in urban runoff, especially related to land-use and temporal trends in those associated land uses. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and concentration trends of organic contaminants for a high-density residential site and commercial strip site in Madison, WI...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huiru Li, Mark J La Guardia, Hehuan Liu, Robert C Hale, T Matteson Mainor, Ellen Harvey, Guoying Sheng, Jiamo Fu, Ping'an Peng
e-Waste recycling using crude techniques releases a complex, yet incompletely characterized mixture of hazardous materials, including flame retardants (FRs), to the environment. Their migration downstream and the associated risks also remain undocumented. We examined 26 FRs (18 brominated (BFRs: 12 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, plus 6 alternatives) and 8 organophosphate esters (OPEs)) in surficial sediments of the Lian River. Sampling encompassed the river's origin, through the Guiyu e-waste recycling zone, to its mouth, as well as associated tributaries...
July 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yu Wang, Hongwen Sun, Hongkai Zhu, Yiming Yao, Hao Chen, Chao Ren, Fengchang Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Distribution of 12 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) was determined in soil and outdoor settled dust samples collected from a multi-waste (electronic, plastic, and rubber wastes and abandoned household-appliances and vehicles) recycling area, that encompassed different modes of operation i.e. open (ORS) and semi-closed recycling (SCRS). Among the twelve OPFRs analyzed, eleven were detected at a frequency of 75%-100% in all soil and dust samples. In soil samples, ΣOPFR concentrations were significantly higher at ORS (122-2100ng/g) than at SCRS (58...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lilah Glazer, Andrew B Hawkey, Corinne N Wells, Meghan Drastal, Kathryn-Ann Odamah, Mamta Behl, Edward D Levin
As the older class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are phased out of commercial use because of findings of neurotoxicity with developmental exposure, a newer class of flame retardants have been introduced, the organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). Presently, little is known about the potential for developmental neurotoxicity or the behavioral consequences of OPFR exposure. Our aim was to characterize the life-long neurobehavioral effects of four widely used OPFRs using the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0...
June 29, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jing Li, Jun-Xia Wang, Wan-Ting Xu, Rong-Shuang Shang, Hai-Dong Gu, Yao-Jin Wen, Li-Jun Zhang
The contamination levels and distribution characteristics of four organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in 25 outdoor dust samples collected in Suzhou were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The exposure to OPFRs via ingestion and inhalation of dust were also estimated for adults, children, and professional street sweepers. Four types of OPFRs were detected in all dust samples at different levels; the total OPFRs concentrations ranged from non-detected (ND) to 8901.66 ng·g-1 , with a median of 1039...
October 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Elizabeth A Gibson, Heather M Stapleton, Lehyla Calero, Darrell Holmes, Kimberly Burke, Rodney Martinez, Boris Cortes, Amy Nematollahi, David Evans, Julie B Herbstman
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been largely replaced by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and alternative brominated flame retardants (Alt-BFRs) to meet flammability requirements. Humans are ubiquitously exposed to some variety of flame retardants through contact with consumer products directly or through household dust. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and hand washing practices to reduce exposure to flame retardants, we measured concentrations in dermal hand wipes and urinary metabolites before and after assignment to two consecutive interventions...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Jonathan Verreault, Robert J Letcher, Marie-Line Gentes, Birgit M Braune
Despite a sustained effort in surveying flame retardants (FRs) in wildlife from industrialized regions, their occurrence in birds or any other wildlife species spanning the Arctic regions, particularly in North America, has received limited attention. This study investigated in the top predator glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Cape Dorset, Nunavut) a comprehensive suite of FRs including unstudied halogenated and non-halogenated FRs of potential health concern, along with legacy organochlorines and mercury...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Javier Castro-Jiménez, Richard Sempéré
Organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers have been detected at generally high frequencies (70-98%) for the first time in the atmosphere over the NW African coastal Mediterranean. Results from sixty air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) collected between March 2015 and January 2016 in an urban coastal site (Bizerte, Tunisia) revealed ∑9 OPE concentrations of ~100-1060 pg m-3 (470 pg m-3 , median) with TCPPs, EHDPP and TiBP exhibiting the higher median concentrations (~110, 100 and 85 pg m-3 , respectively)...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ying Peng, Wendi Fang, Martin Krauss, Werner Brack, Zhihao Wang, Feilong Li, Xiaowei Zhang
Increased synthetic chemical production and diversification in developing countries caused serious aquatic pollution worldwide with emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) detected in surface water rising health concerns to human and aquatic ecosystem even at low ng/L concentration with long-term exposure. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area serves agriculture and industry for people in eastern China. However, the current knowledge on the occurrence and ecological risk of diverse EOPs which are present in the aquatic environment is limited...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
Huifeng Wu, Mingyu Zhong, Zhen Lu, Xiujuan Shan, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Ming Cong
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are increasingly produced and used as alternatives of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) and have become emerging marine environmental contaminants. So far, however, little is known regarding the biological effects of OPFRs in marine organisms. In this study, the biological effects of one of the most abundant OPFRs, tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), on the immunity in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were characterized by testing the reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, antioxidant system and immunity related gene expressions...
July 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Nicole C Deziel, Huangdi Yi, Heather M Stapleton, Huang Huang, Nan Zhao, Yawei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence demonstrates that exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) is widespread and that these chemicals can alter thyroid hormone regulation and function. We investigated the relationship between PFR exposure and thyroid cancer and whether individual or temporal factors predict PFR exposure. METHODS: We analyzed interview data and spot urine samples collected in 2010-2013 from 100 incident female, papillary thyroid cancer cases and 100 female controls of a Connecticut-based thyroid cancer case-control study...
June 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
Sunggyu Lee, Hyun-Jin Cho, Woosik Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
Contamination by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is an emerging concern in aquatic environments. Concentrations of 18 OPFRs were measured in water and sediments collected from the artificial Lake Shihwa. OPFR concentrations in sediments measured in this study were the highest reported worldwide, implying severe OPFR contamination. The highest concentrations of OPFRs were found in creeks taken near industrial complexes, and OPFR concentrations decreased with increasing distance from creeks to inshore or offshore lake waters...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Karen Arnold, João Paulo Teixeira, Ana Mendes, Joana Madureira, Solange Costa, Amina Salamova
The occurrence of five groups of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (total of ∼120 distinct chemicals) was investigated in senior care facilities in the United States and in Portugal. Indoor settled dust samples were collected from fourteen facilities, and the concentrations of organophosphate esters (OPEs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in these samples. Overall, OPEs, PAHs, and BFRs were the most abundant, and OCPs and PCBs were the least abundant SVOC groups in dust collected from both U...
September 2018: Environmental Pollution
Cassandra Rauert, Tom Harner, Jasmin K Schuster, Anita Eng, Gilberto Fillmann, Luisa Eugenia Castillo, Oscar Fentanes, Martín Villa Ibarra, Karina S B Miglioranza, Isabel Moreno Rivadeneira, Karla Pozo, Beatriz Helena Aristizábal Zuluaga
A special initiative was run by the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network to provide atmospheric data on a range of emerging chemicals of concern and candidate and new persistent organic pollutants in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale data for a range of flame retardants (FRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and a range of alternative FRs (novel FRs) are reported over 2 years of sampling with low detection frequencies of the novel FRs...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Fiona Wong, Cynthia A de Wit, Seth R Newton
We investigated the concentrations and temporal variability of organophospate esters (OPEs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor urban air in Stockholm, Sweden over one year (2014-2015) period. The median concentrations of the three target chemical groups (OPEs, HFRs, PBDEs) were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in indoor air than outdoor urban air. OPEs were the most abundant target FRs with median concentrations in indoor (Σ10 OPE = 340 000 pg/m3 ) and outdoor urban (Σ10 OPEs = 3100 pg/m3 ) air, being 3 orders of magnitude greater than for HFRs in indoor (Σ15 HFRs = 120 pg/m3 ) and outdoor urban (Σ15 HFRs = 1...
September 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mingyu Zhong, Huifeng Wu, Wenying Mi, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Ralf Ebinghaus, Jianhui Tang, Zhiyong Xie
Concentrations and distribution characteristics of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in surface sediment samples were analyzed and discussed for the first time in the open Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Three halogenated OPEs [tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)] and five non-halogenated OPEs [tri-isobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tripentyl phosphate (TPeP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected in this region...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simona Jílková, Lisa Melymuk, Šimon Vojta, Martina Vykoukalová, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jana Klánová
Indoor dust is often used to evaluate levels of organic compounds indoors, particularly for compounds with indoor sources, such as flame retardants (FRs). Yet there are uncertainties about the type of information that can be obtained from indoor dust. This study reports detailed dust sampling to assess spatial variability in indoor dust concentrations, the relationship between FR sources and dust, and the implications when interpreting dust concentrations. Multiple dust samples were collected from a range of surface types in three large rooms: a residential flat, a university seminar room, and a university computer room...
September 2018: Chemosphere
Heejeong Park, Gyojin Choo, Hyerin Kim, Jeong-Eun Oh
We investigated the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in 44 tap water samples, collected from eight major cities in South Korea served by four representative watersheds, to evaluate the water contamination status. The total concentrations of PFASs and OPFRs ranged from 1.44 to 224ng/L (median=11.9ng/L), and 74.0 to 342ng/L (median=151ng/L), respectively. The predominant compounds in tap water were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
W A Stubbings, E D Schreder, M B Thomas, K Romanak, M Venier, A Salamova
We assessed exposure to 39 brominated and 16 organophosphate ester flame retardants (FRs) from both dust and indoor air at seven childcare centres in Seattle, USA, and investigated the importance of nap mats as a source of these chemicals. Many childcare centres serving young children use polyurethane foam mats for the children's naptime. Until recently, the vast majority of these mats sold in the United States contained flame-retarded polyurethane foam to meet California Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117) requirements...
July 2018: Environmental Pollution
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