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organophosphate flame retardants

Chengdu Qi, Gang Yu, Mengmeng Zhong, Guilong Peng, Jun Huang, Bin Wang
With the phasing out of brominated flame retardants, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been widely used and further detected in multiple environmental media. However, municipal landfill leachates, an important source of contamination of OPFRs to aquatic environment, have not been fully understood, especially in a developing country like China. Thus, the occurrence, aqueous removal efficiency, environmental emission, and risk assessment of 10 OPFRs were investigated in leachates from six municipal landfills across China...
November 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaoshan Liu, Yi Cai, Yao Wang, Suhua Xu, Kyunghee Ji, Kyungho Choi
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been widely used as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers for fire prevention. OPFRs are suspected of causing potential thyroid disruption in humans. In fish, their thyroid hormone modulation is reported but the mechanisms of this modulation are less understood. Thyroid-disturbing effects of OPFRs were evaluated using adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) following 14d exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) or triphenyl phosphate (TPP). Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones were measured and transcriptions of several genes involved in thyroid function were quantified in brain, thyroid, and liver...
November 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yu Wang, Pranav Kannan, Rolf U Halden, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are used as flame retardants and plasticizers in a wide range of consumer products. Nevertheless, studies on the occurrence and inventory of OPEs in sewage sludge are limited. In this study, 20 OP triesters and 11 diesters were measured in 75 archived sewage sludge samples collected from 67 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the United States (US). The median concentrations of ∑20 OP-triesters and ∑11 OP-diesters in sludge were 1290 and 78.4 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively...
November 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dandan Cao, Kun Lv, Wei Gao, Jie Fu, Jing Wu, Jianjie Fu, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
In this study, levels of 14 organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in 101 indoor dust samples collected from dormitories, residential homes, and offices in Beijing, China. In addition, paired air samples were also analyzed to evaluate any correlation between OPE levels in air and that in corresponding dust samples. The Σ14 OPEs levels substantially varied between individual samples. Thereinto, significantly higher OPE levels were found in dust samples from office (mean value: 14 μg g-1 ), comparing to that in dust samples from residential homes (mean value: 5...
November 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yu Wang, Wenhui Li, María Pilar Martínez-Moral, Hongwen Sun, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in consumer products, which contributes to widespread exposure of humans. OPE diester metabolites in urine have been used as biomarkers of human exposure to these chemicals. Little is known, however, about occurrence and temporal variability in urinary concentrations of OPE metabolites in humans. In this study, 11 OPE metabolites were measured in 213 urine samples collected from 19 volunteers from Albany, New York, United States, at 3-day intervals for five weeks to investigate temporal variability in urinary concentrations...
November 15, 2018: Environment International
Lingli Zhou, Wilhelm Püttmann
The distributions of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in various size fractions of indoor dust samples from homes (H; n = 18) and building material markets (B; n = 7) in the Rhine/Main region of Germany were investigated. Three particle size fractions (F1: 150-200 μm, F2: 63-150 μm, and F3: <63 μm) and bulk dust (BD) subsamples (<200 μm) of each sample were analyzed for 10 OPFRs. On average, the total OPFR concentrations (∑10 OPFR) in bulk dust and all three size fractions from building material markets were 133, 153, 196, and 88...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alexander C Mayer, Kenneth W Fent, Stephen Bertke, Gavin P Horn, Denise L Smith, Steve Kerber, Mark J La Guardia
Firefighters are occupationally exposed to products of combustion containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and flame retardants (FRs), potentially contributing to their increased risk for certain cancers. Personal protective equipment (PPE), including firefighter hoods, helps to reduce firefighters' exposure to toxic substances during fire responses by providing a layer of material on which contaminants deposit prior to reaching the firefighters skin. However, over time hoods that retain some contamination may actually contribute to firefighters' systemic dose...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Brett T Doherty, Kate Hoffman, Alexander P Keil, Stephanie M Engel, Heather M Stapleton, Barbara D Goldman, Andrew F Olshan, Julie L Daniels
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a class of chemicals commonly used as flame retardants and plasticizers. OPEs are applied to a wide variety of consumer products and have a propensity to leach from these products. Consequently, OPEs are ubiquitous contaminants in many human environments and human exposure is pervasive. Accumulating evidence suggests that OPEs are capable of interfering with childhood cognitive development through both neurologic- and endocrine-mediated mechanisms. However, observational evidence of cognitive effects is limited...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Carmen Messerlian, Paige L Williams, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Courtney C Carignan, Jennifer B Ford, Craig M Butt, John D Meeker, Heather M Stapleton, Irene Souter, Russ Hauser
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant (PFR) metabolites are associated with pregnancy loss among women conceiving with assisted reproductive technology (ART). DESIGN: Prospective preconception cohort of subfertile women. SETTING: Academic hospital fertility center in Boston, Massachusetts. PATIENT(S): A total of 155 women conceiving 179 pregnancies with ART. INTERVENTION(S): None...
November 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Vipin Kumar Singh, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Under the Stockholm Convention, signatory countries are obliged to direct source inventories, find current sources, and provide ecological monitoring evidence to guarantee that the encompassing levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are declining. However, such monitoring of different types of POPs are to a great degree constrained in most developing countries including Nepal and are primarily confined to suspected source area/ densely populated regions. In this study, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2 dechlorane plus (DPs), 6 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and 8 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) were investigated in indoor dust from a rural area (Kopawa) in Nepal in order to evaluate their occurrence/level, profile, spatial distribution and their sources...
October 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chenyang Bi, Juan P Maestre, Hongwan Li, Ge Zhang, Raheleh Givehchi, Alireza Mahdavi, Kerry A Kinney, Jeffrey Siegel, Sharon D Horner, Ying Xu
Phthalates and organophosphates are ubiquitous indoor semi-volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) that have been widely used as plasticizers and flame retardants in consumer products. Although many studies have assessed their levels in house dust, only a few used dust samples captured by filters of building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. HVAC filters collect particles from large volumes of air over a long period of time (potentially known) and thus provide a spatially and temporally integrated concentration...
December 2018: Environment International
Javier Castro-Jiménez, Richard Sempéré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Michiel Bastiaensen, Fuchao Xu, Frederic Been, Nele Van den Eede, Adrian Covaci
Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) are a group of chemicals widely added to consumer products. PFRs are quickly metabolized in the human body into two types of metabolites, (1) dialkyl and diaryl phosphate esters (DAPs), such as diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP); and (2) hydroxylated PFRs (HO-PFRs), such as 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP). Existing analytical methods usually focus on DAPs; therefore, human biomonitoring data on HO-PFRs remain scarce...
October 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Andreia Alves, Claudio Erratico, Luisa Lucattini, Matthias Cuykx, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Pim E G Leonards, Stefan Voorspoels, Adrian Covaci
The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of two emerging organophosphate flame retardants, namely tetrekis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6) and bisphenol-A bis-diphenyl phosphate (BDP) in human liver microsomes (HLMs), HLM S9 fractions and in human serum. In particular, the role of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes and/or paraoxonases (PONs) in the formation of V6 and BDP phase I metabolites was studied. Mono-, di-hydroxylated and hydrolytic phase I metabolites of V6 were mainly formed by CYPs in HLMs, while hydrolytic and O-dealkylated phase I metabolites of BDP were generated by PONs mainly in serum experiments...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Tadiyose Girma Bekele, Hongxia Zhao, Yan Wang, Jingqiu Jiang, Feng Tan
The increase in the production and usage plus the toxicity nature of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has become a concern. However, limited information is available about the bioaccumulation potential of OPFRs in fish. In this study, we determined the 96 h LC50 s, and evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of six most frequently reported OPFRs in gill, kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for 48 d, and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed to predict bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the remaining 16 OPFRs...
December 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Pim E G Leonards, Margot van de Bor
Consumer products such as furniture foam and electronic device casings are treated with flame retardant chemicals (FRs) to prevent the spread of fire. Many FRs are able to leach out of a product and end up in house dust. FRs in house dust can be taken up by humans through inhalation, ingestion or dermal adsorption. This study aims to identify factors in the home environment that are associated with FR levels in house dust. House dust and a wide range of data on characteristics of electronics, including age and use, interior decoration, domestic house and cleaning patterns, were collected from 50 households in the Netherlands...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
María Lorenzo, Julián Campo, María Morales Suárez-Varela, Yolanda Picó
The analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in the different environmental compartments of a characteristic coastal wetland, the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain), is required for understanding the transport, accumulation and fate of these pollutants in an area under high anthropogenic pressure. Samples included 13 wastewater treatment plant influents, 13 effluents, 12 surface water, 19 sediment samples and 10 fish individuals from the Albufera Natural Park and the surrounding area...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Timothy F M Rodgers, Jimmy W Truong, Liisa M Jantunen, Paul A Helm, Miriam L Diamond
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, occur at relatively high concentrations in urban air and surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that some OPEs could be considered persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs), using the poly-parameter linear free energy relationship-modified Multimedia Urban Model (ppLFER-MUM) in Toronto, Canada, as a case study. Modelled air emissions of ∑6 OPEs of 3,300 (190 - 190,000) kg yr-1 were 10 - 100 times higher than emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑5 PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑5 PBDEs)...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dandan Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Xiulei Fan, Xun Wang, Bin Hu
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives to polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in various environmental matrices. Owing to urbanization and industrial pollution, co-contamination of OPFRs and heavy metals is ubiquitous in the environment. The toxicity of OPFRs in aqueous phase is a significant concern, but uncertainty still exists regarding the co-toxicity to benthic organisms of OPFRs and metals in sediments. Hence, we explored the physiological response of Corbicula fluminea to OPFRs and Cd in sediments...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Stephanie C Hammel, Allison L Phillips, Kate Hoffman, Heather M Stapleton
Biomarkers remain the gold standard for assessing chemical exposure. However, silicone wristbands may provide some added benefits for characterizing personal exposures compared to single biomarker measurements, such as decreased costs, noninvasive sampling, and increased ease of analysis. Previously, we validated their use in characterizing exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs). However, it is unclear whether these results would extend to chemicals like polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which biomagnify and have longer half-lives than PFRs in the body...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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