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Cervical spine biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334406/male-and-female-cervical-spine-biomechanics-and-anatomy-implication-for-scaling-injury-criteria
#1
Narayan Yoganandan, Cameron R Bass, Liming Voo, Frank A Pintar
There is an increased need to develop female-specific injury criteria and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) for automotive and military environments, especially as women take occupational roles traditionally reserved for men. Although some exhaustive reviews on the biomechanics and injuries of the human spine have appeared in clinical and bioengineering literatures, focus on the difference between male and female cervical spine responses and characteristics has largely been ignored. Current neck injury criteria for automotive dummies for assessing crashworthiness and occupant safety are obtained from animal and human cadaver experiments, computational modeling and human volunteer studies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334358/ranges-of-cervical-intervertebral-disc-deformation-during-an-in-vivo-dynamic-flexion-extension-of-the-neck
#2
Yan Yu, Haiqing Mao, Jing-Sheng Li, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Liming Cheng, Kirkham B Wood, Guoan Li, Thomas D Cha
While abnormal loading is widely believed to cause cervical spine disc diseases, in-vivo cervical disc deformation during dynamic neck motion has not been well delineated. This study investigated the range of cervical disc deformation during an in-vivo functional flexion-extension of the neck. Ten asymptomatic human subjects were tested using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system and MRI based 3D modeling technique. Overall disc deformation was determined using the changes of the space geometry between upper and lower endplates of each intervertebral segment (C3/4, C4/5, C5/6 and C6/7)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323697/generation-and-development-of-paravertebral-ossification-in-cervical-artificial-disk-replacement-a-detailed-analytic-report-using-coronal-reconstruction-ct
#3
Wei Tian, Xiao Han, Bo Liu, Da He, Yanwei Lv, James Yue
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective follow-up study and review of images in published papers. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether true heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs in artificial disk replacement (ADR); to evaluate the incidence of paravertebral ossification (PO) and its influence on ADR. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: HO is typically defined as the abnormal formation of true bone within extraskeletal soft tissues. However, HO in ADR does not fit this definition precisely, as it originates from vertebral body, making it hard to distinguish radiologically from preexisting osteophytes...
April 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250641/traumatic-high-grade-spondylolisthesis-at-c7-t1-with-no-neurological-deficits-case-series-literature-review-and-biomechanical-implications
#4
Ha Son Nguyen, Hesham Soliman, Shekar Kurpad
Traumatic high-grade spondylolisthesis in subaxial cervical spine is frequently associated with acute spinal cord injury and quadriparesis. There have been rare cases where such pathology demonstrates minimal to no neurological deficits. Assessment of the underlying biomechanics may provide insight into the mechanism of injury and associated neurological preservation. Patient 1 is a 63-year-old female presenting after a motor vehicle collision with significant right arm pain without neurological deficits. Imaging demonstrated C7/T1 spondyloptosis, associated with a locked facet on the left at C6/7 and a locked facet on the right at C7/T1, with a fracture of the left C7 pedicle and right C7 lamina...
January 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243363/a-novel-patient-specific-drill-guide-template-for-pedicle-screw-insertion-into-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-utilizing-stereolithographic-modelling-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Rafael Cruz Bundoc, Giorgio De Guzman Delgado, Samuel Arsenio Munoz Grozman
STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and feasibility of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion into the subaxial cervical spine placed using a patient-specific drill guide template constructed from a stereolithographic model. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: CPS fixation is an invaluable tool for posterior cervical fixation because of its biomechanical advantages. The major drawback is its narrow corridor that allows very little clearance for neural and vascular injuries...
February 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171773/cervical-traction-therapy-with-and-without-neck-support-a-finite-element-analysis
#6
Kuan Wang, Huihao Wang, Zhen Deng, Zhengyan Li, Hongsheng Zhan, Wenxin Niu
BACKGROUND: Cervical traction is commonly used for treating neck pain. However, few studies have investigated the biomechanical impact such traction has on soft tissues. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the biomechanics of cervical traction therapy in a supine position with and without neck support (NS and non-NS). METHODS: A finite element model of the cervical spine was constructed to investigate the mechanism behind cervical traction therapy. An axial traction force of 100-N was loaded on the upper surface of C0 to simulate traction weight...
April 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155678/compression-distraction-reduction-surgical-verification-and-optimization-to-treat-the-basilar-invagination-and-atlantoaxial-dislocation-a-finite-element-analysis
#7
Xuefeng Bo, Weida Wang, Zan Chen, Zhicheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Basilar invagination (BI) combined with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) leads to foramen magnum stenosis and medullary spinal cord compression, causing nerve dysfunction. The purpose of the surgery is to remove the bony compression at brainstem ventral side and fix the unstable spinal segment and make it fused stably. Occipital cervical internal fixation system that simultaneously reduces atlantoaxial horizontal and vertical dislocation are established. We propose here a new compression-distraction reduction (CDR) technique...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153123/temporomandibular-disorders-and-painful-comorbidities-clinical-association-and-underlying-mechanisms
#8
Yuri Martins Costa, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Flavio Augusto Cardoso de Faria, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim
The association between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headaches, cervical spine dysfunction, and fibromyalgia is not artefactual. The aim of this review is to describe the comorbid relationship between TMD and these three major painful conditions and to discuss the clinical implications and the underlying pain mechanisms involved in these relationships. Common neuronal pathways and central sensitization processes are acknowledged as the main factors for the association between TMD and primary headaches, although the establishment of cause-effect mechanisms requires further clarification and characterization...
March 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146029/kinematics-of-the-cervical-spine-following-unilateral-facet-fracture-an-in-vitro-cadaver-study
#9
Paolo Caravaggi, Linda Chen, Linda Uko, Andres Zorrilla, Spencer Hauser, Michael J Vives
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study utilizing human cadaveric cervical spines. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effects on intervertebral motion of isolated unilateral cervical facet fracture, and after disruption of the intervertebral disc at the same level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Clinical evidence has indirectly suggested that cervical facet fractures involving 40% of the height of the lateral mass can cause instability of the involved segment...
January 31, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108780/cement-augmented-screws-in-a-cervical-two-level-corpectomy-with-anterior-titanium-mesh-cage-reconstruction-a-biomechanical-study
#10
Sebastian Hartmann, Claudius Thomé, Anja Tschugg, Johannes Paesold, Pujan Kavakebi, Werner Schmölz
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical investigation. PURPOSE: Cervical two-level corpectomies with anterior-only instrumentation are associated with a high rate of implant-related complications. These procedures, therefore, often require an additional dorsal instrumentation to prevent screw loosening. Cement augmentation of the anterior screws in two-level corpectomies might stabilize the construct, so that a second dorsal procedure could be avoided. To evaluate the screw anchorage in cervical anterior-only procedures, an ex vivo evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) in two-level corpectomies (C4 and C5), with and without cement augmentation of the anterior screws, was carried out in this study...
January 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107242/an-in-vitro-biomechanical-study-evaluating-cervical-extension-plates-for-stabilizing-degenerated-adjacent-levels
#11
Kamran Majid, Mark Moldavsky, Saif Khalil, Manasa Gudipally
STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate the biomechanical stability of 2 extender plates in a human cervical cadaveric model. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 2 extender plates, placed adjacent to initially implanted plates and to compare their biomechanical stability with traditional techniques. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Traditionally, adjacent level degeneration is surgically treated by removing the previously implanted plate and extending the instrumentation to the new degenerated level...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094418/comparative-anatomy-and-biomechanical-properties-of-atlantoaxial-ligaments-in-equine-bovine-and-canine-cadaveric-specimens
#12
Franck Forterre, Michael H Stoffel, Christoph Koch, Christina Precht, Maja Waschk, Alexander Bürki
OBJECTIVES: Atlantoaxial instability has been reported in humans, dogs, equids and ruminants. The functional role of the atlantoaxial ligaments has only been described rudimentarily in equids and ruminants. The goal of the present cadaveric study was to compare the anatomy between the different species and to comparatively assess the role of the stabilizing ligaments of the atlantoaxial joint under sagittal shear loading in canine, equine, and bovine cervical spines. METHODS: Three equine, bovine, and canine cadaveric specimens were investigated...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092739/an-emg-driven-biomechanical-model-of-the-canine-cervical-spine
#13
M Alizadeh, G G Knapik, J S Dufour, C Zindl, M J Allen, J Bertran, N Fitzpatrick, W S Marras
Due to the frequency of cervical spine injuries in canines, the purpose of this effort was to develop an EMG-driven dynamic model of the canine cervical spine to assess a biomechanical understanding that enables one to investigate the risk of neck disorders. A canine subject was recruited in this investigation in order to collect subject specific data. Reflective markers and a motion capture system were used for kinematic measurement; surface electrodes were used to record electromyography signals, and with the aid of force plate kinetics were recorded...
February 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994781/traumatic-cervical-spondyloptosis-of-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-case-series-with-a-literature-review-and-a-new-classification
#14
Jayprakash Vrajlal Modi, Shardul Madhav Soman, Shaival Dalal
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study on patients with traumatic subaxial cervical spondyloptosis and includes a review of the available literature regarding the management of this injury. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the biomechanics and varied clinical presentations of this rare but devastating injury. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: This is a case series of three patients and a review of the available literature on subaxial cervical spondyloptosis...
December 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989706/osseous-osteoarthritic-like-changes-and-joint-mobility-of-the-temporomandibular-joints-and-upper-cervical-spine-is-there-a-relation
#15
Liselotte Sonnesen, Arne Petersson, Mie Wiese, Karl Erik Jensen, Palle Svanholt, Merete Bakke
OBJECTIVES: To compare 1) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mobility between patients with and without reduced upper cervical spine (UCS) mobility and with and without TMJ osseous osteoarthritic-like changes, and 2) UCS osseous changes between patients with and without TMJ osseous osteoarthritic-like changes and with and without reduced UCS mobility. STUDY DESIGN: The study comprised 39 patients without pain from TMJ or UCS and with obstructive sleep apnea, 15 women (age range 26-72 years, mean 56...
February 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988036/a-female-head-neck-model-for-rear-impact-simulations
#16
Jonas Östh, Manuel Mendoza-Vazquez, Fusako Sato, Mats Y Svensson, Astrid Linder, Karin Brolin
Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935447/lateral-mass-screw-stimulation-thresholds-in-posterior-cervical-instrumentation-surgery-a-predictor-of-medial-deviation
#17
Bayard Wilson, Erik Curtis, Brian Hirshman, Ahmet Oygar, Karen Chen, Brandon C Gabel, Florin Vaida, David W Allison, Joseph D Ciacci
OBJECTIVE Normative data exists for stimulus-evoked pedicle screw electromyography (EMG) current thresholds in the lumbar spine, and is routinely referenced during spine surgeries to detect a screw breach, prevent injury of neural elements, and ensure the most biomechanically sound instrumentation construct. To date, similar normative data for cervical lateral mass screws is limited, thus the utility of lateral mass screw testing remains unclear. To address this disparity, in this study the authors describe cumulative lateral mass screw stimulation threshold data in patients undergoing posterior cervical instrumentation with lateral mass screws...
March 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902850/biomechanical-comparison-of-2-veterinary-locking-plates-to-monocortical-screw-polymethylmethacrylate-fixation-in-canine-cadaveric-cervical-vertebral-column
#18
Bianca F Hettlich, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Alan S Litsky
OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of 2 veterinary locking plates and monocortical screws/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fixation in canine cadaveric cervical vertebral columns. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical cadaveric study. MATERIALS: Nineteen cervical vertebral columns (C2-C7) from large breed, skeletally mature, canine cadavers were used. A cortical ring was placed as a disk spacer at C4-C5 in all specimens. Seven vertebral columns were plated at C4-C5 with two 4-hole, 3...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886885/classification-and-management-of-pediatric-subaxial-cervical-spine-injuries
#19
REVIEW
Casey J Madura, James M Johnston
Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886874/treatment-of-facet-injuries-in-the-cervical-spine
#20
REVIEW
Navid Khezri, Tamir Ailon, Brian K Kwon
Facet injuries are common in the cervical spine. Many classification systems over the years have characterized the heterogeneity of these injuries. For unilateral facet fractures with minimal displacement and no neurological deficit, there is mounting evidence that better radiographic and clinical outcomes may be achieved with surgical treatment. Anterior and posterior approaches can both be utilized successfully for the surgical management of facet injuries. The anterior approach is well tolerated, allows one to address a disc herniation, and provides a high union rate with good sagittal alignment...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
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