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Cervical spine biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108780/cement-augmented-screws-in-a-cervical-two-level-corpectomy-with-anterior-titanium-mesh-cage-reconstruction-a-biomechanical-study
#1
Sebastian Hartmann, Claudius Thomé, Anja Tschugg, Johannes Paesold, Pujan Kavakebi, Werner Schmölz
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical investigation. PURPOSE: Cervical two-level corpectomies with anterior-only instrumentation are associated with a high rate of implant-related complications. These procedures, therefore, often require an additional dorsal instrumentation to prevent screw loosening. Cement augmentation of the anterior screws in two-level corpectomies might stabilize the construct, so that a second dorsal procedure could be avoided. To evaluate the screw anchorage in cervical anterior-only procedures, an ex vivo evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) in two-level corpectomies (C4 and C5), with and without cement augmentation of the anterior screws, was carried out in this study...
January 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107242/an-in-vitro-biomechanical-study-evaluating-cervical-extension-plates-for-stabilizing-degenerated-adjacent-levels
#2
Kamran Majid, Mark Moldavsky, Saif Khalil, Manasa Gudipally
STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate the biomechanical stability of 2 extender plates in a human cervical cadaveric model. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 2 extender plates, placed adjacent to initially implanted plates and to compare their biomechanical stability with traditional techniques. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Traditionally, adjacent level degeneration is surgically treated by removing the previously implanted plate and extending the instrumentation to the new degenerated level...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094418/comparative-anatomy-and-biomechanical-properties-of-atlantoaxial-ligaments-in-equine-bovine-and-canine-cadaveric-specimens
#3
Franck Forterre, Michael H Stoffel, Christoph Koch, Christina Precht, Maja Waschk, Alexander Bürki
OBJECTIVES: Atlantoaxial instability has been reported in humans, dogs, equids and ruminants. The functional role of the atlantoaxial ligaments has only been described rudimentarily in equids and ruminants. The goal of the present cadaveric study was to compare the anatomy between the different species and to comparatively assess the role of the stabilizing ligaments of the atlantoaxial joint under sagittal shear loading in canine, equine, and bovine cervical spines. METHODS: Three equine, bovine, and canine cadaveric specimens were investigated...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092739/an-emg-driven-biomechanical-model-of-the-canine-cervical-spine
#4
M Alizadeh, G G Knapik, J S Dufour, C Zindl, M J Allen, J Bertran, N Fitzpatrick, W S Marras
Due to the frequency of cervical spine injuries in canines, the purpose of this effort was to develop an EMG-driven dynamic model of the canine cervical spine to assess a biomechanical understanding that enables one to investigate the risk of neck disorders. A canine subject was recruited in this investigation in order to collect subject specific data. Reflective markers and a motion capture system were used for kinematic measurement; surface electrodes were used to record electromyography signals, and with the aid of force plate kinetics were recorded...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994781/traumatic-cervical-spondyloptosis-of-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-case-series-with-a-literature-review-and-a-new-classification
#5
Jayprakash Vrajlal Modi, Shardul Madhav Soman, Shaival Dalal
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study on patients with traumatic subaxial cervical spondyloptosis and includes a review of the available literature regarding the management of this injury. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the biomechanics and varied clinical presentations of this rare but devastating injury. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: This is a case series of three patients and a review of the available literature on subaxial cervical spondyloptosis...
December 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989706/osseous-osteoarthritic-like-changes-and-joint-mobility-of-the-temporomandibular-joints-and-upper-cervical-spine-is-there-a-relation
#6
Liselotte Sonnesen, Arne Petersson, Mie Wiese, Karl Erik Jensen, Palle Svanholt, Merete Bakke
OBJECTIVES: To compare 1) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mobility between patients with and without reduced upper cervical spine (UCS) mobility and with and without TMJ osseous osteoarthritic-like changes, and 2) UCS osseous changes between patients with and without TMJ osseous osteoarthritic-like changes and with and without reduced UCS mobility. STUDY DESIGN: The study comprised 39 patients without pain from TMJ or UCS and with obstructive sleep apnea, 15 women (age range 26-72 years, mean 56...
November 11, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988036/a-female-head-neck-model-for-rear-impact-simulations
#7
Jonas Östh, Manuel Mendoza-Vazquez, Fusako Sato, Mats Y Svensson, Astrid Linder, Karin Brolin
Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935447/lateral-mass-screw-stimulation-thresholds-in-posterior-cervical-instrumentation-surgery-a-predictor-of-medial-deviation
#8
Bayard Wilson, Erik Curtis, Brian Hirshman, Ahmet Oygar, Karen Chen, Brandon C Gabel, Florin Vaida, David W Allison, Joseph D Ciacci
OBJECTIVE Normative data exists for stimulus-evoked pedicle screw electromyography (EMG) current thresholds in the lumbar spine, and is routinely referenced during spine surgeries to detect a screw breach, prevent injury of neural elements, and ensure the most biomechanically sound instrumentation construct. To date, similar normative data for cervical lateral mass screws is limited, thus the utility of lateral mass screw testing remains unclear. To address this disparity, in this study the authors describe cumulative lateral mass screw stimulation threshold data in patients undergoing posterior cervical instrumentation with lateral mass screws...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902850/biomechanical-comparison-of-2-veterinary-locking-plates-to-monocortical-screw-polymethylmethacrylate-fixation-in-canine-cadaveric-cervical-vertebral-column
#9
Bianca F Hettlich, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Alan S Litsky
OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of 2 veterinary locking plates and monocortical screws/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fixation in canine cadaveric cervical vertebral columns. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical cadaveric study. MATERIALS: Nineteen cervical vertebral columns (C2-C7) from large breed, skeletally mature, canine cadavers were used. A cortical ring was placed as a disk spacer at C4-C5 in all specimens. Seven vertebral columns were plated at C4-C5 with two 4-hole, 3...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886885/classification-and-management-of-pediatric-subaxial-cervical-spine-injuries
#10
REVIEW
Casey J Madura, James M Johnston
Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886874/treatment-of-facet-injuries-in-the-cervical-spine
#11
REVIEW
Navid Khezri, Tamir Ailon, Brian K Kwon
Facet injuries are common in the cervical spine. Many classification systems over the years have characterized the heterogeneity of these injuries. For unilateral facet fractures with minimal displacement and no neurological deficit, there is mounting evidence that better radiographic and clinical outcomes may be achieved with surgical treatment. Anterior and posterior approaches can both be utilized successfully for the surgical management of facet injuries. The anterior approach is well tolerated, allows one to address a disc herniation, and provides a high union rate with good sagittal alignment...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835042/cervical-injury-assessments-for-concussion-evaluation-a-review
#12
Kelly Cheever, Keisuke Kawata, Ryan Tierney, Anne Galgon
BACKGROUND: A concussion is a complex pathophysiologic process that is induced by biomechanical forces and affects the brain. Cervical injuries and concussion can share similar mechanisms and nearly identical symptoms or causes. Therefore, symptoms or causes alone may be insufficient to differentiate between patients with a concussion and patients with cervical injuries. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the homogeneous causes and symptoms observed in patients with a concussion and patients with cervical injury and to provide information on clinical tests that can differentiate cervical injury from pathologic conditions of vestibular or central origin...
December 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830891/morphometric-multislice-computed-tomography-examination-of-the-craniovertebral-junction-in-neck-flexion-and-extension
#13
Slobodan Marinkovic, Ivan Milić, Igor Djorić, Luciano Brigante, Aleksandar Miljatović, Laslo Puškaš, Slobodan Kapor, Jelena Boljanović
BACKGROUND: Detailed study of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary to completely understand the mechanism of its flexion and extension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One cadaver head was sectioned in the sagittal plane. Also, in 22 volunteers, examined using the multislice computerized tomography (MSCT), 14 parameters and 2 angles were measured in the neutral position, flexion and extension. RESULTS: The obtained measurements showed the anterior part of the occiput to move inferiorly in flexion, and the anterior atlas arch and the tip of the dens to get closer to the basion...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807639/the-fascicular-anatomy-and-peak-force-capabilities-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscle
#14
Ewan Kennedy, Michael Albert, Helen Nicholson
PURPOSE: The fascicular morphology of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is not well described in modern anatomical texts, and the biomechanical forces it exerts on individual cervical motion segments are not known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fascicular anatomy and peak force capabilities of the SCM combining traditional dissection and modern imaging. METHODS: This study is comprised of three parts: Dissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biomechanical modelling...
November 2, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787486/minimally-invasive-cervical-spine-surgery
#15
Branko Skovrlj, Sheeraz A Qureshi
AIM: Degenerative disorders of the cervical spine requiring surgical intervention have become increasingly more common over the past decade. Traditionally, open surgical approaches have been the mainstay of surgical treatment. More commonly, minimally invasive techniques are being developed with the intent to decrease surgical morbidity and iatrogenic spinal instability. This study will review four minimally invasive cervical techniques that have been increasingly utilized in the treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781187/kinematic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-the-degenerative-cervical-spine-changes-after-anterior-decompression-and-cage-fusion
#16
Marina Obradov, Menno R Bénard, Michiel M A Janssen, Patricia G Anderson, Petra J C Heesterbeek, Maarten Spruit
Study Design A prospective cohort study. Objective Decompression and fusion of cervical vertebrae is a combined procedure that has a high success rate in relieving radicular symptoms and stabilizing or improving cervical myelopathy. However, fusion may lead to increased motion of the adjacent vertebrae and cervical deformity. Both have been postulated to lead to adjacent segment pathology (ASP). Kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used to evaluate range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine and ASP...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706424/surgical-treatment-of-traumatic-cervical-facet-dislocation-anterior-posterior-or-combined-approaches
#17
Catarina C Lins, Diego T Prado, Andrei F Joaquim
Surgical treatment is well accepted for patients with traumatic cervical facet joint dislocations (CFD), but there is uncertainty over which approach is better: anterior, posterior or combined. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the indications for anterior and posterior approaches in the management of CFD. Anterior approaches can restore cervical lordosis, and cause less postoperative pain and less wound problems. Posterior approaches are useful for direct reduction of locked facet joints and provide stronger fixation from a biomechanical point of view...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690838/whiplash-associated-disorders-occupant-kinematics-and-neck-morphology
#18
Brian D Stemper, Brian D Corner
Synopsis Despite considerable research effort, the incidence of whiplash injury during automotive collisions has continued to rise. This is due, at least in part, to a limited recognition of biomechanical injury mechanisms and factors influencing injury risk. While automotive safety modifications reduced injury risk in some cases, impact on the overall whiplash incidence was limited. This is likely attributable to significant occupant-related differences that have a profound impact on injury risk. Many of those differences were outlined in research studies, and examples include female sex and the associated sex-based anthropometrical variation that can affect seating orientation; cervical spinal posture; and anatomical attributes, including cervical column slenderness and neck muscle morphometry...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650073/pediatric-cervical-spine-in-emergency-radiographic-features-of-normal-anatomy-variants-and-pitfalls
#19
REVIEW
Omar Adib, Emeline Berthier, Didier Loisel, Christophe Aubé
Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult...
December 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642820/adjacent-segment-disease-in-the-cervical-and-lumbar-spine
#20
Daniel G Tobert, Valentin Antoci, Shaun P Patel, Ehsan Saadat, Christopher M Bono
Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
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