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Cervical spine biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452282/load-sharing-through-elastic-micro-motion-accelerates-bone-formation-and-interbody-fusion
#1
Eric H Ledet, Glenn P Sanders, Darryl J DiRisio, Joseph C Glennon
BACKGROUND: Context: Achieving a successful spinal fusion requires the proper biologic and biomechanical environment. Optimizing load-sharing in the interbody space can enhance bone formation. For anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), loading and motion are largely dictated by the stiffness of the plate which can facilitate a balance between stability and load-sharing. The advantages of load-sharing may be substantial for patients with comorbidities and in multi-level procedures where pseudarthrosis rates are significant...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451436/novel-posterior-artificial-atlanto-odontoid-joint-for-atlantoaxial-instability-a-biomechanical-study
#2
Kai Shen, Zhongliang Deng, Junsong Yang, Chao Liu, Ranxi Zhang
OBJECTIVE Atlantoaxial instability is usually corrected by anterior and/or posterior C1-2 fusion. However, fusion can lead to considerable loss of movement at the C1-2 level, which can adversely impact a patient's quality of life. In this study, the authors investigated the stability and function of a novel posterior artificial atlanto-odontoid joint (NPAAJ) by using cadaveric cervical spines. METHODS The Oc-C7 regions from 10 cadaveric spines were used for anteroposterior (AP) translation and range of motion (ROM) tests while intact and after destabilization, NPAAJ implantation, and double-rod fixation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437305/adjustment-of-antidiabetic-treatment-regimens-on-discharge-from-the-emergency-department-effect-on-90-day-outcomes-in-patients-admitted-to-a-short-stay-unit
#3
Rafael Cuervo Pinto, Sol Hernández López, Nerea Aguirre Juaristi, David Chaparro Pardo, Juan Jorge González Armengol, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To measure cervical spine movement during removal of a motorcycle helmet by health care professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study using biomechanical inertial sensors to detect movement in the spinal column during removal of helmets. RESULTS: Thirty-four emergency medicine specialists and nurses participated. The mean (SD) rotation was 1.14° (0.82°) to the left and 3.30° (1.69°) to the right (P<.001). Mean flexion was 9...
February 2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434794/biomechanical-analysis-of-brachial-plexus-injury-availability-of-three-dimensional-finite-element-model-of-the-brachial-plexus
#4
Atsushi Mihara, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Haruki Tagawa, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Daisuke Nakashima, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Adult brachial plexus injuries frequently lead to significant and permanent physical disabilities. Investigating the mechanism of the injury using biomechanical approaches may lead to further knowledge with regard to preventing brachial plexus injuries. However, there are no reports of biomechanical studies of brachial plexus injuries till date. Therefore, the present study used a complex three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) of the brachial plexus to analyze the mechanism of brachial plexus injury and to assess the validity of the model...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421491/development-of-a-finite-element-model-of-the-ligamentous-cervical-vertebral-column-of-a-great-dane
#5
Marília de Albuquerque Bonelli, Anoli Shah, Vijay Goel, Fabiano Séllos Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa
Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments...
January 29, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354732/c7-intra-laminar-screws-for-complex-cervicothoracic-spine-surgery-a-case-series
#6
Peter John Wilson, Michael Derrick Selby
Background: C7 has relatively unique anatomy compared to the remainder of the subaxial cervical spine (C3-C6) and upper thoracic spine. The C7 laminar has been previously reported in feasibility and biomechanical studies as an adequate fixation point in contrast to the lateral mass or pedicles, with few reports of its use in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to review the safety and efficacy of using the C7 laminar as a fixation point in constructs involving the cervical spine and cervicothoracic junction...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338908/relationship-between-neuropathy-proximal-to-the-suprascapular-nerve-and-rotator-cuff-tear-in-a-rodent-model
#7
Yasuhito Sasaki, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Eiko Hashimoto, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takehiro Kijima, Koji Akimoto, Seiji Ohtori, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are believed to coexist with cervical spine lesions. In cases of preexisting neuropathy, such as cervical spine lesions, fatty degeneration has likely already occurred due to the neuropathy. In these cases, rotator cuff tear is thought to occur easily because of preexisting extensive fatty degeneration and degeneration of the tendons due to neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of paralysis due to neuropathy proximal to the suprascapular nerve on the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons using a rat model of brachial plexus paralysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333900/stability-of-two-anterior-fixations-for-three-column-injury-in-the-lower-cervical-spine-biomechanical-evaluation-of-anterior-pedicle-screw-plate-fixation
#8
Hai-Hao Wu, Tao Tang, Xiao Yu, Qing-Jiang Pang
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the stability of anterior pedicle screw-plate (APSP) fixation and anterior vertebral body screw-plate (AVBSP) fixation for three-column injury in the lower cervical spine. Methods Six fresh-frozen human cadaveric specimens of the lower cervical spine were prepared. After measurement of the range of motion (ROM) in the intact state, the specimens were prepared as three-column injury models. The models were stabilized by AVBSP or APSP fixation. The ROM of the models in the two states was measured...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330341/biomechanics-of-coupled-motion-in-the-cervical-spine-during-simulated-whiplash-in-patients-with-pre-existing-cervical-or-lumbar-spinal-fusion-a-finite-element-study
#9
H Huang, R W Nightingale, A B C Dang
OBJECTIVES: Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. METHODS: A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259395/cervical-spine-mechanism-for-reproduction-of-the-biomechanical-behaviours-of-the-human-neck-during-rotation-traction-manipulation
#10
Yuancan Huang, Shuai Li, Minshan Feng, Liguo Zhu
Rotation-traction (RT) manipulation is a commonly used physical therapy procedure in TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) for cervical spondylosis. This procedure temporarily separates the C3 and C4 cervical vertebrae from each other when a physician applies a jerky action while the neck is voluntarily turned by the patient to a specific position as instructed by the physician, where the cervical vertebrae are twisted and locked. However, a high rate of cervical injury occurs due to inexperienced physician interns who lack sufficient training...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242977/the-mechanism-in-junctional-failure-of-thoraco-lumbar-fusions-part-i-biomechanical-analysis-of-mechanisms-responsible-of-vertebral-overstress-and-description-of-the-cervical-inclination-angle-cia
#11
Jean-Charles Le Huec, Jonathon Richards, Andreas Tsoupras, Rachel Price, Amélie Léglise, Antonio A Faundez
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to describe the biomechanical theory explaining junctional breakdowns in thoraco-lumbar fusions, by taking the example of vertebral compression fractures. Also, a new angle, the cervical inclination angle (CIA), describing the relative position of the head at each vertebral level, is presented. METHODS: For the CIA, the data were collected from 137 asymptomatic subjects of a prospective database, containing clinical and radiologic informations...
December 14, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227919/a-subject-specific-biomechanical-control-model-for-the-prediction-of-cervical-spine-muscle-forces
#12
Maxim Van den Abbeele, Fan Li, Vincent Pomero, Dominique Bonneau, Baptiste Sandoz, Sébastien Laporte, Wafa Skalli
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to propose a subject-specific biomechanical control model for the estimation of active cervical spine muscle forces. METHODS: The proprioception-based regulation model developed by Pomero et al. (2004) for the lumbar spine was adapted to the cervical spine. The model assumption is that the control strategy drives muscular activation to maintain the spinal joint load below the physiological threshold, thus avoiding excessive intervertebral displacements...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202506/effect-of-facetectomy-on-the-three-dimensional-biomechanical-properties-of-the-fourth-canine-cervical-functional-spinal-unit-a-cadaveric-study
#13
Nadja Bösch, Martin Hofstetter, Alexander Bürki, Beatriz Vidondo, Fenella Davies, Franck Forterre
Objective To study the biomechanical effect of facetectomy in 10 large breed dogs (>24 kg body weight) on the fourth canine cervical functional spinal unit. Methods Canine cervical spines were freed from all muscles. Spines were mounted on a six-degrees-of-freedom spine testing machine for three-dimensional motion analysis. Data were recorded with an optoelectronic motion analysis system. The range of motion was determined in all three primary motions as well as range of motion of coupled motions on the intact specimen, after unilateral and after bilateral facetectomy...
November 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181398/rheumatoid-arthritis-affecting-the-upper-cervical-spine-biomechanical-assessment-of-the-stabilizing-ligaments
#14
Carolin Meyer, Jan Bredow, Elisa Heising, Peer Eysel, Lars Peter Müller, Gregor Stein
Diameters of anterior and posterior atlantodental intervals (AADI and PADI) are diagnostically conclusive regarding ongoing neurological disorders in rheumatoid arthritis. MRI and X-ray are mostly used for patients' follow-up. This investigation aimed at analyzing these intervals during motion of cervical spine, when transverse and alar ligaments are damaged. AADI and PADI of 10 native, human cervical spines were measured using lateral fluoroscopy, while the spines were assessed in neutral position first, in maximal inclination second, and in maximal extension at last...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173440/laminectomy-with-or-without-fusion-to-manage-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#15
REVIEW
Fahad H Abduljabbar, Alisson R Teles, Rakan Bokhari, Michael Weber, Carlo Santaguida
Stand-alone cervical laminectomy for degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) has become increasingly rare due to risk of postlaminectomy kyphosis. This article discusses the biomechanics of cervical degeneration and how laminectomy effects spine stability, and summarizes relevant clinical studies to help guide surgical decision-making for the posterior treatment of DCM. Laminectomy and fusion remains a safe and efficacious treatment. Stand-alone laminectomy should only be used for a highly selected patient population with relative stiff lordotic cervical spines, using care to not disrupt facets and C2 and C7 muscle attachments...
January 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133006/anterior-transdiscal-axial-screw-fixation-for-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-biomechanical-study
#16
Minghui Zheng, Wei Ji, Lin Zou, Zhiping Huang, Qingan Zhu, Dongbin Qu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stability of anterior transdiscal axial screw (ATAS) fixation for anterior instrumentation and to compare with standard anterior cervical decompression and fusion and plate (ACDFP) fixation in human subaxial cervical spine. METHODS: Flexibility tests were conducted on 7 cadaveric specimens (C5-T1) in an intact and injured state and instrumented with ACDFP fixation, ATAS fixation, and ACDFP plus ATAS fixation at the C6-7 segment after section of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and discectomy...
November 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133003/atlantooccipital-rotatory-dislocation-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Luis A Robles, Greg M Mundis, Abel Cuevas-Solórzano
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital rotatory dislocation (AORD) has been rarely reported in the literature; for this reason, the clinical-radiological characteristics of this injury are not well described. METHODS: The authors describe the case of a 67 years old male who sustained a cervical spine trauma. He only referred neck pain and was neurologically intact. The CT scan showed a rotatory displacement of the atlanto-occipital joints (AOJs) associated with a widened condylar-C1 interval; in addition, the MRI revealed injuries to the stabilizing ligaments of this area...
November 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110218/cervical-sagittal-balance-a-biomechanical-perspective-can-help-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Avinash G Patwardhan, Saeed Khayatzadeh, Robert M Havey, Leonard I Voronov, Zachary A Smith, Olivia Kalmanson, Alexander J Ghanayem, William Sears
PURPOSE: In this article, we summarize our work on understanding the influence of cervical sagittal malalignment on the mechanics of the cervical spine. METHODS: Biomechanical studies were performed using an ex vivo laboratory model to study the kinematic and kinetic response of human cervical spine specimens in the setting of cervical sagittal imbalance. The model allowed controlled variations of C2-C7 Sagittal Vertical Alignment (C2-C7 SVA) and T1-Slope so that clinically relevant sagittally malaligned profiles could be prescribed, while maintaining horizontal gaze, and their biomechanical consequences studied...
November 6, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107220/do-longus-capitis-and-colli-really-stabilise-the-cervical-spine-a-study-of-their-fascicular-anatomy-and-peak-force-capabilities
#19
Ewan Kennedy, Michael Albert, Helen Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Longus capitis and colli are proposed to play a role in stabilising the cervical spine, targeted in clinical and research practice with cranio-cervical flexion. However, it is not clear if these muscles are anatomically or biomechanically suited to a stabilising role. OBJECTIVES: To describe the fascicular morphology of the longus capitis and colli, and estimate their peak force generating capabilities across the individual cervical motion segments. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical force modelling based on anatomical data...
October 16, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100186/biomechanics-of-anterior-plating-failure-in-treating-distractive-flexion-injury-in-the-caudal-subaxial-cervical-spine
#20
Zhong Wang, Hui Zhao, Ji-Ming Liu, Rui Chao, Tai-Bang Chen, Li-Wen Tan, Feng Zhu, Jian-Hua Zhao, Peng Liu
BACKGROUND: Operative level is a potential biomechanical risk factor for construct failure during anterior fixation for distractive flexion injury. No biomechanical study of this concept has been reported, although it is important in clinical management. METHODS: To explore the mechanism of this concept, a previously validated three-dimensional C2-T1 finite element model was modified to simulate surgical procedure via the anterior approach for treating single-level distractive flexion injury, from C2-C3 to C7-T1...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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