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antiviral method

X Feng, X F Shi
Hepatitis B remains a worldwide health problem with a high mortality rate associated with end-stage liver diseases. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh score is still widely used as the prognostic model for liver cirrhosis and inflammatory reaction, B-type natriuretic peptide and portal vein thrombosis are independent risk factors. Many new models have been proposed for liver failure, including a new model HINAT ACLF. HINAT ACLF is better than its preceding models and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a single factor to promote thyroid hormone, cholinesterase, and antiviral treatment response in this model...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
X Zhang, L Yan, Y Lu, K P Wei, Z X Liu, Y W Xiao, F Ding, H Zhuang, J Li
Objective: To analyze the correlation between serum HBV DNA level and HBsAg titer in hepatitis B e antigen positive pregnant women without antiviral therapy, and investigate the impact of genomic variability of preS/S regions on their correlations. Methods: Prenatal serum samples from 882 pregnant women with chronic HBV infection who were positive for HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA and were not on antiviral therapy were included in the analysis. The Abbott i2000 and m2000 systems were used to qualitatively or quantitatively detect HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA levels, respectively...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Maxime Pichon, Caroline Picard, Bruno Simon, Alexandre Gaymard, Cécile Renard, Bruno Massenavette, Christophe Malcus, Guillaume Monneret, Florence Morfin-Sherpa, Martine Valette, Etienne Javouhey, Gilles Millat, Bruno Lina, Laurence Josset, Vanessa Escuret
INTRODUCTION: A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) had an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with viral excretion longer than 6 months, during 2013-2014 influenza season, despite cord blood transplantation and antiviral treatments. METHODS: Conventional real-time RT-PCR methods were used to estimate viral load and to detect the presence of the common N1 neuraminidase (NA) H275Y substitution responsible for oseltamivir resistance. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of influenza viruses was performed retrospectively to characterize viral quasispecies in specimens...
October 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
Ying Liu, Zhuo Wei, Ye Zhang, Xingzhe Ma, Yuanli Chen, Miao Yu, Chuanrui Ma, Xiaoju Li, Youjia Cao, Jian Liu, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yajun Duan
Production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a potent inhibitor of viral infection, is catalyzed by cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). We previously reported that 25HC induced CH25H expression in a liver X receptor (LXR)-dependent manner, implying that LXR can play an important role in antiviral infection. In this study, we determined that activation of LXR by 25HC or synthetic ligands (T0901317 or GW3965) inhibited infection of HSV-1 or MLV-(VSV)-GFP in HepG2 cells or RAW 264.7 macrophages. Genetic deletion of LXRα, LXRβ or CH25H expression in HepG2 cells by CRISPR/Cas9 method increased cell susceptibility to HSV-1 infection, and attenuated the inhibition of LXR on viral infection...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Binge Deng, Xia Luo, Meng Zhang, Liming Ye, Yu Chen
Acyclovir (ACV) is a synthetic antiviral agent with serious side effect, particularly its nephrotoxicity, so this study was to explore the ultrasensitive detection of ACV by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The enhancement capability of nanoparticles prepared by different chemical reduction were compared, and Ag nanoparticles reduced by citrate are the most propriate enhanced substrate for acyclovir. In addition, comparison between prominent SERS-enhanced bands and the precise mode descriptions predicted through density functional theory (DFT) simulations is used to understand the mechanisms between ACV and metallic surface...
September 24, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kirsten M Knecht, Olga Buzovetsky, Constanze Schneider, Dominique Thomas, Vishok Srikanth, Lars Kaderali, Florentina Tofoleanu, Krystle Reiss, Nerea Ferreirós, Gerd Geisslinger, Victor S Batista, Xiaoyun Ji, Jindrich Cinatl, Oliver T Keppler, Yong Xiong
SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) that depletes cellular dNTPs in noncycling cells to promote genome stability and to inhibit retroviral and herpes viral replication. In addition to being substrates, cellular nucleotides also allosterically regulate SAMHD1 activity. Recently, it was shown that high expression levels of SAMHD1 are also correlated with significantly worse patient responses to nucleotide analog drugs important for treating a variety of cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
October 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ronit Dalmat, Negar Makhsous, Gregory Pepper, Amalia Magaret, Keith R Jerome, Anna Wald, Alexander L Greninger
HIV drug resistance genotyping is a critical tool in the clinical management of HIV infections. Although resistance genotyping has traditionally been conducted using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a powerful tool due to its ability to detect lower frequency alleles. However, the clinical value added from NGS approaches to antiviral resistance testing remains to be demonstrated. We compared the variant detection capacity of NGS versus Sanger sequencing methods for resistance genotyping in 144 drug resistance tests (105 protease-reverse transcriptase tests and 39 integrase tests) submitted to our clinical virology laboratory over a four-month period in 2016 for Sanger-based HIV drug resistance testing...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Elma H Akand, Kevin M Downard
Implementation of a new phylonumerics approach to construct a mass tree representing over 6000 H1N1 human influenza strains has enabled ancestral and compensatory descendant mutations to be identified in N1 neuraminidase that promote antiviral resistance and restore viral fitness. Adjacent to the H275Y resistance mutation site, mutations S299A and S247N, respectively, lead the evolution of oseltamivir-resistant strains and restore viral fitness to those strains thereafter. Importantly the mass tree phylonumerics approach can identify such mutations globally, without any positional bias, so that functionally linked or compensatory mutations remote in the sequence or structure of the protein can be identified and interrogated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Gian Luca Daino, Aldo Frau, Cinzia Sanna, Daniela Rigano, Simona Distinto, Veronica Madau, Francesca Esposito, Elisa Fanunza, Giulia Bianco, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Luca Zinzula, Elias Maccioni, Angela Corona, Enzo Tramontano
The Filoviridae Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe and rapidly progressing hemorrhagic syndrome whose recent epidemic enlightened the urgent need of novel therapeutic agents, since no drug is currently approved. A key contribution to EBOV high lethality comes from viral evasion of the host antiviral innate immune response in which the viral protein VP35 plays a crucial role, blocking the interferon type I production, firstly by masking the viral dsRNA and preventing its detection by the pattern recognition receptor RIG-I...
October 9, 2018: Biochemistry
Jean-Michel Delile, Victor de Ledinghen, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Perrine Roux, Brigitte Reiller, Juliette Foucher, Daniel Dhumeaux
After France removed hepatitis C treatment reimbursement restrictions on 25 May 2016, an expert report presented recommendations, which focused on vulnerable groups including people who inject drugs (PWID). This commentary presents the key points of the chapter with a particular focus on policy. Thanks to the official lifting of restrictions based on disease stage and to the excellent efficacy and tolerance of the new DAA (Direct-Acting Antivirals) among PWID, the main issue is to improve the HCV care cascade...
2018: Hepatology, Medicine and Policy
Kathy A Keith, Caroll B Hartline, Terry L Bowlin, Mark N Prichard
The search for new compounds with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity is important and requires the evaluation of many compounds against several distinct viruses. Researchers attempting to develop new antiviral therapies for DNA virus infections currently use a variety of cell lines, assay conditions and measurement methods to determine in vitro drug efficacy, making it difficult to compare results from within the same laboratory as well as between laboratories. In this paper, we describe the assessment of antiviral activity of a set of nucleoside analogs against BK polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6B, and human herpesvirus 8 in an automated 384-well format and utilize qPCR assays to measure the accumulation of viral DNA...
October 1, 2018: Antiviral Research
Caroll B Hartline, Kathy A Keith, Jessica Eagar, Emma A Harden, Terry L Bowlin, Mark N Prichard
The search for new compounds with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity is important and requires the evaluation of many compounds against several distinct viruses. Researchers attempting to develop new antiviral therapies for DNA virus infections currently use a variety of cell lines, assay conditions and measurement methods to determine in vitro drug efficacy, making it difficult to compare results from within the same laboratory as well as between laboratories. In this paper we describe a common assay platform designed to facilitate the parallel evaluation of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and adenovirus...
October 1, 2018: Antiviral Research
Geeta Chaudhri, Georgina Kaladimou, Pratikshya Pandey, Gunasegaran Karupiah
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus that causes mousepox in mice. Members of the genus orthopoxvirus are closely related and include variola (the causative agent of smallpox in humans), monkeypox, and vaccinia. Common features of variola virus and ECTV further include a restricted host range and similar disease progression in their respective hosts. Mousepox makes an excellent small animal model for smallpox to investigate pathogenesis, vaccine and antiviral agent testing, host-virus interactions, and immune and inflammatory responses...
October 3, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Richard G Pebody, Fiona Warburton, Nick Andrews, Mary Sinnathamby, Ivelina Yonova, Arlene Reynolds, Chris Robertson, Simon Cottrell, Muhammad Sartaj, Rory Gunson, Matthew Donati, Catherine Moore, Joanna Ellis, Simon de Lusignan, Jim McMenamin, Maria Zambon
BackgroundIn 2016/17, seasonal influenza vaccine was less effective in those aged 65 years and older in the United Kingdom. We describe the uptake, influenza-associated mortality and adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) in this age group over influenza seasons 2010/11-2016/17. Methods: Vaccine uptake in 2016/17 and five previous seasons were measured using a sentinel general practitioners cohort in England; the test-negative case-control design was used to estimate pooled aVE by subtype and age group against laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care from 2010-2017...
September 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Taseen Syed, Javid Fazili, Ijlal Akbar Ali, Daniel Zhao, Diane Hughes, Sultan Mahmood
Introduction Multiple studies have shown the efficacy of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with a cure rate of over 90% in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Some recently published studies have suggested an increased incidence of de novo and recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients in sustained virological response (SVR) after completing therapy. A possible mechanism is the breakdown of immune surveillance after starting DAAs. We report a retrospective analysis on a population of chronic HCV infected patients, with and without a prior history of HCC, who developed HCC after receiving DAAs in the hope of adding to existing literature and in pursuit of greater clarity into this emerging concern with DAAs...
June 19, 2018: Curēus
Fatma A M Abdel-Aal, Azza H Rageh, Mohamed I Said, Gamal A Saleh
A novel, simple and sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of ledipasvir (LED), the newly FDA approved Hepatitis C antiviral drug was developed and validated using ε-MnO2 -modified graphite electrode. Two different MnO2 polymorphs (γ- and ε-MnO2 nanoparticles) were synthesized and characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface area measurements show that ε-MnO2 NPs have large surface area of 345 m2 /g, which is extremely high if compared to that of γ-MnO2 NPs (38 m2 /g)...
December 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Takashi Imada, Koji Moriya, Masahiko Uchiyama, Naoto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Hitotsuyanagi, Akiko Masuda, Takehiro Suzuki, Shotaro Ayukawa, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Naoshi Dohmae, Michinori Kohara, Masayuki Yamamura, Daisuke Kiga
Although conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) improves the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins, it drastically decreases their bioactivity. Site-specific PEGylation counters the reduction in bioactivity, but developing PEGylated proteins with equivalent bioactivity to that of their unmodified counterparts remains challenging. This study aimed to generate PEGylated proteins with equivalent bioactivity to that of unmodified counterparts. Using interferon (IFN) as a model protein, a highly bioactive Lys-deficient protein variant generated using our unique directed evolution methods enables the design of a site-specific di-PEGylated protein...
October 2, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Lea I Kredel, Pamela Mundt, Linda van Riesen, Korinna Jöhrens, Jörg Hofmann, Christoph Loddenkemper, Britta Siegmund, Jan C Preiß
PURPOSE: The optimal method for detecting CMV colitis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been established. We wanted to investigate which diagnostic test would be most accurate when defining CMV colitis rather by the further clinical course than by using another diagnostic modality. METHODS: All consecutive patients with moderately or severely active IBD who had been tested for CMV by PCR, histology, or antigenemia assay at the two campuses CBF and CCM of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between September 2006 and September 2009 were included in this retrospective study...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
K S Joshy, Anne George, S Snigdha, Blessy Joseph, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiviral drug extensively used for combating the global pandemic- HIV/AIDS. However, its uses are overshadowed by its short half -life, poor aqueous solubility and inability to cross physiological barriers. This study highlights a nanosystem consisting of dextran and stearic acid for AZT delivery. This hybrid nanoparticle was prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphological analysis of the prepared nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and structural analysis through FTIR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Kelly J Baldwin, Christopher L Cummings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic disease associated with human herpesvirus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: As more patients are becoming therapeutically immunosuppressed, human herpesvirus infections are increasingly common. Historically, infections with human herpesviruses were described as temporal lobe encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2. More recently, however, additional pathogens, such as varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6 have been identified to cause serious neurologic infections...
October 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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