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Exosome and Mesenchymal Stem cell

Deepika Kumar, Mina L Xu
Lymphoma microenvironment is a complex system composed of stromal cells, blood vessels, immune cells as well as extracellular matrix, cytokines, exosomes, and chemokines. In this review, we describe the function, localization, and interactions between various cellular components. We also summarize their contribution to lymphoma immunity in the era of immunotherapy. Publications were identified from searching Pubmed. Primary literature was carefully evaluated for replicability before incorporating into the review...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
U Altanerova, J Jakubechova, K Benejova, P Priscakova, M Pesta, P Pitule, O Topolcan, J Kausitz, M Zduriencikova, V Repiska, C Altaner
The natural behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes in targeting tumors is a promising approach for curative therapy. Human tumor tropic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from various tissues and MSCs engineered to express the yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide fusion gene (yCD::UPRT-MSCs) released exosomes in conditional medium (CM). Exosomes from all tissue specific yCD::UPRT-MSCs contained mRNA of the suicide gene in the exosome's cargo. When the CM was applied to tumor cells, the exosomes were internalized by recipient tumor cells and in the presence of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) effectively triggered dose-dependent tumor cell death by endocytosed exosomes via an intracellular conversion of the prodrug 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yunbing Wu, Wei Qiu, Xinwei Xu, Jingjing Kang, Jingyan Wang, Yingying Wen, Xudong Tang, Yongmin Yan, Hui Qian, Xu Zhang, Wenrong Xu, Fei Mao
Exosomes released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an anti-inflammatory effect and can repair tissue injuries. Ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of various biological functions, including the regulation of inflammation. However, it remains unknown whether exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) may cure the mice of DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the ubiquitin modification. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect and probe the mechanism relating to ubiquitination underlying the hucMSC-ex treatment in DSS-induced IBD of mice...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Boxian Huang, Jiafeng Lu, Chenyue Ding, Qinyan Zou, Wei Wang, Hong Li
BACKGROUND: Although many reports show that various kinds of stem cells have the ability to recover the function of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), few studies are associated with the mechanism of stem cell treatment of POI. We designed this experimental study to investigate whether human adipose stem cell-derived exosomes (hADSC-Exos) retain the ability to restore ovarian function and how hADSC-Exos work in this process. METHODS: A POI mouse model was established and human ovarian granule cells (hGCs) collected from individuals with POI were prepared to assess the therapeutic effects and illuminate the mechanism of hADSCs in curing POI...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ju Hun Yeon, Hyo Eun Jeong, Hyemin Seo, Siwoo Cho, Kimin Kim, Dokyun Na, Seok Chung, Jaesung Park, Nakwon Choi, Ji Yoon Kang
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a pivotal role in tumor growth, but very little has been known about its characteristics and origin. Recently, cancer-derived exosome has been suggested to transdifferentiate CAFs, by a new mechanism of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT), initiating angiogenic processes and triggering metastatic evolution. However, an enabling tool in vitro is yet to be developed to investigate complicated procedures of the EndMT and the transdifferentiation under reconstituted tumor microenvironment...
August 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Fazileh Hosseini Shamili, Houshang Rafatpanah Bayegi, Zahra Salmasi, Kayvan Sadri, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Mahmoudreza Kalantari, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Shahrzad Nojehdehi, Sara Soudi, Ardeshir Hesampour, Shima Rasouli, Masoud Soleimani, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi
Exosomes derived from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) have immunomodulatory effects of T-cell inflammatory response and reduction of clinical symptoms on streptozotocin-induced of the type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Beside control group and untreated T1DM mice, a group of T1DM mice was treated with intraperitoneal injections of characterized exosomes derived from autologous AD-MSCs. Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured during the procedure. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used for evaluation of pancreatic islets using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and anti-insulin antibody...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jafar Rezaie, Vahid Nejati, Majid Khaksar, Ahmad Oryan, Nasser Aghamohamadzadeh, Mohammad Ali Shariatzadeh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani
Human mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to diabetic sera for 7 days. Cell viability and apoptosis rate were detected by MTT and flow cytometry assays. The expression of key genes such as CD63, Alix, Rab27a, Rab27b, and Rab8b was monitored by real-time PCR. We also measured acetylcholinesterase activity and size and zeta potential of exosomes in the supernatant form diabetic cells and control. The cellular distribution of CD63 was shown by immunofluorescence imaging and western blotting. Any changes in the ultrastructure of cells were visualized by electron microscopy...
August 2, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Guping Mao, Shu Hu, Ziji Zhang, Peihui Wu, Xiaoyi Zhao, Ruifu Lin, Weiming Liao, Yan Kang
MicroRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, the most common chronic degenerative joint disease. Exosomes derived from miR-95-5p-overexpressing primary chondrocytes (AC-miR-95-5p) may be effective in treating osteoarthritis. Increased expression of HDAC2/8 occurs in the tissues and chondrocyte-secreted exosomes of patients with osteoarthritis and mediates cartilage-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. We have been suggested that exosomes derived from AC-miR-95-5p (AC-miR-95-5p-Exos) would enhance chondrogenesis and prevent the development of osteoarthritis by directly targeting HDAC2/8...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Verónica Álvarez, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Beatriz Macías-García, María Gómez-Serrano, Inmaculada Jorge, Jesús Vázquez, Rebeca Blázquez, Javier G Casado
Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem Cells (endMSCs) reside in the basal and functional layer of human endometrium and participate in tissue remodeling which is required for maintaining the regenerative capacity of the endometrium. The endMSCs are multipotent stem cells and exhibit immunomodulatory effects. This paper aimed to evaluate the regulatory effects of extracellular vesicles derived from endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EV-endMSCs) in the setting of T cell activation. In vitro stimulations of lymphocytes were performed in the presence of EV-endMSCs...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
YaoXiang Sun, Hui Shi, Siqi Yin, Cheng Ji, Xu Zhang, Bin Zhang, PeiPei Wu, YingHong Shi, Fei Mao, YongMin Yan, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) that show great promise in tissue regeneration and injury repair as mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). MSC has been showed to alleviate diabetes mellitus (DM) in both animal models and clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether exosomes from human umbilical cord MSC (hucMSC-ex) have therapeutic effect on type 2 DM (T2DM). We established a rat model of T2DM using high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). We found that the intravenous injection of hucMSC-ex reduced blood glucose level as main paracrine approach of MSC...
July 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Parisa Goodarzi, Bagher Larijani, Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam, Akram Tayanloo-Beik, Fereshteh Mohamadi-Jahani, Negar Ranjbaran, Moloud Payab, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Maryamsadat Mousavi, Babak Arjmand
Wound healing is a complex process with the considerable burden on healthcare system. There are several cellular therapy methods that have been introduced to treat different types of wounds. Despite the advantages of cellular therapy, it is needed to overcome different limitations of this method such as; tumorigenicity and immune rejection. Accordingly, scientists have suggested cell-based vesicles and exosomes. Exosomes can promote proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis process in the wound environment...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jyotirmaya Behera, Neetu Tyagi
Bone remodeling is a continuous lifelong process in the repair of micro-damage to bone architecture and replacement of aging tissue in bone. A failure to such process leads to pathological destructive bone diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. However, this active process is regulated by; osteoclasts, which are involved in the bone resorption process; osteoblasts, with involvement in the bone formation process and bone-derived endothelial cells, which promote angiogenesis...
May 2018: Oncoscience
C Spinelli, L Montermini, B Meehan, A R Brisson, S Tan, D Choi, I Nakano, J Rak
We have previously uncovered the impact of oncogenic and differentiation processes on extracellular vesicles (EVs) in cancer. This is of interested in the context of glioma stem cells (GSC) that are responsible for recurrent nature of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), while retaining the potential to undergo differentiation and self renewal.  GSCs reside in vascular niches where they interact with endothelial cells through a number of mediators including bioactive cargo of EVs. GSCs can be classified as proneural (PN) or mesenchymal (MES) subtypes on the basis of their gene expression profiles and distinct biological characteristics...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Maia Terashvili, Zeljko J Bosnjak
Despite considerable advances in medicine, cardiovascular disease is still rising, with ischemic heart disease being the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Thus extensive efforts are continuing to establish effective therapeutic modalities that would improve both quality of life and survival in this patient population. Novel therapies are being investigated not only to protect the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury but also to regenerate the heart. Stem cell therapy, such as potential use of human mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells and their exosomes, will make it possible not only to address molecular mechanisms of cardiac conditioning, but also to develop new therapies for ischemic heart disease...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Fei Xing, Yin Liu, Shih-Ying Wu, Kerui Wu, Sambad Sharma, Yin-Yuan Mo, Jiamei Feng, Stephanie Sanders, Guangxu Jin, Ravi Singh, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Abhishek Tyagi, Michael D Chan, Jimmy Ruiz, Waldemar Debinski, Boris C Pasche, Hui-Wen Lo, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ralph B D'Agostino, Kounosuke Watabe
Up to 30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer eventually develop brain metastasis, yet the pathologic mechanism behind this development remains poorly understood. Here, we profiled long noncoding RNAs in brain metastatic tumors from patients with breast cancer and found that the X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was significantly downregulated in these tissues. XIST expression levels inversely correlated with brain metastasis, but not with bone metastasis in patients. Silencing of XIST preferentially promoted brain metastatic growth of XISThigh cells in our xenograft models...
August 1, 2018: Cancer Research
Zhi-Hui Xiong, Jing Wei, Meng-Qi Lu, Mei-Yuan Jin, Hong-Ling Geng
AIM: This study aims to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) on placental tissue and angiogenesis in rats with preeclampsia (PE). METHOD: The expression of MSC surface markers were identified by flow cytometry. Alizarin red staining and oil red O staining were used to examine osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hucMSCs. Western blotting was used to determine expressions of CD63 and CD81 in hucMSC-Ex. PE rat models were established using endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS)NG -Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester, which were then treated with exosome (Exo) of low dosage (L-Exo), Exo of medium dosage (M-Exo) and Exo of high dosage (H-Exo)...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
M Li, H Lei, Y Xu, H Li, B Yang, C Yu, Y Yuan, D Fang, Z Xin, R Guan
Postradical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction (pRP-ED) is a major health issue. There has been a shortage of an effective treatment method until now. In this study, a total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly equally divided into four groups, including group 1-sham surgery with cavernous nerve exposure plus vehicle, group 2-bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) plus vehicle, group 3-BCNI plus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs)-derived exosomes (ADSC-Exo), and group 4-BCNI plus bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs)-derived exosomes (BMSC-Exo)...
July 16, 2018: Andrology
Naohiro Seo, Kazunari Akiyoshi, Hiroshi Shiku
Exosomes are representative extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from multivesicular endosomes (MVE) and have been described as new particles in the communication of neighborhood and/or distant cells by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and nucleotides including micro (mi) RNAs. Exosomes from immune cells and tumor cells act in part as a regulator in tumor immunology. CD8+ T cells that show potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells reside as an inactive naïve form in the T-cell zone of secondary lymphoid organs...
July 12, 2018: Cancer Science
Han Young Kim, Hemant Kumar, Min-Jae Jo, Jonghoon Kim, Jeong-Kee Yoon, Ju-Ro Lee, Mikyung Kang, Yeon Woong Choo, Seuk Young Song, Sung Pil Kwon, Taeghwan Hyeon, In-Bo Han, Byung-Soo Kim
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived exosomes have been spotlighted as a promising therapeutic agent for cell-free regenerative medicine. However, poor organ-targeting ability and insufficient therapeutic efficacy of systemically injected hMSC-exosomes were identified as critical limitations for their further applications. Therefore, in this study we fabricated iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-incorporated exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (NV-IONP) from IONP-treated hMSCs and evaluated their therapeutic efficacy in a clinically relevant model for spinal cord injury...
August 8, 2018: Nano Letters
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