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Exosome and Mesenchymal Stem cell

Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Mariantonia Logozzi, Rossella Di Raimo, Davide Mizzoni, Stefano Fais
Metastatic diffusion is thought to be a multi-step phenomenon involving the release of cells from the primary tumor and their diffusion through the body. Currently, several hypotheses have been put forward in order to explain the origin of cancer metastasis, including epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition, mutagenesis of stem cells, and a facilitating role of macrophages, involving, for example, transformation or fusion hybridization with neoplastic cells. In this paradigm, tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, play a pivotal role in cell communications, delivering a plethora of biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cestmir Altaner, Ursula Altanerova
Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered to express the suicide gene yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (yCD::UPRT) represent a new therapeutic approach for tumor-targeted innovative therapy. The yCD::UPRT-MSC-exosomes carry mRNA of the suicide gene in their cargo. Upon internalization by tumor cells, the exosomes inhibit the growth of broad types of cancer cells in vitro, in the presence of a prodrug. Here we describe the method leading to the production and testing of these therapeutic exosomes...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qianqian Wang, Zhuqian Li, Li Sun, Bin Chen, Yuanyuan Zhao, Bo Shen, Miaolin Zhu, Xiangdong Zhao, Changgen Xu, Mei Wang, Wenrong Xu, Wei Zhu
Background: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been identified to be closely associated with cancer progression. Our previous experimental results showed that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and metastasis of gastric cancer through paracrine-soluble cytokines or exosomes. However, the elements that affect the role of BM-MSCs in promoting tumor metastasis are not clear. It is known that thrombocytosis in cancer patients is very common. Recently, platelets are recognized to play a critical role in tumor progression...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Zahra Naseri, Reza Kazemi Oskuee, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam
Background: Exosomes, widely recognized natural nanovesicles, represent one of the recently discovered modes of intercellular communication due to their ability to transmit crucial cellular information that can be engineered to have robust delivery and targeting capacity. MiR-142-3p, one of the upregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in many types of breast cancer, activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and transactivates the miR-150 expression, and results in the hyperproliferation of cancer cells in vitro and mammary glands in vivo...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Marek Kucharzewski, Ewa Rojczyk, Katarzyna Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Renata Wilk, Jacek Hudecki, Marek J Los
The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the therapy of chronic wounds, they can be administrated either topically or using different matrix like hydrogels, scaffolds, dermal substitutes and extracellular matrix (ECM) derivatives...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kaveh Baghaei, Samaneh Tokhanbigli, Hamid Asadzadeh, Saeed Nmaki, Mohammad Reza Zali, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi
Cell communication through extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been defined for many years and it is not limited only to neighboring cells, but also distant ones in organisms receive these signals. These vesicles are secreted from the variety of cells and are composed of a distinctive component such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. EVs have different classified subgroups regarding their cell origin, in this context, exosomes are the most appealing particles in cell biology, especially clinical in recent years and are represented as novel therapeutic agents with numerous advantages alongside and/or over cell therapy...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ana Maria Roşca, Raluca Ţuţuianu, Irina Domnica Titorencu
In modern society, the healing of chronic wounds is still a major cause of discomfort for the patients and a financial burden for the care system. Current approaches use either organic tissue-engineered skin substitutes or stem cells based therapy. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to improve the wound healing process by secreting factors with anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and pro-angiogenic activities either as soluble molecules (growth factors, cytokines) or encapsulated within membrane vesicles (microparticles, exosomes)...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Linrui Jiang, Shuqin Zhang, Huazhong Hu, Jing Yang, XiaoYan Wang, Yanyan Ma, JiaoHua Jiang, JinHong Wang, Lin Zhong, Ming Chen, Hong Wang, Yu Hou, RuiRui Zhu, Qun Zhang
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (hUCMSC-EXOs) play an important role in the regulation of the immune system and inflammatory responses; however, their role in acute liver failure (ALF) and related pathological conditions is unclear. In this study, we found that hUCMSC-EXOs can reduce the expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream inflammatory factors in acute liver failure. Western blot and ELISA results showed that hUCMSC-EXOs decreased the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
December 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dong Li, Peng Zhang, Xiyang Yao, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Jiang Wu, Xiaocheng Lu
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found in injured spinal cords after spinal cord injury (SCI). Previous studies have shown that miR-133b plays an important role in the differentiation of neurons and the outgrowth of neurites. Recently, exosomes have been used as novel biological vehicles to transfer miRNAs locally or systemically, but little is known about the effect of the delivery of exosome-mediated miRNAs on the treatment of SCI. In the present study, we observed that mesenchymal stem cells, the most common cell types known to produce exosomes, could package miR-133b into secreted exosomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dongyuan Lü, Shujin Sun, Fan Zhang, Chunhua Luo, Lu Zheng, Yi Wu, Ning Li, Chen Zhang, Chengzhi Wang, Qin Chen, Mian Long
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are able to differentiate into functional hepatocytelike cells, which are expected to serve as a potential cell source in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and clinical treatment of liver injury. Little is known about whether and how space microgravity is able to direct the hepatogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the actual space microenvironment. In this study, we examined the effects of space microgravity on BMSC hepatogenic differentiation on board the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite...
December 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Razieh Dalirfardouei, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi, Elahe Mahdipour
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently the most promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, there are several limitations associated with the MSC tissue source such as infrequent and invasive bone marrow sampling methods. To overcome these limitations, we have procured MSCs from the menstrual blood (MenSCs) as a non-invasive source using a straightforward and cost-effective method. Moreover, we isolated MenSCs-derived exosomes as a safe and highly effective approach to exert the paracrine effects of MSCs...
December 2018: Tissue & Cell
Jun-Qiu Chen, Liang-Hu Huang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the potential of multi-directional differentiation, and can recruit endothelial cells, promote their proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, improve blood perfusion and oxygen suppliment, and repair damaged tissue. Exosome secreted by MSC contain mother cell-specific proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and acts as signaling molecule, playing an important role in cell communication, thereby altering target cell function. In this review, the biological characteristics of MSC and its exosome, the mechanism of promoting vascular regeneration in patients with ischemic diseases, and the mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in the vascular ischemia of ischemic diseases are all summarized briefly...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Dongqing Wang, Bin Gao, Jianing Yue, Fei Liu, Yifan Liu, Weiguo Fu, Yi Si
Intercellular communication between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their target cells in the perivascular environment is modulated by exosomes derived from MSCs. However, the potential role of exosome-mediated microRNA transfer in neointimal hyperplasia remains to be investigated. To evaluate the effects of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) on neointimal hyperplasia, their effects upon vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo were assessed in a model of balloon-induced vascular injury...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Nisim Perets, Stav Hertz, Michael London, Daniel Offen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three core symptoms that include social interaction deficits, cognitive inflexibility, and communication disorders. They have been steadily increasing in children over the past several years, with no effective treatment. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice are an accepted model of evaluating autistic-like behaviors as they present all core symptoms of ASD. We have previously shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the lateral ventricles of BTBR mice results in long lasting improvement in their autistic behavioral phenotypes...
2018: Molecular Autism
Lin Ren, Zi-Jun Song, Qing-Wei Cai, Rui-Xin Chen, Yang Zou, Qiang Fu, Yuan-Yuan Ma
Age-related skeletal changes is closely associated with imbalanced bone remodeling characterized by elevated osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast activation. Since osteocytes are the commander of bone remodeling, attenuating increased osteocyte apoptosis may improve age-related bone loss. Exosomes, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, hold promising potential for cell-free therapy due to multiple abilities, such as promoting proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. We aimed to explore the effect of exosomes derived from adipose mesenchymal stem cell (ADSCs-exo) on osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro...
November 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nesrine Ebrahim, Inas A Ahmed, Noha I Hussien, Arigue A Dessouky, Ayman Samir Farid, Amal M Elshazly, Ola Mostafa, Walaa Bayoumie El Gazzar, Safwa M Sorour, Yasmin Seleem, Ahmed M Hussein, Dina Sabry
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Autophagy has a defensive role against kidney damage caused by hyperglycemia. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes are currently considered as a new promising therapy for chronic renal injury. However, the renal-protective mechanism of exosomes on DN is not completely understood. We examined the potential role of MSC-derived exosomes for enhancement of autophagy activity and their effect on DN...
November 22, 2018: Cells
Yahong Chen, Ke Xue, Xiaodie Zhang, Zhiwei Zheng, Kai Liu
BACKGROUND: Developing cartilage constructed with the appropriate matrix composition and persistent chondrogenesis remains an enduring challenge in cartilage defects. Cartilage progenitor cell (CPC)-based tissue engineering has attracted recent attention because of its strong chondrogenic differentiation capacity. However, due to the lack of a suitable chondrogenic niche, the clinical application of CPC-regenerated cartilage in the subcutaneous environment remains a challenge. In this study, exosomes derived from chondrocytes (CC-Exos) were used to provide the CPC constructs with a cartilage signal in subcutaneous environments for efficient ectopic cartilage regeneration...
November 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Heyu Zhang, Yanzhe Wang, Qing Lv, Jun Gao, Liuting Hu, Zhiyi He
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity and mortality, with no effective treatment at present. One possible therapeutic strategy involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have shown promise in experimental models and have great potential for treating nervous illnesses in humans. However, many deficiencies in MSC treatment still need to be addressed, including their poor survival rate post-transplantation. Previously, we reported that the microRNA-21 (miR-21) is downregulated in ICH patients' blood and brain tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ana-Maria Zagrean, Dirk M Hermann, Ioan Opris, Leon Zagrean, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Restorative strategies after stroke are focused on the remodeling of cerebral endothelial cells and brain parenchymal cells. The latter, i.e., neurons, neural precursor cells and glial cells, synergistically interact with endothelial cells in the ischemic brain, providing a neurovascular unit (NVU) remodeling that can be used as target for stroke therapies. Intercellular communication and signaling within the NVU, the multicellular brain-vessel-blood interface, including its highly selective blood-brain barrier, are fundamental to the central nervous system homeostasis and function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anneliese E Vitha, Austin W Kollefrath, Chun-Yuh Charles Huang, Franklin Garcia-Godoy
In recent years, regenerative medicine has directed its interests onto the use of stem cells to heal human tissue. One specific class of cells that has been employed in this field of research is mesenchymal stem cells. Due to difficulties with the usage of whole stem cells, researchers have turned to an alternative, the secretome of these mesenchymal stem cells. In recent years, research has explored numerous aspects of the mesenchymal stem cell secretome, especially the most promising aspect, exosomes. This review explores a variety of interest in exosomes including the classification and molecular composition, mechanisms for isolation, and the various biological functions...
November 14, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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