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Still’s disease

Elena Abati, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo Pietro Comi, Stefania Corti
Despite the extensive research effort that has been made in the field, motor neuron diseases, namely, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophies, still represent an overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exogenous neural stem cell-based transplantation approaches have been investigated as multifaceted strategies to both protect and repair upper and lower motor neurons from degeneration and inflammation. Transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) exert their beneficial effects not only through the replacement of damaged cells but also via bystander immunomodulatory and neurotrophic actions...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
S Florim, A Almeida, D Rocha, P Portugal
Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon cause of acute hospital admission with high mortality rates (50-90%) that requires early diagnosis and treatment. With the increase in average life expectancy, AMI represents one of the most threatening abdominal conditions in elderly patients. Untreated, AMI will cause mesenteric infarction, intestinal necrosis, an overwhelming inflammatory response and death. Early intervention can reverse this process leading to a full recovery, but the diagnosis of AMI is difficult...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Paulina Jędrak, Paweł Mozolewski, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Mariusz R Więckowski
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder manifesting as progressive impairment of motor function and different neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in huntingtin gene (HTT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects can contribute to the course of the disease, however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is still largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine several mitochondrial parameters in HD fibroblasts and assess their relevance to the disease progression as well as to value mitochondrial pathology in peripheral cells as disease potential biomarker...
August 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Peng Liu, Yinjie Li, Danyang Liu, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Lin Li, Libo Zou
Tolfenamic acid (TA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, shows neuroprotective effects and alleviates cognitive deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. However, whether TA can prevent the biochemical alterations induced by intraperitoneal injection of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in mice is still unknown. In this study, the striatal lesion area was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Glutamate, SDH and ATP levels were tested using colorimetric assay kits. The neuroinflammatory cytokine levels were tested by ELISA kits...
August 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Mustafa Koray Balcı, Ejder Ciğer, Seçil Arslanoğlu, Akif İşlek
OBJECTIVES: To present the outcomes of our case series of head and neck necrotizing fasciitis (HNNF) in which vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is used in most of the cases in the treatment. METHODS: Case series in a tertiary referral center. RESULTS: Eleven patients were treated for HNNF between January 2008 and January 2017. Patients were two females and nine males, the mean age was 57.1. Oral cavity and tracheotomy/tracheostomy sites were the main aetiological foci of the infection...
August 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Valeria Padovano, Christine Podrini, Alessandra Boletta, Michael J Caplan
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common, potentially lethal, monogenic diseases and is caused predominantly by mutations in polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) and PKD2, which encode polycystin 1 (PC1) and PC2, respectively. Over the decades-long course of the disease, patients develop large fluid-filled renal cysts that impair kidney function, leading to end-stage renal disease in ~50% of patients. Despite the identification of numerous dysregulated pathways in ADPKD, the molecular mechanisms underlying the renal dysfunction from mutations in PKD genes and the physiological functions of the polycystin proteins are still unclear...
August 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Gaia Griguolo, Stephane Pouderoux, Maria Vittoria Dieci, William Jacot, Céline Bourgier, Federica Miglietta, Nelly Firmin, Pierfranco Conte, Marie Viala, Valentina Guarneri, Amélie Darlix
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the solid tumors most commonly associated with leptomeningeal disease (LMD). LMD carries a devastating prognosis; however, disease presentation and prognostic factors are uncertain. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: In order to describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and factors associated with survival in a contemporary multicentric cohort, 153 consecutive BC patients diagnosed with LMD at two European institutions (2002-2017) were included...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Neelam Soni, Vinay Kumar Singh, D K Singh
BACKGROUND: Fasciolosis is a water-borne disease with gastropods snail (Lymnaea acuminata) act as key-link is still burden for mankind especially in developing countries. Snail control is one of the important tools to trim down the frequency of fasciolosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the toxic effect and inhibitory potential of plant Tamarindus indica and their active constituent on the key enzyme of nervous tissue of snail L. acuminata. METHOD: The present study deals with the chromatographic isolation and identification of molluscicidal component from Tamarindus indica bark and its effects on enzymes activities of vector snail L...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Elizabeth Y Lee, Kangping Cui, Graham E Trope, Yvonne M Buys, Christina H Chan, Kednapa Thavorn, Ya-Ping Jin
OBJECTIVE: Our prior study revealed significantly lower use of eye care providers in Newfoundland and Labrador (NFLD). This study reports factors associated with this low use and related vision health outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 14 925 Caucasian respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey - Healthy Aging 2008/2009 aged ≥65 years. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using self-reported survey data...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Adouda Adjiri
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a defiant disease which cure is still far from being attained besides the colossal efforts and financial means deployed towards that end. The continuing setbacks encountered with today's arsenal of anti-cancer drugs and cancer therapy modalities; show the need for a radical approach in order to get to the root of the problem. And getting to the root of cancer initiation and development leads us to challenge the present dogmas surrounding the pathogenesis of this disease...
August 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
Samed Rahatli, Ozden Altundag, Ebru Ayvazoglu Soy, Gokhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The risk of some cancer types increases after organ transplant compared with that shown in the general population; this has been well documented in clinical studies. With patients having longer survival and with the higher number of transplant procedures, cancer is an increasing health concern at high-volume transplant centers. Malignancy has an important effect on short- and long-term graft and patient survival. In this study, we evaluated cancer frequency during transplant patient follow-up...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Gamal Allam, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Asmaa M Gaber
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which considers the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition of arterials' wall in which the development and the destabilization of plaque occur. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in modifying lipoproteins in arterials' wall. Recent investigations have demonstrated the opposing roles of CD4+ T cells subtypes in atherosclerosis. T helper-1 (Th1) response and pro-inflammatory cytokines possess proatherogenic effects, whereas T regulatory (Treg) cells have an atheroprotective role...
July 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wenbo Zhang, Chao Huang, Aijun Sun, Liang Qiao, Xi Zhang, Junlong Huang, Xuejun Sun, Xiangqun Yang, Shanquan Sun
Senescence has become a hot point issue in recent decades and requires urgent attention. As a novel and effective antioxidant, hydrogen has been proved to alleviate cellular senescence in endothelial cells in vitro. However, the effects and mechanisms of hydrogen on senescence in vivo are still unclear. In the present study, 12-month-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS, 10 ml/kg). Subsequently, bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were harvested for the detection of hydrogen antisenescence effects and mechanisms...
July 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Heba Ahmed Osman, Sanaa S Aly, Hasan S Mahmoud, Eman H Ahmed, Eman M Salah Eldin, Eman A Abdelrahim, Muhammad A El Masry, Rania A Herdan, Mohammed H Hassan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common prevalent disease. We aimed to assess the dynamic changes in the peripheral T lymphocytes and lymphocytes infiltrating the esophageal mucosa after treatment with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in patients with GERD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 patients who presented with upper GIT symptoms were included in this prospective study. All patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and complete blood count...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Vitor Tumas, Alan Luiz Eckeli
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-motor manifestations, preceding the emergence of synucleinopathy by several years or even decades. The detection of RBD may represent a therapeutic window for research regarding the development of new neuroprotective therapies with the potential to modify the natural course of synucleinopathies, such as PD...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Lili Fan, Rui Yin, Ting Lan, Michael R Hamblin
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder which is characterized by flushing, erythema, papulopustules and telangiectasia. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control the disease because of its tendency to relapse. New more effective treatment options are desirable to achieve a complete remission. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is a well-established treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer and precancerous lesions...
August 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
De Carolis Sara, Tabacco Sara, Rizzo Francesca, Giannini Andrea, Botta Angela, Salvi Silvia, Garufi Cristina, Benedetti Panici Pierluigi, Lanzone Antonio
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of women with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is still debated. About 20-30% of women with APS remain unable to give birth to healthy neonates despite conventional treatment, consisting of prophylactic-dose heparin and low-dose aspirin. These cases are defined "refractory obstetric APS". The early identification of risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcome could be the optimal strategy to establish criteria for additional therapies, such as hydroxychloroquine, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange...
August 14, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Wei Zhang, Yajuan Zhai, Wenbin Wang, Min Cao, Chunjie Ma
Gastric cancer (GC) is a deadly disease with high incidence worldwide in recent years. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were found to play imperative roles in many biological processes, such as cancer development and progression. Specifically, TP73-AS1, a novel cancer-related lncRNA, was documented to be up-regulated in several malignancies, but the clinical significance and functional role of TP73-AS1 in GC is still unknown. RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate TP73-AS1 transcription in GC tissue specimens and cell lines...
August 14, 2018: Gene
Guojun Guo, Yutian Liu, Sen Ren, Yu Kang, Dominik Duscher, Hans-Günther Machens, Zhenbing Chen
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication associated with diabetes mellitus with a pathogenesis that is incompletely understood. By regulating RNA silencing and post-transcriptional gene expression, microRNAs participate in various biological processes and human diseases. However, the relationship between microRNAs and the progress of diabetic peripheral neuropathy still lacks a thorough exploration. Here we used microarray microRNA and mRNA expression profiling to analyze the microRNAs and mRNAs which are aberrantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
2018: PloS One
Peter J Koehler
After the gradual introduction of specialties in medicine in the United States during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) was founded in 1934 to provide specialty regulation (training oversight, examination, and certification). The name reflects the combined practice of psychiatry and neurology that was still present at the time. Directors were nominated by the founding organizations: American Psychiatry Association (APA), American Neurological Association (ANA), and the Section of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the American Medical Association (AMA)...
July 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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