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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199871/cutaneous-arteriolosclerosis-is-not-specific-to-ischemic-hypertensive-leg-ulcers
#1
Jean-Benoît Monfort, Karine Cury, Philippe Moguelet, François Chasset, Claude Bachmeyer, Camille Francès, Annick Barbaud, Patricia Senet
BACKGROUND: The histological characteristic of hypertensive leg ulcers (HLU) is the presence of "arteriolosclerosis." The pertinence of performing a skin biopsy to diagnose HLU is questionable, as cutaneous arteriolosclerosis may be related to patient comorbidities. The objective here was to evaluate the frequency of arteriolosclerosis in skin leg biopsies performed in patients without ulcer and in control patients with HLU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study between January 2013 and July 2014...
September 10, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041200/asymptomatic-cerebrovascular-disease-in-dialysis-patients
#2
Toshihide Naganuma, Yoshiaki Takemoto
Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of death in dialysis patients, who have a much higher incidence of stroke compared to the normal population. Recent studies have shown that asymptomatic cerebral small-vessel disease, including silent brain infarction (SBI), white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), is related to the future onset of stroke. Cerebral small-vessel disease is caused by microvascular damage to the small penetrating arteries of the middle cerebral artery including arteriolosclerosis, fibrinoid necrosis, and lipohyalinosis attributed to advanced age, hypertension, etc...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974380/association-between-the-serum-uric-acid-levels-and-lacunar-infarcts-in-the-elderly
#3
F Crosta, U Occhiuzzi, G Passalacqua, E Occhiuzzi, A Cimini, D Grassi, C Ferri, C Marini, C Borghi, G Desideri
Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid (UA) is a relevant risk factor for arteriolosclerosis and recent studies have demonstrated the positive relationship between UA concentrations and the severity of leukoaraiosis. However, the association between lacunar infarcts (LI) and UA levels has seldom been reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess whether serum UA levels may be related to the presence of LI. We recruited 242 patients (113 males and 129 females, aged 82.83 ± 6.49 years) from our Geriatric Department for whom CAT scans (CT) were available...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945202/the-revised-national-alzheimer-s-coordinating-center-s-neuropathology-form-available-data-and-new-analyses
#4
Lilah M Besser, Walter A Kukull, Merilee A Teylan, Eileen H Bigio, Nigel J Cairns, Julia K Kofler, Thomas J Montine, Julie A Schneider, Peter T Nelson
Neuropathologic evaluation remains the gold standard for determining the presence and severity of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers at U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs) have worked for >30 years studying human brains, with the goals of achieving new research breakthroughs. Harmonization and sharing among the 39 current and past ADCs is promoted by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC), which collects, audits, and disburses ADC-derived data to investigators on request...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908416/postmortem-brain-mri-is-related-to-cognitive-decline-independent-of-cerebral-vessel-disease-in-older-adults
#5
Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
The purpose of this study was to determine whether metrics of brain tissue integrity derived from postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with late-life cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease. Using data from 554 older adults, we used voxelwise regression to identify regions where the postmortem MRI transverse relaxation rate constant R2 was associated with the rate of decline in global cognition. We then used linear mixed models to investigate the association between a composite R2 measure and cognitive decline, controlling for neuropathology including 3 indices of vessel disease: atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
September 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887980/a-case-of-chronic-ulcer-due-to-subcutaneous-arteriolosclerosis-in-an-obese-patient-mimicking-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#6
Sezin Fıçıcıoğlu, Nuray Can, Busem Tutuğ
The differential diagnosis of chronic ulcers covers a wide range of diseases and poses a diagnostic challenge. Subcutaneous ischemic arteriolosclerosis can lead to local ischaemia and ulceration as a result of arteriolar narrowing and reduction of tissue perfusion. This pathophysiological feature can be seen in eutrophication (nonuremic calciphylaxis) in morbid obesity, hypertensive ischemic leg ulcer (Martorell ulcer) and calciphylaxis in chronic renal insufficiency. All of the ulcers happened in this way can be wrongly diagnosed as pyoderma gangrenosum because of clinical similarity and inadequate biopsies...
April 23, 2018: Dermatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861129/infratentorial-cerebral-microbleeds-in-patients-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#7
Dimitri Renard, Lavinia Tatu, Eric Thouvenot
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) observed in hypertension-related arteriolosclerosis tend to occur in the supratentorial deep gray matter, whereas those in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) typically show a supratentorial lobar distribution. Recently, superficial spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage has been shown to be associated with strictly lobar CMBs. Few data exist on infratentorial CMBs in CAA. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence, number, and characteristics of infratentorial CMBs in patients with CAA...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843242/a-clinicopathological-investigation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#8
Michael L Alosco, Michael A Sugarman, Lilah M Besser, Yorghos Tripodis, Brett Martin, Joseph N Palmisano, Neil W Kowall, Rhoda Au, Jesse Mez, Charles DeCarli, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Ronald J Killiany, Robert A Stern
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been postulated to be a core feature of Alzheimer's disease. Clinicopathological studies are needed to elucidate and confirm this possibility. OBJECTIVE: This study examined: 1) the association between antemortem WMH and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (ADNP), 2) the relationship between WMH and dementia in participants with ADNP, and 3) the relationships among cerebrovascular disease, WMH, and ADNP...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807146/stroke-cerebrovascular-diseases-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-africa
#9
REVIEW
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757481/severe-white-matter-astrocytopathy-in-cadasil
#10
Yoshiki Hase, Aiqing Chen, Letitia L Bates, Lucinda J L Craggs, Yumi Yamamoto, Elizabeth Gemmell, Arthur E Oakley, Viktor I Korolchuk, Raj N Kalaria
Objectives Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is characterised by strategic white matter (WM) hyperintensities on MRI. Pathological features include WM degeneration, arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and the deposition of granular osmiophilic material. Based on the hypothesis that the gliovascular unit is compromised, we assessed the nature of astrocyte damage in the deep WM of CADASIL subjects. Methods We evaluated post-mortem brains from CADASIL, cerebral small vessel disease, similar age cognitively normal and older control subjects...
May 14, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695600/brain-pathology-is-related-to-total-daily-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#11
Aron S Buchman, Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Andrew Lim, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that brain pathology is associated with total daily physical activity proximate to death in older adults. METHODS: We studied brain autopsies from 428 decedents of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The quantity of all physical activity was measured continuously for up to 10 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Healthcare, Bend, OR). Multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex were used to examine the relation of brain indexes to total daily physical activity and other clinical covariates proximate to death...
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#12
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393121/time-to-target-uric-acid-to-retard-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#13
Shunya Uchida, Takanori Kumagai, Wen Xiu Chang, Yoshifuru Tamura, Shigeru Shibata
Uric acid (UA) remains a risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most observational studies showed a slight elevation in the serum UA level and this independently predicts the incidence and development of CKD. The recent meta-analysis, however, did not reach the conclusion that urate-lowering therapy with allopurinol retards the progression of CKD. The target level of serum UA if treated is another issue of debate. Our recent analysis by propensity score analysis has shown that the serum UA should be targeted below 6...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380913/review-vascular-dementia-clinicopathologic-and-genetic-considerations
#14
REVIEW
H V Vinters, C Zarow, E Borys, J D Whitman, S Tung, W G Ellis, L Zheng, H C Chui
The incidence and severity of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) increase with advancing age, as does the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Not surprisingly, heterogeneous forms of CVD may coexist with AD changes in the 'ageing brain'. These include angiopathies (affecting both large and small arteries) that result from 'classical' risk factors (hypertension, smoking and diabetes) and others (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that are biochemically closely linked to AD. The morphologic consequences of these various vascular diseases are infarcts and/or haemorrhages of varying sizes within the brain, which lead to neurocognitive decline that may mimic AD - though the vascular abnormalities are usually detectable by neuroimaging...
April 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336246/the-role-of-colchicine-in-the-prevention-of-cerebrovascular-ischemia
#15
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Georgios Giannopoulos, Vasiliki Panagopoulou, Dalius Jatuzis, Robin Lemmens, Spyridon Deftereos, Peter J Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Despite the proven efficacy of anti-thrombotic, lipid-lowering, anti-hypertensive therapies and lifestyle modification changes for secondary ischemic stroke prevention, the risk of recurrent stroke, coronary events and vascular death remains substantial even for patients treated with high rates of established secondary preventive medications. METHODS: In the present review, we summarize available literature data on the association between systemic inflammation and symptomatic atherosclerosis including recurrent cerebral ischemia...
2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331631/the-edinburgh-ct-and-genetic-diagnostic-criteria-for-lobar-intracerebral-haemorrhage-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-model-development-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-study
#16
Mark A Rodrigues, Neshika Samarasekera, Christine Lerpiniere, Catherine Humphreys, Mark O McCarron, Philip M White, James A R Nicoll, Cathie L M Sudlow, Charlotte Cordonnier, Joanna M Wardlaw, Colin Smith, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
BACKGROUND: Identification of lobar spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is important because it is associated with a higher risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage than arteriolosclerosis-associated intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to develop a prediction model for the identification of CAA-associated lobar intracerebral haemorrhage using CT features and genotype. METHODS: We identified adults with first-ever intracerebral haemorrhage diagnosed by CT, who died and underwent research autopsy as part of the Lothian IntraCerebral Haemorrhage, Pathology, Imaging and Neurological Outcome (LINCHPIN) study, a prospective, population-based, inception cohort...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#18
REVIEW
Yoshiki Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
March 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195510/cerebrovascular-pathology-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-disease
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Elizabeth Head, Michael J Phelan, Eric Doran, Ronald C Kim, Wayne W Poon, Frederick A Schmitt, Ira T Lott
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) with age. Typically, by age 40 years, most people with DS have sufficient neuropathology for an AD diagnosis. Interestingly, atherosclerosis and hypertension are atypical in DS with age, suggesting the lack of these vascular risk factors may be associated with reduced cerebrovascular pathology. However, because the extra copy of APP leads to increased beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation in DS, we hypothesized that there would be more extensive and widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with age in DS relative to sporadic AD...
December 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032332/long-term-treatment-with-chaethomellic-acid-a-reduces-glomerulosclerosis-and-arteriolosclerosis-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
António Nogueira, Helena Vala, Carmen Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, Ana Isabel Faustino-Rocha, Carlos André Pires, Aura Colaço, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, Maria João Pires
The high prevalence of end-stage renal disease emphasizes the failure to provide therapies to effectively prevent and/or reverse renal fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with chaethomellic acid A (CAA), which selectively blocks Ha-Ras farnesylation, on renal mass reduction-induced renal fibrosis. Male Wistar rats were sham-operated (SO) or subjected to 5/6 renal mass reduction (RMR). One week after surgery, rats were placed in four experimental groups: SO:SO rats without treatment (n=13); SO+CAA: SO rats treated with CAA (n=13); RMR:RMR rats without treatment (n=14); and RMR+CAA:RMR rats treated with CAA (n=13)...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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