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neonatal kidney

Jennifer R Charlton, Louis Boohaker, David Askenazi, Patrick D Brophy, Mamta Fuloria, Jason Gien, Russell Griffin, Sangeeta Hingorani, Susan Ingraham, Ayesa Mian, Robin K Ohls, Shantanu Rastogi, Christopher J Rhee, Mary Revenis, Subrata Sarkar, Michelle Starr, Alison L Kent
BACKGROUND: Most studies of neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on the first week following birth. Here, we determined the outcomes and risk factors for late AKI (>7d). METHODS: The international AWAKEN study examined AKI in neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. Late AKI was defined as occurring >7 days after birth according to the KDIGO criteria. Models were constructed to assess the association between late AKI and death or length of stay...
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Francesco Garzotto, Marta Zaccaria, Enrico Vidal, Zaccaria Ricci, Anna Lorenzin, Mauro Neri, Luisa Murer, Federico Nalesso, Alfredo Ruggeri, Claudio Ronco
OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy in infants and small children is the treatment of choice for severe oligoanuric renal dysfunction, with an increasing consensus that early initiation might contribute to preventing acute kidney injury complications. Safer renal replacement therapy devices specifically designed for neonates may contribute to ameliorating outcomes and increasing chances of survival. One of the crucial factors to achieve an effective renal replacement therapy in small infants is adequate vascular access...
December 7, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
P Thakore, A E Dunbar, E B Lindsay
A 710 g male infant was born at a referring hospital at a gestational age of 23 weeks and 2 days via vaginal delivery and was transferred to our facility at 14 days of age. His delivery was complicated by the breech presentation with difficult head extraction. The infant's initial course was significant for respiratory distress syndrome, grade III-IV intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), acute kidney injury, and large PDA. On the day of life 29, a gradual increase in serum sodium level refractory to increasing total fluid volume was noted...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Juan Gustavo Vázquez-Rodríguez, Dulce Yadira Barboza-Alatorre
Background: In severe preeclampsia (SP), pregnancy interruption is the first recommendation. However, some patients receive expectant treatment. Objetive: To determine maternal and perinatal results of expectant treatment of SP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a high-specialty hospital. Methods: Observational, descriptive and retrospective study; the files of 40 pregnant patients with SP managed in the ICU with expectant treatment were reviewed...
November 30, 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Monika Kamianowska, Marek Szczepański, Elżbieta Ewa Kulikowska, Barbara Bebko, Anna Wasilewska
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a poorly understood complication of pregnancy. It may be associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and end-stage renal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to check whether IUGR affects the function of renal tubules, as assessed by the tubular damage markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1)...
December 4, 2018: Neonatology
Megan S Rost, Ilya Shestopalov, Yang Liu, Andy H Vo, Catherine E Richter, Sylvia M Emly, Francesca G Barrett, David L Stachura, Michael Holinstat, Leonard I Zon, Jordan A Shavit
The NFE2 transcription factor is expressed in multiple hematopoietic lineages with a well-defined role in regulating megakaryocyte biogenesis and platelet production in mammals. Mice deficient in NFE2 develop severe thrombocytopenia with lethality resulting from neonatal hemorrhage. Recent data in mammals reveal potential differences in embryonic and adult thrombopoiesis. Multiple studies in zebrafish have revealed mechanistic insights into hematopoiesis, although thrombopoiesis has been less studied. Rather than platelets, zebrafish possess thrombocytes, which are nucleated cells with similar functional properties...
December 11, 2018: Blood Advances
V I Kirpatovskii, G D Efremov, E V Frolova
In experiments on white outbred male rats, a freshly removed (20 experiments) or cryopreserved (10 experiments) testicle from newborn rats (1-2 days after birth) was transplanted under the renal capsule after bilateral orchiectomy. In all experiments with transplantation of freshly removed testicle, it was engrafted. In 3 months, histological examination revealed the formation of mature seminiferous tubules, but spermatogenesis was blocked at the stage of spermatogonia; groups of proliferating Leydig cells in the loose connective tissue between the tubules were also seen...
December 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Silvia Iacobelli, Jean-Pierre Guignard
Acid-base homeostasis is one of the most tightly regulated systems in the body. Maintaining the acid-base balance is particularly challenging for preterm infants and growing neonates. The kidney, which represents the crucial ultimate line of defense against disturbances of acid-base balance, undergoes a complex maturation process during the transition from a fetal to an extra-uterine environment. This review article summarizes the physiology of acid-base regulation by the immature human kidney and discusses disorders of acid-base balance, such as metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis...
November 19, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Vidya K Nagalakshmi, Minghong Li, Soham Shah, Joseph C Gigliotti, Alexander L Klibanov, Frederick H Epstein, Robert L Chevalier, R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa Soledad Sequeira Lopez
Congenital obstructive nephropathy is a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children. The contribution of changes in the identity of renal cells to the pathology of obstructive nephropathy is poorly understood. Using a partial unilateral ureteral obstruction model in genetically modified neonatal mice, we traced the fate of cells derived from the renal stroma, cap mesenchyme, ureteric bud epithelium and podocytes using Foxd1Cre , Six2Cre , HoxB7Cre and Podocyte.Cre mice respectively, crossed with double fluorescent reporter (mT/mG) mice...
November 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Bo Shi, Shixing Li, Hao Ju, Xin Liu, Dan Li, Ying Li
The present study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effects of chelerythrine (CHE), a protein kinase C inhibitor, on neonatal rats after partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery. New born Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to partial UUO 48 h after birth and received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg CHE. At 21-day age, the rats were scarified and the kidneys were collected for analysis. Results showed that CHE treatment significantly increased kidney weight and restored renal function in the obstructed kidney...
November 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Lokesh Shah, Jobayer Hossain, Shirlly Xie, Joshua Zaritsky
BACKGROUND: Children who were born prematurely, those with a very low birthweight, or who have survived the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at risk for the development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and thus require blood pressure screening less than 3 years of age, per American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2004 and 2017 guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the practice patterns of a large pediatric health care system and assessed adherence to the AAP clinical practice guidelines on blood pressure measurements in children less than 3 years of age for hypertension and CKD with the following risk factors: prematurity, very low birthweight, and a neonatal intensive care setting encounter...
November 7, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Shashank Rai, Maryam Arasteh, Matthew Jefferson, Timothy Pearson, Yingxue Wang, Weijiao Zhang, Bertalan Bicsak, Devina Divekar, Penny P Powell, Ronald Nauman, Naiara Beraza, Simon R Carding, Oliver Florey, Ulrike Mayer, Thomas Wileman
Macroautophagy/autophagy delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes for degradation, and plays important roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis by reducing tissue damage. The translocation of LC3 to the limiting membrane of the phagophore, the precursor to the autophagosome, during autophagy provides a binding site for autophagy cargoes, and facilitates fusion with lysosomes. An autophagy-related pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) targets LC3 to phagosome and endosome membranes during uptake of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and targets LC3 to swollen endosomes containing particulate material or apoptotic cells...
November 7, 2018: Autophagy
Rashmi B Prasad, Leif Groop
The Precision Medicine Initiative defines precision medicine as "an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person." This approach will facilitate more accurate treatment and prevention strategies in contrast to a one-size-fits-all approach, in which disease treatment and prevention strategies are developed for generalized usage. Diabetes is clearly more heterogeneous than the conventional sub-classification into type 1 and type 2 diabetes...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Amanda M Uber, Scott M Sutherland
Over the past decade, the nephrology and critical care communities have adopted a consensus approach to diagnosing acute kidney injury (AKI) and, as a result, we have seen transformative changes in our understanding of pediatric AKI epidemiology. The data regarding outcomes among neonates and children who develop AKI have become far more robust and AKI has been clearly linked with an increased need for mechanical ventilation, longer inpatient stays, and higher mortality. Though AKI was historically thought to be self-limited, we now know that renal recovery is far from universal, particularly when AKI is severe; the absence of recovery from AKI also carries longitudinal prognostic implications...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Maria Saito-Benz, Clint Gray, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Greg Atkinson, Mary J Berry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Huey-Ling Chen, Shang-Hsin Wu, Shu-Hao Hsu, Bang-Yu Liou, Hui-Ling Chen, Mei-Hwei Chang
BACKGROUND: Jaundice is a common symptom of inherited or acquired liver diseases or a manifestation of diseases involving red blood cell metabolism. Recent progress has elucidated the molecular mechanisms of bile metabolism, hepatocellular transport, bile ductular development, intestinal bile salt reabsorption, and the regulation of bile acids homeostasis. MAIN BODY: The major genetic diseases causing jaundice involve disturbances of bile flow. The insufficiency of bile salts in the intestines leads to fat malabsorption and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Andrea Suranyi, Miklos Nogrady, Abel Altorjay, Tibor Nyari, Gabor Nemeth
The goal of this study was to investigate the fetal renal vascularization during the third trimester of gestation and the perinatal outcome in pregnancies diagnosed with hypertension. Depending on the medical history, the cases were divided into two groups: chronic hypertension (CHT) group and gestational hypertension (GHT) group. The vascularization and the volume of kidneys were observed in prenatal period by three-dimensional ultrasound. We monitored gestations and perinatal complications. Renal volume and vascularization were detected in 45 cases complicated by GHT and 21 cases with CHT during the 20-month study period...
March 2018: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
Miki Shono, Maki Urushihara, Kenichi Suga, Noriko Watanabe, Takahiko Saijo, Ryuji Nakagawa, Shoji Kagami
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that preterm neonates have higher urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) levels than full-term neonates. Here, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced neonatal AGT expression is associated with intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) status during kidney development. METHODS: We prospectively recruited neonates born at our hospital and healthy children with minor glomerular abnormalities between April 2013 and March 2017. We measured neonatal plasma and urinary AGT levels at birth and 1 year later and assessed renal AGT expression in kidney tissues from neonates and healthy children using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis...
October 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Yogavijayan Kandasamy, Donna Rudd, Eugenie R Lumbers, Roger Smith
AIM: Indigenous Australians have an increased risk of developing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Indigenous women have a higher rate of CKD than men. In a cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm neonates, we assessed total renal volume (TRV) (a proxy indicator for nephron number). We hypothesised that there would be no difference in renal volume between these two groups at term corrected (37 weeks gestation). METHODS: Normally grown preterm neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation were recruited and at term corrected dates, the neonates underwent renal ultrasonography (TRV measurements), urine microalbumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum analysis for Cystatin C measurement for eGFR calculation...
October 23, 2018: Nephrology
Paloma Cañete, Andrés Fernández, Ana Solís, Jimena Del Castillo, Sarah Fernández, Jesús López-Herce
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac arrest (CA) in adults is associated with a high mortality, but there are few data about the incidence and prognosis of AKI after CA in children. The aim of our study was to analyze the incidence of AKI in children who have experienced an in-hospital CA and its association with mortality. METHODS: A retrospective observational study in a prospective database was performed including children between the ages 1 month and 16 years, who had undergone an in-hospital CA...
October 19, 2018: Nephron
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