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neonatal kidney

P Purohit, D Khera, K Singh
Hypocalcemia is a laboratory and clinical abnormality that is observed especially in neonates and paediatric patients. Laboratory hypocalcaemia is often asymptomatic but it can manifest as central nervous system irritability, paraesthesia, tetany (i.e. contraction of hands, arms, feet, larynx, bronchioles), seizures, and even psychiatric changes in children. Cardiac function may also be impaired because of poor muscle contractility. We report a unique case of an eleven year old male child who presented with chronic kidney disease associated with severe hypocalcemia, tonic-clonic seizures, hypovitaminosis D but normal electroencephalogram and electrocardiography...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Elisabetta Prat, Patricia Seo-Mayer, Swati Agarwal
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are an important cause of paediatric obstructive uropathy. PUV are usually diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography (US) revealing hydronephrosis and bladder distention. We describe a 17-day-old male infant with abdominal distention who had no hydronephrosis on prenatal US. Laboratory investigations showed serum creatinine of 12 mg/dL, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. Abdominal US showed large amount of ascites, normal-sized kidneys without hydronephrosis and incompletely distended bladder...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Megan J Kirkley, Louis Boohaker, Russell Griffin, Danielle E Soranno, Jason Gien, David Askenazi, Katja M Gist
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The collaborators of the Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC) were not named individually. The list of all collaborators is given below.
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Xiang Ao, Yong Zhong, Xiaohe Yu, Mark Marshall, Tao Feng, Jianping Ning, Qiaoling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill neonates, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be a lifesaving option. In China, however, much of the equipment for PD in neonates is not available. We describe results with a novel system for PD, which has been developed locally to improve access to therapy and care for critically ill neonates requiring PD in China. METHODS: The system comprises a 14-gauge single-lumen central venous catheter serving as a PD catheter, inserted by Seldinger technique, with an adapted twin bag PD system...
October 12, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Marie-Michèle Gaudreault-Tremblay, Catherine Litalien, Natalie Patey, Aicha Merouani
Rationale: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) in children is most commonly due to allergic drug reactions. In neonates, diagnosis of ATIN is clinically suspected and a kidney biopsy is not routinely performed. Presenting concern: A 17-day-old newborn presented with vomiting and dehydration, along with anuric acute kidney injury, severe electrolyte disturbances, hypocomplementemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral nephromegaly and hepatosplenomegaly...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Fang Fang, Xiaohan Hu, Xiaomei Dai, Sanfeng Wang, Zhenjiang Bai, Jiao Chen, Jian Pan, Xiaozhong Li, Jian Wang, Yanhong Li
BACKGROUND: Research on acute kidney injury (AKI) has focused on identifying early biomarkers. However, whether AKI could be diagnosed in the absence of the classic signs of clinical AKI and whether the condition of subclinical AKI, identified by damage or functional biomarkers in the absence of oliguria or increased serum creatinine (sCr) levels, is clinically significant remains to be elucidated in critically ill children. The aims of the study were to investigate the associations between urinary cystatin C (uCysC) levels and AKI and mortality and to determine whether uCysC-positive subclinical AKI is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill neonates and children...
October 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
MuneerAbas Malik, Umesh Bahadur Singh, Shalini Hedge, J K Mahajan, Ram Samujh
In heteropagus twins, the parasitic twin is incompletely formed which is attached to the autosite. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus twins with omphalocele. The parasite had two lower limbs, a rudimentary upper limb, genitalia with developed phallus and scrotum but absent testis. An omphalocele was present just below the attachment of the parasitic twin. A single kidney with ureter and a bladder filled with urine seen during exploration. The parasite bowel was attached to a sleeve of liver tissue from the autosite within the omphalocele sac and this connection was also the main source of its blood supply...
October 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Robin Michelet, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Karel Allegaert, An Vermeulen
The project SAFEPEDRUG aims to provide guidelines for drug research in children, based on bottom-up and top-down approaches. Propofol, one of the studied model compounds, was selected because it is extensively metabolized in liver and kidney, with an important role for the glucuronidation pathway. Besides, being a lipophilic molecule, it is distributed into fat tissues, from where it redistributes into the systemic circulation. In the past, both bottom-up (Physiologically based pharmacokinetic, PBPK) and top-down approaches (population pharmacokinetic, popPK) were applied to describe its pharmacokinetics (PK)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
David Churchill, Lelia Duley, Jim G Thornton, Mahmoud Moussa, Hind Sm Ali, Kate F Walker
BACKGROUND: Severe pre-eclampsia can cause significant mortality and morbidity for both mother and child, particularly when it occurs remote from term, between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. The only known cure for this disease is delivery. Some obstetricians advocate early delivery to ensure that the development of serious maternal complications, such as eclampsia (fits) and kidney failure are prevented. Others prefer a more expectant approach, delaying delivery in an attempt to reduce the mortality and morbidity for the child that is associated with being born too early...
October 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Young-Eun Jang, Joon-Hee Lee, Hee-Chul Yoon, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: The lumbar plexus (LP) block is commonly used for analgesia for lower extremities. If the depth of the LP (LPD) can be predicted, the performance time and procedure-related complications could be reduced. METHODS: Three hundred sixty-one magnetic resonance images of pediatric patients (<18 years of age) were analyzed. Simple linear regression and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict the LPD using patient age, weight, height, and the distance between the midline and posterior superior iliac spine (midline-PSIS)...
October 3, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ivana Trutin, Bernardica Valent Morić, Jesenka Borošak, Gordana Stipančić
Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare clinical entity in the neonatal period, with an incidence of 1.7-2.1/1000 births. It is more often diagnosed on the right side, whilst bilateral hemorrhage occurs in 10%-15% of cases. Clinical presentation shows a wide range of symptoms, from the signs of adrenal insufficiency to asymptomatic course of illness with incidental finding of changes on testing. Neonatal jaundice due to hemolysis of hemorrhagic content often is an accompanying sign. We present a male neonate born at term, with early neonatal jaundice of unknown cause and without evi-dence of perinatal infection...
March 2018: Acta Clinica Croatica
Germana Lentini, Angelina Midiri, Arnaud Firon, Roberta Galbo, Giuseppe Mancuso, Carmelo Biondo, Emanuela Mazzon, Annamaria Passantino, Letizia Romeo, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Giuseppe Teti, Concetta Beninati
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a frequent cause of serious disease in newborns and adults. Epidemiological evidence indicates a strong association between GBS strains belonging to the hypervirulent CC17 clonal complex and the occurrence of meningitis in neonates. We investigate here the role of PbsP, a cell wall plasminogen binding protein, in colonization of the central nervous system by CC17 GBS. Deletion of pbsP selectively impaired the ability of the CC17 strain BM110 to colonize the mouse brain after intravenous challenge, despite its unchanged capacity to persist at high levels in the blood and to invade the kidneys...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Guerrero-Latorre, Brigette Romero, Edison Bonifaz, Natalia Timoneda, Marta Rusiñol, Rosina Girones, Blanca Rios-Touma
In Quito, the microbiological contamination of surface water represents a public health problem, mainly due to the lack of sewage treatment from urban wastewater. Contaminated water contributes to the transmission of many enteric pathogens through direct consumption, agricultural and recreational use. Among the different pathogens present in urban discharges, viruses play an important role on disease, being causes of gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, respiratory infections, among others. This study analyzes the presence of viruses in highly impacted surface waters of urban rivers using next-generation sequencing techniques...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ivana Chandra, Lizhou Sun
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the similarities and differences in the clinical parameters, laboratory biomarkers, and pregnancy outcomes between preterm and term preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: Data on 185 women diagnosed with PE were collected from a Jiangsu Province Hospital from January 2017 to December 2017 and analyzed. 74 (40%) patients were diagnosed with preterm PE, of which 70 (94.6%) patients with PE with severe features (PEs) and the rest with PE. 111 (60%) patients were diagnosed with term PE, of which 54 (48...
September 22, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Kazuya Matsumura, Yohei Matsuzaki, Mariko Hida, Kazushige Ikeda, Midori Awazu
BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors may develop glomerulosclerosis due to low nephron number, whereas their tubular function remains unknown except for hypercalciuria and phosphaturia. METHODS: Fifty-three subjects (30 boys and 23 girls, aged 7 months-19 years, median 36 months) were studied retrospectively. The median gestational age and birth weight were 26 weeks (range 22-32) and 745 g (range 316-999), respectively. Urine calcium-to-creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase-to-creatinine ratio (NAG/Cr), β2 microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio (β2m/Cr), uric acid-to-creatinine ratio (UA/Cr), glucose-to-creatinine ratio (glu/Cr), and microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (malb/Cr) were examined...
September 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
David T Selewski, Ayse Akcan-Arikan, Elizabeth M Bonachea, Katja M Gist, Stuart L Goldstein, Mina Hanna, Catherine Joseph, John D Mahan, Arwa Nada, Amy T Nathan, Kimberly Reidy, Amy Staples, Pia Wintermark, Louis J Boohaker, Russell Griffin, David J Askenazi, Ronnie Guillet
BACKGROUND: In sick neonates admitted to the NICU, improper fluid balance can lead to fluid overload. We report the impact of fluid balance in the first postnatal week on outcomes in critically ill near-term/term neonates. METHODS: This analysis includes infants ≥36 weeks gestational age from the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN) study (N = 645). Fluid balance: percent weight change from birthweight. PRIMARY OUTCOME: mechanical ventilation (MV) on postnatal day 7...
September 20, 2018: Pediatric Research
Fieke Terstappen, Nina D Paauw, Thomas Alderliesten, Jaap A Joles, Daniel C Vijlbrief, A Titia Lely, Petra M A Lemmers
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased risk for kidney disease in later life. Studies reporting on early signs of renal disturbances in FGR are sparse and mostly include invasive measurements, which limit the possibility for early identification and prevention. We aim to investigate whether renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the derived value fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) differ between premature FGR and control neonates in the first three days after birth...
2018: PloS One
Gemma B Scholes, Diana Zannino, Joshua Y Kausman, Michael M H Cheung
BACKGROUND: It is known that the heart is not the only organ affected in congenital heart disease (CHD); there is growth restriction of both the brain and the whole body. The protective mechanism of "the brain-sparing phenomenon" re-directs blood flow toward the growing brain in fetuses with CHD. We hypothesized that these changes would result in impaired fetal kidney growth. METHODS: The preoperative ultrasound measurements of kidney length were obtained retrospectively from 452 neonates requiring surgery for CHD...
September 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
Nastaran Khosravi, Masoud Zadkarami, Farhad Chobdar, Rozita Hoseini, Nasrin Khalesi, Parsa Panahi, Alireza Karimi
BACKGROUND: The role of urinary cystatin C to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI) in children and neonates remains uncertain. The present study aimed to assess and compare the level of urinary cystatin C in neonates with and those without AKI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 55 available neonates who were involved by AKI and admitted to neonatal department at Ali-Asghar hospital in Tehran in 2016. Ninety-seven neonates with jaundice and normal serum creatinine level were randomly selected as the control group...
September 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bharathi Balachander, Nivedita Mondal, Vishnu Bhat, Bethou Adhisivam, Mahesh Kumar, Santhosh Satheesh, Mahalakshmi Thulasingam
BACKGROUND: Currently nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors ibuprofen and indomethacin are approved drugs for closure of patent ductus arteriosus but have potential toxicities. There are reports of the effectiveness of paracetamol in ductal closure. However there is paucity of data comparing paracetamol to ibuprofen or indomethacin in relation to the efficacy and safety profile. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was done in our tertiary care neonatal unit from October 2014-January 2016 after clearance from ethical committee...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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