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frequency epilepsy

Aline Priscila Pansani, Roberta Monterazzo Cysneiros, Diego Basile Colugnati, Luciana Janjoppi, Danuza Ferrari, Eliângela de Lima, Poliana Peres Ghazale, Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
The imbalance between antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is related to epileptogenesis, neuronal death, and seizure frequency. Treatment with vitamin E has been associated with neuroprotection and control of seizures. In most experimental studies, vitamin E treatment has short duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the role of long-term treatment with vitamin E in rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Rats were divided into two main groups: control (Ctr) and pilocarpine (Pilo)...
October 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
An-Sofie Schoonjans, Shauni De Keersmaecker, Maxime Van Bouwel, Berten Ceulemans
AIM: Sleep problems are often reported in patients with a Dravet Syndrome (DS). In this study we explored the sleep behavior in DS and compared the prevalence of sleep problems with other epilepsy patients. METHODS: An online questionnaire based on the 'Sleep Behavior Questionnaire by Simonds & Parraga (SQ-SP)' was distributed amongst DS parents and a control group (parents from children with epilepsy). Completed questionnaires were evaluated by factor scores and Composite Sleep Index (CSI)...
September 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Conor Keogh, Giorgio Pini, Adam H Dyer, Stefania Bigoni, Pietro DiMarco, Ilaria Gemo, Richard Reilly, Daniela Tropea
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, frequently associated with epilepsy. Despite increasing recognition of the clinical heterogeneity of RTT and its variants (e.g Classical, Hanefeld and PSV(Preserved Speech Variant)), the link between causative mutations and observed clinical phenotypes remains unclear. Quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings may further elucidate important differences between the different clinical and genetic forms of RTT...
October 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Francesco Brigo, Simona Lattanzi, Stanley C Igwe, Masoud Behzadifar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, and their seizures can be well controlled with the use of a single antiepileptic agent, but up to 30% develop refractory epilepsy, especially those with focal seizures. In this review, we summarised the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) of zonisamide, used as an add-on treatment for focal epilepsy uncontrolled by one or more concomitant antiepileptic drug. This is an updated version of the Cochrane review previously published in 2013...
October 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Li-Hao Li, Cong-Cong Ma, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ya-Jun Lian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and electrographic characteristics of seizures in LGI1-antibody encephalitis. METHODS: The methods utilized in this study were prospective analysis of the clinical manifestations, types of seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG), adjuvant examination, treatment and prognosis of 19 cases of LGI1-antibody encephalitis diagnosed from January 2017 to February 2018 in First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, and reviewed related literatures...
October 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Peter J West, Gerald W Saunders, Peggy Billingsley, Misty D Smith, H Steve White, Cameron S Metcalf, Karen S Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy are refractory to existing antiseizure drugs (ASDs). Given that the properties of the central nervous systems of these patients are likely to be altered due to their epilepsy, tissues from rodents that have undergone epileptogenesis might provide a therapeutically relevant disease substrate for identifying compounds capable of attenuating pharmacoresistant seizures. To facilitate the development of such a model, this study describes the effects of classical glutamate receptor antagonists and 20 ASDs on recurrent epileptiform discharges (REDs) in brain slices derived from the kainate-induced status epilepticus model of temporal lobe epilepsy (KA-rats)...
October 17, 2018: Epilepsia
Shirin Jamal Omidi, Guadalupe Fernandez BacaVaca, Nuria Lacuey, Aasef G Shaikh, Michael Morgan, Samden D Lhatoo
Ictal gaze deviation and oculogyric crisis (OGC) can show identical clinical manifestations. We report a case of repeated drug induced OGCs in a 38 year old patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. He was referred to our center for treatment of "intractable" epilepsy manifesting as episodic eye and head deviations with apparent unresponsiveness. In the epilepsy monitoring unit, ten typical spells were captured without epileptiform electroencephalographic correlates, but we discovered chronic exposure to metoclopramide...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Andrew G Herzog, Hannah B Mandle, Devon B MacEachern
Importance: If unintended pregnancy is common among women with epilepsy and is associated with increased risk of spontaneous fetal loss (SFL), it is important to develop guidelines for safe and effective contraception for this community. Objective: To assess whether planned pregnancy is a determinant of SFL in women with epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Epilepsy Birth Control Registry conducted this web-based, retrospective survey between 2010 and 2014...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Behnaz Esmaeili, Farhad Kaffashi, Wanchat Theeranaew, Aman Dabir, Samden D Lhatoo, Kenneth A Loparo
Objective: Seizure-related autonomic dysregulation occurs in epilepsy patients and may contribute to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We tested how different types of seizures affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). We hypothesized that BRS and HRV would be reduced after bilateral convulsive seizures (BCS). Methods: We recorded blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (ECG) and oxygen saturation continuously in patients ( n = 18) with intractable epilepsy undergoing video-EEG monitoring...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
J S van Ool, F M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, I Y Tan, H J Schelhaas, A P Aldenkamp, J G M Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5), the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability (ID) include three domains of adaptive deficits: the conceptual, social and practical. Substantial intra-individual differences between domains can be considered an ID domain discrepancy. METHOD: We explored the associations between ID domains, discrepancies and epilepsy in 189 adults (mean age = 47.9; SD = 15.6)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
September 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
U Rajendra Acharya, Yuki Hagiwara, Hojjat Adeli
In the past two decades, significant advances have been made on automated electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of epilepsy and seizure detection. A number of innovative algorithms have been introduced that can aid in epilepsy diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy. In recent years, the frontiers of computational epilepsy research have moved to seizure prediction, a more challenging problem. While antiepileptic medication can result in complete seizure freedom in many patients with epilepsy, up to one-third of patients living with epilepsy will have medically intractable epilepsy, where medications reduce seizure frequency but do not completely control seizures...
October 11, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Irene Cano-López, Kevin G Hampel, Mercedes Garcés, Vicente Villanueva, Esperanza González-Bono
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative contribution of factors non-directly related to seizures such as negative affectivity, social support, somatic symptoms and memory performance on quality of life (QOL) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Seventy patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were consecutively recruited from the inpatient Epilepsy Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, between April 2015 and October 2017...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Tony Wu, Siew-Na Lim, Jing-Jane Tsai, Yao-Chung Chuang, Chin-Wei Huang, Chun-Chieh Lin, Chang-Hung Hsu, Hong-Chung Fung, Chih-Hong Lee
PURPOSE: The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of two formulations of levetiracetam in people with partial epilepsy over a 12-week treatment period. METHODS: We performed a randomized, paralleled, and multicenter trial that consisted of a 4-week single-blind placebo run-in, followed by a 12-week double-blind, double-dummy treatment phase to compare the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam extended-release (LEV-ER) and immediate-release (LEV-IR) tablets as an adjunctive treatment in adult patients with uncontrolled epilepsy...
September 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Hideaki Kanemura, Fumikazu Sano, Tetsuo Ohyama, Masao Aihara
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) with the older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for preventing atypical evolution in children with Rolandic epilepsy (RE). Accordingly, the present study compared the efficacy of older AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate sodium (VPA)) with LEV in reducing rolandic discharges (RDs) on interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) in children with RE. METHODS: Patients in this heterogenous study were subdivided into CBZ, VPA and LEV groups in accordance with the initial monotherapy...
October 3, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Federica Frigerio, Giulia Pasqualini, Ilaria Craparotta, Sergio Marchini, Erwin A van Vliet, Patrick Foerch, Catherine Vandenplas, Karin Leclercq, Eleonora Aronica, Luca Porcu, Kimberly Pistorius, Romain A Colas, Trond V Hansen, Mauro Perretti, Rafal M Kaminski, Jesmond Dalli, Annamaria Vezzani
Epilepsy therapy is based on drugs that treat the symptoms rather than the underlying mechanisms of the disease (epileptogenesis). There are no treatments for preventing seizures or improving disease prognosis, including neurological comorbidities. The search of pathogenic mechanisms of epileptogenesis highlighted that neuroinflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (Tnf-α)] are induced in human and experimental epilepsies, and contribute to seizure generation in animal models...
October 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chang Su, Xue-Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Li, Di Wu, Min Liu, Bing-Yan Cao, Jia-Jia Chen, Miao Qin, Xi Meng, Chun-Xiu Gong
Objective: To characterize the genotype and phenotype of Chinese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by activating mutations in GLUD1 , the gene that encodes mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Methods: The clinical data of glutamate dehydrogenase hyperinsulinism (GDH-HI) patients were reviewed, and gene mutations were confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-six patients with GDH-HI heterozygous missense mutations were identified from 240 patients diagnosed as congenital hyperinsulinism over past 15 years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Min Zhu, Jing Chen, Hu Guo, Le Ding, Yue Zhang, Yun Xu
The present study examined whether serum biomarkers can predict the prognosis of childhood epilepsy, including seizure frequency, electroencephalographic (EEG) changes, and cognitive impairment. We measured serum concentrations of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and α1-antichymotrypsin (AACT) in 180 children with new-onset epilepsy and 40 healthy children. Cognitive evaluations were performed 18 months after the initial seizure episodes at diagnosis (ie, baseline visit)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Anatoly Buchin, Cliff C Kerr, Gilles Huberfeld, Richard Miles, Boris Gutkin
Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which increased neuronal intrinsic excitability and synaptic excitation lead to pathologically synchronous behavior in the brain. In the majority of experimental and theoretical epilepsy models, epilepsy is associated with reduced inhibition in the pathological neural circuits, yet effects of intrinsic excitability are usually not explicitly analyzed. Here we present a novel neural mass model that includes intrinsic excitability in the form of spike-frequency adaptation in the excitatory population...
September 2018: ENeuro
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