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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333479/transgenic-overexpression-of-furin-increases-epileptic-susceptibility
#1
Yi Yang, Miaoqing He, Xin Tian, Yi Guo, Feng Liu, Yun Li, Haiqing Zhang, Xi Lu, Demei Xu, Ruijiao Zhou, Yuanlin Ma, Wei Wang, Guojun Chen, Yida Hu, Xuefeng Wang
The proprotein convertase Furin plays crucial roles in the pathology of many diseases. However, the specific role of furin in epilepsy remains unclear. In our study, furin protein was increased in the temporal neocortex of epileptic patients and in the hippocampus and cortex of epileptic mice. The furin transgenic (TG) mice showed increased susceptibility to epilepsy and heightened epileptic activity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Conversely, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of furin restrained epileptic activity...
October 17, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291240/electrophysiological-mechanisms-of-human-memory-consolidation
#2
Hui Zhang, Juergen Fell, Nikolai Axmacher
Consolidation stabilizes memory traces after initial encoding. Rodent studies suggest that memory consolidation depends on replay of stimulus-specific activity patterns during fast hippocampal "ripple" oscillations. Here, we measured replay in intracranial electroencephalography recordings in human epilepsy patients, and related replay to ripples. Stimulus-specific activity was identified using representational similarity analysis and then tracked during waking rest and sleep after encoding. Stimulus-specific gamma (30-90 Hz) activity during early (100-500 ms) and late (500-1200 ms) encoding is spontaneously reactivated during waking state and sleep, independent of later memory...
October 5, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279650/spontaneous-neural-activity-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-recapitulates-tuning-for-speech-features
#3
Jonathan D Breshears, Liberty S Hamilton, Edward F Chang
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals exhibit structured neural activity in many brain regions during rest that is also observed during different tasks, however it is still not clear whether and how resting state activity patterns may relate to underlying tuning for specific stimuli. In the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), distinct neural activity patterns are observed during the perception of specific linguistic speech features. We hypothesized that spontaneous resting-state neural dynamics of the STG would be structured to reflect its role in speech perception, exhibiting an organization along speech features as seen during speech perception...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271320/automatic-segmentation-of-corpus-callosum-in-midsagittal-based-on-bayesian-inference-consisting-of-sparse-representation-error-and-multi-atlas-voting
#4
Gilsoon Park, Kichang Kwak, Sang Won Seo, Jong-Min Lee
In this paper, we introduce a novel automatic method for Corpus Callosum (CC) in midsagittal plane segmentation. The robust segmentation of CC in midsagittal plane is key role for quantitative study of structural features of CC associated with various neurological disorder such as epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and so on. Our approach is based on Bayesian inference using sparse representation and multi-atlas voting which both methods are used in various medical imaging, and show outstanding performance...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267724/cognitive-tasks-and-human-ambulatory-electrocorticography-using-the-rns-system
#5
Stephen Meisenhelter, Markus E Testorf, Mark A Gorenstein, Nicholas R Hasulak, Thomas K Tcheng, Joshua P Aronson, Barbara C Jobst
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticography studies are typically conducted in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring, but these studies are subject to confounds such as the effects of pain, recent anesthesia, analgesics, drug changes, antibiotics, and implant effects. NEW METHOD: Techniques were developed to obtain electrocorticographic (ECoG) data from freely moving subjects performing navigational tasks using the RNS® System (NeuroPace, Inc., Mountain View, CA), a brain-responsive neurostimulation medical device used to treat focal onset epilepsy, and to align data from the RNS System with cognitive task events with high precision...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261353/impact-of-strain-sex-and-estrous-cycle-on-gamma-butyrolactone-evoked-absence-seizures-in-rats
#6
Victor R Santos, Ihori Kobayashi, Robert Hammack, Gregory Danko, Patrick A Forcelli
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome and is characterized by typical absence seizures (AS). AS are non-convulsive epileptic seizures characterized by a sudden loss of awareness and bilaterally generalized synchronous 2.5-4 Hz spike and slow-wave discharges (SWD). Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is an acute pharmacological model of AS and induces bilaterally synchronous SWDs and behavioral arrest. Despite the long use of this model, little is known about its strain and sex-dependent features...
September 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255931/variants-p-q1236h-and-p-e1143g-in-mitochondrial-dna-polymerase-gamma-polg1-are-not-associated-with-increased-risk-for-valproate-induced-hepatotoxicity-or-pancreatic-toxicity-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-patients-with-epilepsy
#7
Johanna Hynynen, Tytti Pokka, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Päivi Myllynen, Mikko Kärppä, Laura Pylvänen, Reetta Kälviäinen, Arja Sokka, Aino Jyrkilä, Jaana Lähdetie, Leena Haataja, Anna Mäkitalo, Pauli Ylikotila, Kai Eriksson, Piia Haapala, Hanna Ansakorpi, Reetta Hinttala, Päivi Vieira, Kari Majamaa, Heikki Rantala, Johanna Uusimaa
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that heterozygous variants p.Q1236H and p.E1143G in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG1) increase the risk for liver injury for patients on valproate (VPA) therapy. We assessed the prevalence of these common variants and seven other pathogenic mutations in POLG1 and determined the occurrence of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity (VHT) or pancreatic toxicity in a cohort of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy (N = 367) were retrospectively identified from medical record files and screened for mutations in POLG1...
September 26, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250863/physiological-and-pathological-high-frequency-oscillations-in-focal-epilepsy
#8
Jan Cimbalnik, Benjamin Brinkmann, Vaclav Kremen, Pavel Jurak, Brent Berry, Jamie Van Gompel, Matt Stead, Greg Worrell
Objective: This study investigates high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 65-600 Hz) as a biomarker of epileptogenic brain and explores three barriers to their clinical translation: (1) Distinguishing pathological HFOs (pathHFO) from physiological HFOs (physHFO). (2) Classifying tissue under individual electrodes as epileptogenic (3) Reproducing results across laboratories. Methods: We recorded HFOs using intracranial EEG (iEEG) in 90 patients with focal epilepsy and 11 patients without epilepsy...
September 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224452/hippocampal-ca1-gamma-power-predicts-the-precision-of-spatial-memory-judgments
#9
Rebecca F Stevenson, Jie Zheng, Lilit Mnatsakanyan, Sumeet Vadera, Robert T Knight, Jack J Lin, Michael A Yassa
The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial memory. However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying high-fidelity spatial memory representations are unknown. We report findings from presurgical epilepsy patients with bilateral hippocampal depth electrodes performing an object-location memory task that provided a broad range of spatial memory precision. During encoding, patients were shown a series of objects along the circumference of an invisible circle. At test, the same objects were shown at the top of the circle (0°), and patients used a dial to move the object to its location shown during encoding...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213622/effects-of-agomelatine-on-electrocorticogram-activity-on-pencillin-induced-epilepsy-model-of-rats
#10
M S Ethemoglu, S Kutlu, F B Seker, C S Erdogan, C A Bingol, B Yilmaz
Agomelatine is a new antidepressant drug acting as an antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HTR2C ) and agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2 ). Because of this dual action, it is an atypical antidepressant. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic anticonvulsant effects of agomelatine on penicillin-induced epilepsy model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into four groups and were administered with tap water (vehicle), and agomelatine doses of 10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 14 days via oral gavage...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210311/alterations-of-coherent-theta-and-gamma-network-oscillations-as-an-early-biomarker-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146688/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-is-infrequently-associated-with-neuronal-autoantibodies
#12
Adaucto W Nóbrega-Jr, Christian P Gregory, Rachel Schlindwein-Zanini, Fabricio de Souza Neves, Peter Wolf, Roger Walz, Mario Steindel, Katia Lin
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is characterized by its well-defined clinical profile. Limbic encephalitis is increasingly recognized as a possible etiology of adult-onset MTLE-HS, and neuronal autoantibodies have been detected in patients even without previous signs of encephalitis. The aim of this study is to analyze the frequency of specific autoantibodies in patients with MTLE-HS. A case-control study was carried out with 100 patients with MTLE-HS and 50 healthy controls...
September 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145742/effects-of-modafinil-on-clonic-seizure-threshold-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-in-mice-involvement-of-glutamate-nitric-oxide-gaba-and-serotonin-pathways
#13
Erfan Bahramnjead, Soheil Kazemi Roodsari, Nastaran Rahimi, Payam Etemadi, Iraj Aghaei, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder. Modafinil is an awakening agent approved for narcolepsy. In addition to its clinical uses some reports revealed that modafinil was associated with some alterations in seizure threshold. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of acute administration of modafinil in clonic seizure threshold (CST) induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice and the involvement of glutamate, nitric oxide, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), and serotonin systems in this feature...
August 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140078/epileptic-high-frequency-oscillations-in-scalp-electroencephalography
#14
REVIEW
Takashi Shibata, Katsuhiro Kobayashi
Electroencephalography (EEG) examines the functional state of the brain. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the ripple (80-200/250 Hz) and fast ripple (200/250-500/600 Hz) bands have recently been attracting attention, and their recording has been enabled by advancements in digital EEG techniques. The detection of HFOs was previously limited to intracranial EEG, but fast oscillations (FOs) in the gamma (40-80 Hz) and ripple bands can now be detected over the scalp. HFOs and FOs have been shown to be related to epileptogenicity in intracranial EEG and scalp EEG, respectively...
August 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131664/a-novel-microbiosensor-microarray-for-continuous-ex-vivo-monitoring-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-real-time
#15
Imran Hossain, Chao Tan, Phillip T Doughty, Gaurab Dutta, Teresa A Murray, Shabnam Siddiqui, Leonidas Iasemidis, Prabhu U Arumugam
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter that is essential for normal brain function. It is involved in multiple neuronal activities, including plasticity, information processing, and network synchronization. Abnormal GABA levels result in severe brain disorders and therefore GABA has been the target of a wide range of drug therapeutics. GABA being non-electroactive is challenging to detect in real-time. To date, GABA is detected mainly via microdialysis with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system that employs electrochemical (EC) and spectroscopic methodology...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120072/abnormal-cortical-activation-during-an-auditory-word-comprehension-task-in-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#16
Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Yoko Kato, Ryuzo Hanaie, Junko Matsuzaki, Junpei Tanigawa, Yoshiko Iwatani, Junji Azuma, Masako Taniike
OBJECTIVE: Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), also known as rolandic epilepsy, has recently been reported to be associated with variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction. Many studies reported poor language ability in children with BECTS compared with healthy control children. To elucidate the harmful effects of BECTS on language cognition, we studied the magnetoencephalographic activity elicited by an auditory language comprehension task. METHODS: The participants (N = 20) included 10 children diagnosed with BECTS (aged 10...
August 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103160/electrical-activity-of-the-human-amygdala-during-all-night-sleep-and-wakefulness
#17
Zeidy Muñoz-Torres, Francisco Velasco, Ana L Velasco, Yolanda Del Río-Portilla, María Corsi-Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to characterize the dynamics of the human amygdala across the different sleep stages and during wakefulness. METHODS: Simultaneous intracranial electrical recordings of the amygdala, hippocampus, and scalp electroencephalography during spontaneous sleep polysomnography in four patients suffering from epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Power spectrum of the amygdala revealed no differences between rapid eye movement (REM) and wakefulness for all frequencies except higher power at 9 Hz during wakefulness and some low Gamma frequencies...
October 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098227/rising-pregabalin-use-and-misuse-in-australia-trends-in-utilization-and-intentional-poisonings
#18
Rose Cairns, Andrea L Schaffer, Nicole Ryan, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pregabalin is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, used to treat neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Pregabalin was registered in Australia in 2005, and subsidized publically in 2013. We aimed to describe Australian patterns of pregabalin use and intentional poisoning, and identify people potentially at high risk of misuse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based retrospective cohort study of dispensings in the 10% sample of Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (July 2012-February 2017); intentional poisoning calls to New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC) (2004-2016); intentional poisonings in two Australian toxicology service databases; and poisoning fatalities in NSW coronial records (2005-2016)...
August 11, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096484/lithium-affects-rat-hippocampal-electrophysiology-and-epileptic-seizures-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#19
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057733/link-prediction-investigation-of-dynamic-information-flow-in-epilepsy
#20
Yan He, Fan Yang, Yunli Yu, Celso Grebogi
As a brain disorder, epilepsy is characterized with abnormal hypersynchronous neural firings. It is known that seizures initiate and propagate in different brain regions. Long-term intracranial multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) reflects broadband ictal activity under seizure occurrence. Network-based techniques are efficient in discovering brain dynamics and offering finger-print features for specific individuals. In this study, we adopt link prediction for proposing a novel workflow aiming to quantify seizure dynamics and uncover pathological mechanisms of epilepsy...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
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