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gamma epilepsy

Zeidy Muñoz-Torres, Francisco Velasco, Ana L Velasco, Yolanda Del Río-Portilla, María Corsi-Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to characterize the dynamics of the human amygdala across the different sleep stages and during wakefulness. METHODS: Simultaneous intracranial electrical recordings of the amygdala, hippocampus, and scalp electroencephalography during spontaneous sleep polysomnography in four patients suffering from epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Power spectrum of the amygdala revealed no differences between rapid eye movement (REM) and wakefulness for all frequencies except higher power at 9 Hz during wakefulness and some low Gamma frequencies...
July 29, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Rose Cairns, Andrea L Schaffer, Nicole Ryan, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pregabalin is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, used to treat neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Pregabalin was registered in Australia in 2005, and publically subsidised in 2013. We aimed to describe Australian patterns of pregabalin use and intentional poisoning, and identify people potentially at high risk of misuse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based retrospective cohort study of dispensings in the 10% sample of Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (July 2012-February 2017); intentional poisoning calls to New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC) (2004-2016); intentional poisonings in two Australian toxicology service databases; poisoning fatalities in NSW coronial records (2005-2016)...
August 11, 2018: Addiction
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
July 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Yan He, Fan Yang, Yunli Yu, Celso Grebogi
As a brain disorder, epilepsy is characterized with abnormal hypersynchronous neural firings. It is known that seizures initiate and propagate in different brain regions. Long-term intracranial multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) reflects broadband ictal activity under seizure occurrence. Network-based techniques are efficient in discovering brain dynamics and offering finger-print features for specific individuals. In this study, we adopt link prediction for proposing a novel workflow aiming to quantify seizure dynamics and uncover pathological mechanisms of epilepsy...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Francesca Ginatempo, Fabrizio De Carli, Sara Todesco, Beniamina Mercante, Gian Pietro Sechi, Franca Deriu
Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation method which is increasingly used for its beneficial effects on symptoms of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug-resistant epilepsy. Sites and mechanisms of its action are still unknown. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological effects of acute TNS on rest electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG was recorded with a 19-channel EEG system from 18 healthy adults who underwent 20 min of sham- and real-TNS (cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF) in two separate sessions...
July 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Pierre Deman, Manik Bhattacharjee, François Tadel, Anne-Sophie Job, Denis Rivière, Yann Cointepas, Philippe Kahane, Olivier David
In some cases of pharmaco-resistant and focal epilepsies, intracranial recordings performed epidurally (electrocorticography, ECoG) and/or in depth (stereoelectroencephalography, SEEG) can be required to locate the seizure onset zone and the eloquent cortex before surgical resection. In SEEG, each electrode contact records brain's electrical activity in a spherical volume of 3 mm diameter approximately. The spatial coverage is around 1% of the brain and differs between patients because the implantation of electrodes is tailored for each case...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Faiza Mumtaz, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
The brain is a vital organ, susceptible to alterations under genetic influences and environmental experiences. Social isolation (SI) acts as a stressor which results in alterations in reactivity to stress, social behavior, function of neurochemical and neuroendocrine system, physiological, anatomical and behavioral changes in both animal and humans. During early stages of life, acute or chronic SIS has been proposed to show signs and symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and memory loss...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hannah Hayhurst, Maria-Eleni Anagnostou, Helen J Bogle, John P Grady, Robert W Taylor, Laurence A Bindoff, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull, Nichola Z Lax
Alpers' syndrome is an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder often caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase-gamma (POLG) which is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. Alpers' syndrome is characterised by intractable epilepsy, developmental regression and liver failure which typically affects children aged 6 months - 3 years. Although later onset variants are now recognised, they differ in that they are primarily an epileptic encephalopathy with ataxia...
July 18, 2018: Brain Pathology
Adina Bathel, Lauren Schweizer, Philipp Stude, Benjamin Glaubitz, Niklas Wulms, Sibel Delice, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
BACKGROUND: Increased cortical excitability has been hypothesized to play a critical role in various neurological disorders, such as restless legs syndrome, epilepsy and migraine. Particularly for migraine, local hyperexcitability has been reported. Levels of regional excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters are related to cortical excitability and hence may play a role in the origin of the disease. Consequently, a mismatch of the excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter network might contribute to local hyperexcitability and the onset of migraine attacks...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Meral Ayan, Sebnem Essiz
While ~30% of the human genome encodes membrane proteins, only a handful of structures of membrane proteins have been resolved to high resolution. Here, we studied the structure of a member of the Cys-loop ligand gated ion channel protein superfamily of receptors, human type A γ2 α1 β2 α1 β2 gamma amino butyric acid receptor complex in a lipid bilayer environment. Studying the correlation between the structure and function of the gamma amino butyric acid receptor may enhance our understanding of the molecular basis of ion channel dysfunctions linked with epilepsy, ataxia, migraine, schizophrenia and other neurodegenerative diseases...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Sadia Adil, Arif-Ullah Khan, Haroon Badshah, Faiza Asghar, Muhammad Usman, Amin Badshah, Saqib Ali
In this study different derivatives of ferrocene-incorporated acyl ureas and homoleptic cadmium carboxylates were investigated for potential anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative properties, using in-silico and in-vivo techniques. The molecular docking studies reveled that ferrocene compounds derivative 1-(4-bromobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (PB1) and cadmium compounds derivative bis (diphenylacetato) cadmium (II) (DPAA) exhibit binding affinities against various neurotherapeutic molecular targets involved in epilepsy, anxiety, and sedation...
June 2018: Drug Development Research
Mostafa Jalilifar, Ali Yadollahpour, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin
Background and Objective: Developing quantitative measures based on spectral analysis of electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings of neural activities plays an important role in developing efficient treatments for epilepsy. Such biomarkers can be used for developing open or closed loop approaches for seizure prediction or prevention. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate antiepileptogenic effects of low frequency stimulation (LFS) applied immediately before or after kindling stimulations using spectral power analysis of extracellular EEG in rat...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Liyuan Zhang, Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang
Studies on the structural-functional connectomes of the human brain have demonstrated the existence of synchronous firings in a specific brain network motif. In particular, synchronization of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) has been observed in the experimental data sets of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In addition, both clinical and experimental evidences have accumulated to demonstrate the effect of electrical stimulation on TLE, which, however, remains largely unexplored. In this work, we first employ our previously proposed dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 network model to investigate the influence of an external electrical stimulus on the HFO transitions...
June 2018: Chaos
Pınar Tekturk, Betul Baykan, Ece Erdag, Sian Peach, Mine Sezgin, Zuhal Yapici, Cem İsmail Küçükali, Angela Vincent, Erdem Tuzun
AIM: Cryptogenic forms of epileptic encephalopathies (EE) with their well-known features of drug-resistance, mental deterioration and partial response to immunotherapies are ideal candidates for screening for neuronal autoantibodies (NAA). METHOD: Fifty consecutive pediatric patients with a diagnosis of EE of unknown cause were included. Nine NAAs were tested by ELISA, RIA or cell-based assays. Clinical features of seronegative and seropositive patients were compared...
June 20, 2018: Brain & Development
Omar Hikmat, Karin Naess, Martin Engvall, Claus Klingenberg, Magnhild Rasmussen, Chantal M E Tallaksen, Eylert Brodtkorb, Torunn Fiskerstrand, Pirjo Isohanni, Johanna Uusimaa, Niklas Darin, Shamima Rahman, Laurence A Bindoff
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is common in individuals with mutations in POLG, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Early recognition and aggressive seizure management are crucial for patient survival. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is implicated in various neurological disorders including epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess whether POLG-related disease is associated with BBB dysfunction and what clinical implications this has for patients...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
Jason S Naftulin, Omar J Ahmed, Giovanni Piantoni, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Louis-Emmanuel Martinet, Mark A Kramer, Sydney S Cash
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of focal epilepsies is largely predicated on the concept that there is a "focus" from which the seizure emanates. Yet, the physiological context that determines if and how ictal activity starts and propagates remains poorly understood. To delineate these phenomena more completely, we studied activity outside the seizure-onset zone prior to and during seizure initiation. METHODS: Stereotactic depth electrodes were implanted in 17 patients with longstanding pharmacoresistant epilepsy for lateralization and localization of the seizure-onset zone...
July 2018: Epilepsia
Soheir S Abou El Ella, Maha Atef Tawfik, Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Omar Ahmed M Soliman
PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested that GABARG2 (Gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A Receptor Gamma 2 subunit) could be a gene of interest in genetic epilepsy; through possible associations with increased epilepsy susceptibility or resistance to antiepileptic drugs. The present study was designed to explore whether the GABARG2 C588 T (rs211037) genetic variant predicts susceptibility to epilepsy and pharmacoresistance among Egyptian children with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE)...
June 6, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Pricila Pfluger, Vanessa Rodrigues Coelho, Gabriela Gregory Regner, Lucas Lima da Silva, Karina Martinez, Alan Fonseca, Cassiana Macagnan Viau, Patricia Pereira
BACKGROUND: Gamma-decanolactone (GD) is a monoterpene compound that presents anticonvulsant effect in acute and chronic models of epilepsy and it acts as a noncompetitive glutamate antagonist. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the anticonvulsant profile and the possible mechanism of action of GD in seizures induced by isoniazid (INH; 250 mg/kg), picrotoxin (PCT; 5 mg/kg) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 13 mg/kg) in male mice. METHOD: Thirty minutes before the convulsants administration, animals received a single administration of saline, GD (100 or 300 mg/kg) or the positive control diazepam (DZP; 2 mg/kg)...
June 10, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Shiwei Song, Abul Fajol, Yan Chen, Baogang Ren, Songsheng Shi
Epilepsy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality together and places a large financial burden on individuals and society. To evaluate the anticonvulsant action of protodioscin (PDSN) in experiments with animals with pilocarpine-induced convulsions. We assessed the activity of PDSN in pilocarpine induced seizures in combination with different agents which are acting via diverse receptors, such as atropine, memantine, nimodipine, diazepam, and flumazenil, to determine the exact receptors responsible for the action of PDSN...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Tianze Cheng, Dominique Marie Wallace, Benjamin Ponteri, Mahir Tuli
Benzodiazepines are one of the most prescribed medications as first-line treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy around the world. Over the past two decades, advances in the neuropharmacological understanding of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors revealed distinct contributions from each subtype and produced effects. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of α1 containing GABAA receptors in the mechanisms of addiction and tolerance in benzodiazepine treatments. This has shown promise in the development of tranquilizers with minimal side effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and tolerance...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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