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gamma epilepsy

Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Previously, we demonstrated an association between cortical hyperexcitability and mood disturbance in healthy adults. Studies have documented hyperexcitability in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs; long-interval intracortical inhibition [LICI]) and high prevalence of mood comorbidities. This study aimed to investigate the influences of cortical excitability and seizure control on mood state in patients with IGEs. Single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to 30 patients with IGEs (16 controlled IGEs [cIGEs], 14 with treatment-resistant IGEs [trIGEs]), and 22 healthy controls (HCs) to assess cortical excitability with LICI...
December 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Kailin Zhang, Hong Jiang, Nan Li
Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) are a group of epilepsy syndromes caused by genetic factors. A few of GGEs conform to the Mendelian patterns, while most of them show polygene inheritance. Researchers initially found that most of the genes associated with GGEs are related to ion channels including voltage-gated sodium channels, potassium channels, calcium channels and chloride channels, and ligand-gated gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor channels. Further researches have shown that certain non-ion channel genes are also related to GGEs, and that de novo mutations and copy number variants also play an important role in the pathogenesis of GGEs...
December 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Kirill V Nourski, Mitchell Steinschneider, Ariane E Rhone, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroto Kawasaki, Matthew A Howard
Understanding cortical processing of spectrally degraded speech in normal-hearing subjects may provide insights into how sound information is processed by cochlear implant (CI) users. This study investigated electrocorticographic (ECoG) responses to noise-vocoded speech and related these responses to behavioral performance in a phonemic identification task. Subjects were neurosurgical patients undergoing chronic invasive monitoring for medically refractory epilepsy. Stimuli were utterances /aba/ and /ada/, spectrally degraded using a noise vocoder (1-4 bands)...
November 22, 2018: Hearing Research
Tracie Tran, Po T Wang, Brian Lee, Charles Y Liu, Evgeniy I Kreydin, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
Current therapies for neurogenic bladder do not allow spinal cord injury patients to regain conscious control of urine storage or voiding. Novel neural technologies may provide means to improve or restore the connection between the brain and the bladder; however, the specific brain areas and their underlying neural activities responsible for micturition must be better understood in order to design such technologies. In this retrospective study, we analyzed electrocorticographic (ECoG) data obtained from epilepsy patients who underwent ECoG grid implantation for epilepsy surgery evaluation, in the hopes of determining specific electrophysiological activity associated with micturition...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Amir F Al-Bakri, Mauricio F Villamar, Chase Haddix, Meriem Bensalem-Owen, Sridhar Sunderam
There is resurgent interest in the role played by autonomic dysfunction in seizure generation. Advances in wearable sensors make it convenient to track many autonomic variables in patient populations. This study assesses peri-ictal changes in surrogate measures of autonomic activity for their predictive value in epilepsy patients. We simultaneously recorded fronto-central surface EEG and submental EMG to score vigilance state, intracranial EEG (iEEG) to compute several electrophysiological variables (EV), and measurements (heart rate, blood volume pulse, skin impedance, and skin temperature) relevant to autonomic function (AV) using a wrist-worn sensor from three patients...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ethan B Russo
Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Yo-Tsen Liu, Yi-Chieh Chen, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Chien-Chen Chou, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Der-Jen Yen, Kwong-Kum Liao, Wei-Ta Chen, Yung-Yang Lin, Rou-Shayn Chen, Kang-Yang Jih, Shu-Fen Lu, Yu-Te Wu, Po-Shan Wang, Fu-Jung Hsiao
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is conventionally regarded as a movement disorder (MD) and characterized by episodic hyperkinesia by sudden movements. However, patients of PKD often have sensory aura and respond excellently to antiepileptic agents. PRRT2 mutations, the most common genetic etiology of PKD, could cause epilepsy syndromes as well. Standing in the twilight zone between MDs and epilepsy, the pathogenesis of PKD is unclear. Gamma oscillations arise from the inhibitory interneurons which are crucial in the thalamocortical circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yohei Ishishita, Naoto Kunii, Seijiro Shimada, Kenji Ibayashi, Mariko Tada, Kenji Kirihara, Kensuke Kawai, Takanori Uka, Kiyoto Kasai, Nobuhito Saito
Auditory contextual processing has been assumed to be based on a hierarchical structure consisting of the primary auditory cortex, superior temporal gyrus (STG), and frontal lobe. Recent invasive studies on mismatch negativity (MMN) have revealed functional segregation for auditory contextual processing such as neural adaptation in the primary auditory cortex and prediction in the frontal lobe. However, the role of the STG remains unclear. We obtained induced activity in the high gamma band as mismatch response (MMR), an electrocorticographic (ECoG) counterpart to scalp MMN, and the components of MMR by analyzing ECoG data from patients with refractory epilepsy in an auditory oddball task paradigm...
October 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yi Yang, Miaoqing He, Xin Tian, Yi Guo, Feng Liu, Yun Li, Haiqing Zhang, Xi Lu, Demei Xu, Ruijiao Zhou, Yuanlin Ma, Wei Wang, Guojun Chen, Yida Hu, Xuefeng Wang
The proprotein convertase Furin plays crucial roles in the pathology of many diseases. However, the specific role of furin in epilepsy remains unclear. In our study, furin protein was increased in the temporal neocortex of epileptic patients and in the hippocampus and cortex of epileptic mice. The furin transgenic (TG) mice showed increased susceptibility to epilepsy and heightened epileptic activity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Conversely, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of furin restrained epileptic activity...
October 17, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Hui Zhang, Juergen Fell, Nikolai Axmacher
Consolidation stabilizes memory traces after initial encoding. Rodent studies suggest that memory consolidation depends on replay of stimulus-specific activity patterns during fast hippocampal "ripple" oscillations. Here, we measured replay in intracranial electroencephalography recordings in human epilepsy patients, and related replay to ripples. Stimulus-specific activity was identified using representational similarity analysis and then tracked during waking rest and sleep after encoding. Stimulus-specific gamma (30-90 Hz) activity during early (100-500 ms) and late (500-1200 ms) encoding is spontaneously reactivated during waking state and sleep, independent of later memory...
October 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Jonathan D Breshears, Liberty S Hamilton, Edward F Chang
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals exhibit structured neural activity in many brain regions during rest that is also observed during different tasks, however it is still not clear whether and how resting state activity patterns may relate to underlying tuning for specific stimuli. In the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), distinct neural activity patterns are observed during the perception of specific linguistic speech features. We hypothesized that spontaneous resting-state neural dynamics of the STG would be structured to reflect its role in speech perception, exhibiting an organization along speech features as seen during speech perception...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gilsoon Park, Kichang Kwak, Sang Won Seo, Jong-Min Lee
In this paper, we introduce a novel automatic method for Corpus Callosum (CC) in midsagittal plane segmentation. The robust segmentation of CC in midsagittal plane is key role for quantitative study of structural features of CC associated with various neurological disorder such as epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and so on. Our approach is based on Bayesian inference using sparse representation and multi-atlas voting which both methods are used in various medical imaging, and show outstanding performance...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stephen Meisenhelter, Markus E Testorf, Mark A Gorenstein, Nicholas R Hasulak, Thomas K Tcheng, Joshua P Aronson, Barbara C Jobst
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticography studies are typically conducted in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring, but these studies are subject to confounds such as the effects of pain, recent anesthesia, analgesics, drug changes, antibiotics, and implant effects. NEW METHOD: Techniques were developed to obtain electrocorticographic (ECoG) data from freely moving subjects performing navigational tasks using the RNS® System (NeuroPace, Inc., Mountain View, CA), a brain-responsive neurostimulation medical device used to treat focal onset epilepsy, and to align data from the RNS System with cognitive task events with high precision...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Victor R Santos, Ihori Kobayashi, Robert Hammack, Gregory Danko, Patrick A Forcelli
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome and is characterized by typical absence seizures (AS). AS are non-convulsive epileptic seizures characterized by a sudden loss of awareness and bilaterally generalized synchronous 2.5-4 Hz spike and slow-wave discharges (SWD). Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is an acute pharmacological model of AS and induces bilaterally synchronous SWDs and behavioral arrest. Despite the long use of this model, little is known about its strain and sex-dependent features...
November 2018: Epilepsy Research
Johanna Hynynen, Tytti Pokka, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Päivi Myllynen, Mikko Kärppä, Laura Pylvänen, Reetta Kälviäinen, Arja Sokka, Aino Jyrkilä, Jaana Lähdetie, Leena Haataja, Anna Mäkitalo, Pauli Ylikotila, Kai Eriksson, Piia Haapala, Hanna Ansakorpi, Reetta Hinttala, Päivi Vieira, Kari Majamaa, Heikki Rantala, Johanna Uusimaa
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that heterozygous variants p.Q1236H and p.E1143G in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG1) increase the risk for liver injury for patients on valproate (VPA) therapy. We assessed the prevalence of these common variants and seven other pathogenic mutations in POLG1 and determined the occurrence of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity (VHT) or pancreatic toxicity in a cohort of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy (N = 367) were retrospectively identified from medical record files and screened for mutations in POLG1...
November 2018: Epilepsia
Jan Cimbalnik, Benjamin Brinkmann, Vaclav Kremen, Pavel Jurak, Brent Berry, Jamie Van Gompel, Matt Stead, Greg Worrell
Objective: This study investigates high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 65-600 Hz) as a biomarker of epileptogenic brain and explores three barriers to their clinical translation: (1) Distinguishing pathological HFOs (pathHFO) from physiological HFOs (physHFO). (2) Classifying tissue under individual electrodes as epileptogenic (3) Reproducing results across laboratories. Methods: We recorded HFOs using intracranial EEG (iEEG) in 90 patients with focal epilepsy and 11 patients without epilepsy...
September 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Rebecca F Stevenson, Jie Zheng, Lilit Mnatsakanyan, Sumeet Vadera, Robert T Knight, Jack J Lin, Michael A Yassa
The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial memory. However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying high-fidelity spatial memory representations are unknown. We report findings from presurgical epilepsy patients with bilateral hippocampal depth electrodes performing an object-location memory task that provided a broad range of spatial memory precision. During encoding, patients were shown a series of objects along the circumference of an invisible circle. At test, the same objects were shown at the top of the circle (0°), and patients used a dial to move the object to its location shown during encoding...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M S Ethemoglu, S Kutlu, F B Seker, C S Erdogan, C A Bingol, B Yilmaz
Agomelatine is a new antidepressant drug acting as an antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HTR2C ) and agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2 ). Because of this dual action, it is an atypical antidepressant. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic anticonvulsant effects of agomelatine on penicillin-induced epilepsy model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into four groups and were administered with tap water (vehicle), and agomelatine doses of 10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 14 days via oral gavage...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Adaucto W Nóbrega-Jr, Christian P Gregory, Rachel Schlindwein-Zanini, Fabricio de Souza Neves, Peter Wolf, Roger Walz, Mario Steindel, Katia Lin
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is characterized by its well-defined clinical profile. Limbic encephalitis is increasingly recognized as a possible etiology of adult-onset MTLE-HS, and neuronal autoantibodies have been detected in patients even without previous signs of encephalitis. The aim of this study is to analyze the frequency of specific autoantibodies in patients with MTLE-HS. A case-control study was carried out with 100 patients with MTLE-HS and 50 healthy controls...
September 2018: Epilepsia
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