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theta epilepsy

Xiaoxuan Fu, Youhua Wang, Manling Ge, Danhong Wang, Rongguang Gao, Long Wang, Jundan Guo, Hesheng Liu
Interictal spike is a biomarker of epilepsy that can occur frequently between seizures. Its potential effects on brain oscillations, especially on theta rhythm (4-8 Hz) that is related to a variety of cognitive processes, remain controversial. Using local field potentials recorded from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we investigated here the impact of spikes on theta rhythm immediately after spikes and during the prolonged periods (lasting 4-36 s) between adjacent spikes. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in different epileptogenic areas including the anterior hippocampus (aH) and the entorhinal cortex (EC) as well as in the extended propagation pathway...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zeidy Muñoz-Torres, Francisco Velasco, Ana L Velasco, Yolanda Del Río-Portilla, María Corsi-Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to characterize the dynamics of the human amygdala across the different sleep stages and during wakefulness. METHODS: Simultaneous intracranial electrical recordings of the amygdala, hippocampus, and scalp electroencephalography during spontaneous sleep polysomnography in four patients suffering from epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Power spectrum of the amygdala revealed no differences between rapid eye movement (REM) and wakefulness for all frequencies except higher power at 9 Hz during wakefulness and some low Gamma frequencies...
July 29, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
July 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nash Boutros, Seung Suk Kang, Utku Uysal, Mian Urfy, Zack Thomas, Susan M Bowyer, Kathleen Gustafson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current pilot project was to probe the resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) in individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and ascertain if there is evidence for frontal temporal cortical hyperexcitability, as evidenced by increased focal coherence in these regions. METHODS: Six patients with PNES and without any evidence of epilepsy were included. Nine healthy control (HC) subjects (age matched as a group) were also included...
August 3, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Francesca Ginatempo, Fabrizio De Carli, Sara Todesco, Beniamina Mercante, Gian Pietro Sechi, Franca Deriu
Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation method which is increasingly used for its beneficial effects on symptoms of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug-resistant epilepsy. Sites and mechanisms of its action are still unknown. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological effects of acute TNS on rest electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG was recorded with a 19-channel EEG system from 18 healthy adults who underwent 20 min of sham- and real-TNS (cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF) in two separate sessions...
July 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Negar Noorizadeh, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, James W Wheless
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a low-risk surgical option for patients with drug resistant epilepsy, although it is impossible to predict which patients may respond to VNS treatment. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) connectivity analysis has been increasingly utilized to investigate the impact of epilepsy on brain networks and identify alteration of these networks after different treatments; however, there is no study to date utilizing this modality to predict the efficacy of VNS treatment. We investigated whether the rs-MEG network topology before VNS implantation can be used to predict efficacy of VNS treatment...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Eva M Bauch, Nico Bunzeck, Hermann Hinrichs, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Previous imaging studies independently highlighted the role of the anterior thalamus (ANT) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in successful memory retrieval. While these findings accord with theoretical models, the precise temporal, oscillatory and network dynamics as well as the interplay between the NAcc and ANT in successfully retrieving information from long-term memory are largely unknown. We addressed this issue by recording intracranial electroencephalography in human epilepsy patients from the NAcc (n = 5) and ANT (n = 4) during an old/new recognition test...
July 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Mostafa Jalilifar, Ali Yadollahpour, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin
Background and Objective: Developing quantitative measures based on spectral analysis of electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings of neural activities plays an important role in developing efficient treatments for epilepsy. Such biomarkers can be used for developing open or closed loop approaches for seizure prediction or prevention. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate antiepileptogenic effects of low frequency stimulation (LFS) applied immediately before or after kindling stimulations using spectral power analysis of extracellular EEG in rat...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthias J Gruber, Liang-Tien Hsieh, Bernhard P Staresina, Christian E Elger, Juergen Fell, Nikolai Axmacher, Charan Ranganath
Events that violate predictions are thought to not only modulate activity within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) but also enhance communication between the two regions. Scalp and intracranial EEG studies have shown that oscillations in the theta frequency band are enhanced during processing of contextually unexpected information. Some theories suggest that the hippocampus and PFC interact during processing of unexpected events, and it is possible that theta oscillations may mediate these interactions...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dirk J A Smit, Margaret J Wright, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Nicholas G Martin, Yvonne Y W Ho, Stephen M Malone, Jian Zhang, Scott J Burwell, David B Chorlian, Eco J C de Geus, Damiaan Denys, Narelle K Hansell, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Matt McGue, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Christopher D Whelan, Sarah E Medland, Bernice Porjesz, William G Lacono, Dorret I Boomsma
Oscillatory activity is crucial for information processing in the brain, and has a long history as a biomarker for psychopathology. Variation in oscillatory activity is highly heritable, but current understanding of specific genetic influences remains limited. We performed the largest genome-wide association study to date of oscillatory power during eyes-closed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) across a range of frequencies (delta 1-3.75 Hz, theta 4-7.75 Hz, alpha 8-12.75 Hz, and beta 13-30 Hz) in 8,425 subjects...
June 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Paulina Kazmierska-Grebowska, Anna Kobrzycka, Renata Bocian, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Anita Krokosz, Jacek Grebowski
Since the first identification of fullerenes (C60 ) and their synthesis in 1985, those compounds have been extensively studied in the biomedical field. In particular, their water-soluble derivatives, fullerenols (C60 (OH)n, n = 2-48), have recently been the subject of numerous investigations concerning their antioxidant and prooxidant properties in biological systems. A small fraction of that research has focused on the possible use of C60 and C60 (OH)n in neuroscience and the therapy of pathologies such as dementia, amyloid-β (Aβ) formation, and Parkinson's disease...
August 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Franca Tecchio, Carlo Cottone, Camillo Porcaro, Andrea Cancelli, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Giovanni Assenza
Focal epilepsy is a network pathology, where the brain connectivity of the epileptic focus (EF) influences seizure frequency and cortical dysfunction. Growing evidence supports a clinical efficacy of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). ctDCS effects can be merely attributed to the inhibition of cortical excitability, which is abnormally increased in epilepsy, but its effect on brain network of DRE patients has never been reported. We aimed at exploring the hypothesis that functional connectivity (FC) changes may explain part of ctDCS clinical effects in DRE patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jason S Naftulin, Omar J Ahmed, Giovanni Piantoni, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Louis-Emmanuel Martinet, Mark A Kramer, Sydney S Cash
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of focal epilepsies is largely predicated on the concept that there is a "focus" from which the seizure emanates. Yet, the physiological context that determines if and how ictal activity starts and propagates remains poorly understood. To delineate these phenomena more completely, we studied activity outside the seizure-onset zone prior to and during seizure initiation. METHODS: Stereotactic depth electrodes were implanted in 17 patients with longstanding pharmacoresistant epilepsy for lateralization and localization of the seizure-onset zone...
July 2018: Epilepsia
Chin-Wei W Huang, Suzan Brown, Neelan Pillay, Martin Del Campo, Jose Tellez-Zenteno, Richard S McLachlan
PURPOSE: Lacosamide selectively enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels to achieve seizure reduction. We studied the effect of intravenous lacosamide given as one of three single doses on EEG and electrocardiogram, as well as its tolerability in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: This Canadian, investigator-initiated, multicenter, double-blind study recruited patients with refractory focal epilepsy admitted to a seizure monitoring unit...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Birgit Frauscher, Sweta Joshi, Nicolas von Ellenrieder, Dang Khoa Nguyen, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: Ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves occurring along the visual axis are one of the hallmarks of REM sleep in experimental animals. In humans, direct evidence is scarce. There is no systematic study of PGO waves in the primary visual cortex. METHODS: Eleven epilepsy patients undergoing combined intracranial EEG/polysomnography had 71 channels recording physiological EEG activity from various cortical areas; seven channels recorded from the primary visual cortex...
August 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
L Cornelissen, S E Kim, J M Lee, E N Brown, P L Purdon, C B Berde
BACKGROUND: General anaesthetics generate spatially defined brain oscillations in the EEG that relate fundamentally to neural-circuit architecture. Few studies detailing the neural-circuit activity of general anaesthesia in children have been described. The study aim was to identify age-related changes in EEG characteristics that mirror different stages of early human brain development during sevoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: Multichannel EEG recordings were performed in 91 children aged 0-3 yr undergoing elective surgery...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Yan Cui, Shuang Yu, Tianjiao Zhang, Yangsong Zhang, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Daqing Guo
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considered a brain activity disorder that is likely related to allomnesia and conscious disturbance. In rodents, TLE epileptiform discharges can be triggered by systemic administration of a dose of pilocarpine. However, how these pilocarpine-induced epileptiform discharges generate and propagate through the whole brain has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to assess alterations of activity and information flow in the default mode network (DMN) during TLE epileptiform discharges in pilocarpine-induced TLE rats...
October 1, 2018: Brain Research
Wilfried Dimpfel, Richard Franklin, Nigel Gericke, Leonie Schombert
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (Mesembryanthemaceae), a succulent plant indigenous to South Africa. is consumed in the form of teas, decoctions and tinctures and is sometimes smoked and used as snuff. In recent years, Sceletium has received a great deal of commercial interest for relieving stress in healthy people, and for treating a broad range of psychological, psychiatric and inflammatory conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The whole extract (Zembrin®) was tested ex vivo in the hippocampus slice preparation after one week of daily oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jafar Mehvari-Habibabadi, Reza Basiratnia, Houshang Moein, Mohamad Zare, Majid Barakatain, Yahya Aghakhani, Nasim Tabrizi
Background: To investigate ictal onset patterns (IOP) in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and their prognostic effect on the postoperative outcome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 2011 and 2015 in our referral Epilepsy Surgery Center enrolling adult patients with refractory TLE and a visible epileptogenic lesion in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), who underwent epilepsy surgery. Demographic, clinical and MRI findings were collected and ictal findings during video-EEG monitoring were reviewed in detail...
October 7, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Ulker Anadol Kelleci, Turan Calhan, Abdurrahman Sahin, Zeynep Aydin-Ozemir, Resul Kahraman, Kamil Ozdil, Haci Mehmet Sokmen, Ayse Destina Yalcin
OBJECTIVES: Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease associated with various extraintestinal manifestations, including seizure as a neurological finding. In this study, the prevalence of seizure and electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with CD was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 41 patients with CD (female/male: 25/16) and 39 subjects in the control group (female/male: 25/14). Patients in the CD group were diagnosed and monitored according to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization diagnostic criteria...
April 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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