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theta epilepsy

Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
September 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stephen Meisenhelter, Markus E Testorf, Mark A Gorenstein, Nicholas R Hasulak, Thomas K Tcheng, Joshua P Aronson, Barbara C Jobst
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticography studies are typically conducted in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring, but these studies are subject to confounds such as the effects of pain, recent anesthesia, analgesics, drug changes, antibiotics, and implant effects. NEW METHOD: Techniques were developed to obtain electrocorticographic (ECoG) data from freely moving subjects performing navigational tasks using the RNS® System (NeuroPace, Inc., Mountain View, CA), a brain-responsive neurostimulation medical device used to treat focal onset epilepsy, and to align data from the RNS System with cognitive task events with high precision...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Robert Coben, D Corydon Hammond, Martijn Arns
Neurofeedback is a well-investigated treatment for ADHD and epilepsy, especially when restricted to standard protocols such as theta/beta, slow cortical potentials and sensori-motor rhythm neurofeedback. Advances in any field are welcome and other techniques are being pursued. Manufacturers and clinicians are marketing 'superior' neurofeedback approaches including 19 channel Z-score neurofeedback (ZNFB) and 3-D LORETA neurofeedback (with or without Z-scores; LNFB). We conducted a review of the empirical literature to determine if such claims were warranted...
September 25, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Chris Gonzalez, Rachel Mak-McCully, Burke Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alba González, Dag Aurlien, Pål G Larsson, Ketil Berg Olsen, Iselin T Dahl, Thor Edvardsen, Kristina H Haugaa, Erik Taubøll
PURPOSE: The congenital long QT-syndrome (cLQTS) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, syncope and sudden cardiac death. Many LQTS genes are also expressed in the brain and emerging evidence suggest that cardiac channelopathies can also cause epilepsy. The aim of the study is to explore evidence of epilepsy and/or EEG abnormalities in a cohort with a genotyped diagnosis of LQT1 or LQT2. METHODS: Adult patients were randomly selected from the outpatient clinic and a random sample of healthy controls were recruited from the general population...
October 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Gloria Maria Tedrus, Leandro M Negreiros, Raquel S Ballarim, Tamires A Marques, Lineu Correa Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment frequently occurs in adult patients with epilepsy (PWE), but its pathophysiological basis is not well known. This study assessed cognition and its correlations with quantitative EEG coherence (QEEG) of patients with epilepsy. METHOD: Eighty PWE seen consecutively in the clinic and 40 normal subjects (NC) were assessed by neurological evaluation, Mini Mental State Examination, immediate and delayed recall of 10 simple figures, phonemic verbal fluency (FAS), category fluency test (VF animals), clock drawing, and QEEG...
September 10, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Carina R Oehrn, Juergen Fell, Conrad Baumann, Timm Rosburg, Eva Ludowig, Henrik Kessler, Simon Hanslmayr, Nikolai Axmacher
Forgetting does not necessarily reflect failure to encode information but can, to some extent, also be voluntarily controlled. Previous studies have suggested that voluntary forgetting relies on active inhibition of encoding processes in the hippocampus by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) [1-4]. During attentional and sensorimotor processing, enhanced DLPFC theta power alongside increased alpha/beta oscillations are a neural signature of an inhibitory top-down mechanism, with theta oscillations reflecting prefrontal control and alpha/beta oscillations occurring in areas targeted by inhibition [5-12]...
September 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
James J Young, Peter H Rudebeck, Lara V Marcuse, Madeline C Fields, Ji Yeoun Yoo, Fedor Panov, Saadi Ghatan, Arash Fazl, Sarah Mandelbaum, Mark G Baxter
Episodic memory, everyday memory for events, is frequently impaired in patients with epilepsy. We tested patients undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (intracranial EEG) monitoring for the treatment of medically-refractory epilepsy on a well-characterized paradigm that requires episodic memory. We report that an anatomically diffuse network characterized by theta-band (4-7 Hz) coherence is activated at the time of target selection in a task that requires episodic memory. This distinct network of oscillatory activity is absent when episodic memory is not required...
August 23, 2018: NeuroImage
Xiaoxuan Fu, Youhua Wang, Manling Ge, Danhong Wang, Rongguang Gao, Long Wang, Jundan Guo, Hesheng Liu
Interictal spike is a biomarker of epilepsy that can occur frequently between seizures. Its potential effects on brain oscillations, especially on theta rhythm (4-8 Hz) that is related to a variety of cognitive processes, remain controversial. Using local field potentials recorded from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we investigated here the impact of spikes on theta rhythm immediately after spikes and during the prolonged periods (lasting 4-36 s) between adjacent spikes. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in different epileptogenic areas including the anterior hippocampus (aH) and the entorhinal cortex (EC) as well as in the extended propagation pathway...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zeidy Muñoz-Torres, Francisco Velasco, Ana L Velasco, Yolanda Del Río-Portilla, María Corsi-Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to characterize the dynamics of the human amygdala across the different sleep stages and during wakefulness. METHODS: Simultaneous intracranial electrical recordings of the amygdala, hippocampus, and scalp electroencephalography during spontaneous sleep polysomnography in four patients suffering from epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Power spectrum of the amygdala revealed no differences between rapid eye movement (REM) and wakefulness for all frequencies except higher power at 9 Hz during wakefulness and some low Gamma frequencies...
October 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nash Boutros, Seung Suk Kang, Utku Uysal, Mian Urfy, Zack Thomas, Susan M Bowyer, Kathleen Gustafson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current pilot project was to probe the resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) in individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and ascertain if there is evidence for frontal temporal cortical hyperexcitability, as evidenced by increased focal coherence in these regions. METHODS: Six patients with PNES and without any evidence of epilepsy were included. Nine healthy control (HC) subjects (age matched as a group) were also included...
August 3, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Francesca Ginatempo, Fabrizio De Carli, Sara Todesco, Beniamina Mercante, Gian Pietro Sechi, Franca Deriu
Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation method which is increasingly used for its beneficial effects on symptoms of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug-resistant epilepsy. Sites and mechanisms of its action are still unknown. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological effects of acute TNS on rest electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG was recorded with a 19-channel EEG system from 18 healthy adults who underwent 20 min of sham- and real-TNS (cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF) in two separate sessions...
July 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Negar Noorizadeh, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, James W Wheless
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a low-risk surgical option for patients with drug resistant epilepsy, although it is impossible to predict which patients may respond to VNS treatment. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) connectivity analysis has been increasingly utilized to investigate the impact of epilepsy on brain networks and identify alteration of these networks after different treatments; however, there is no study to date utilizing this modality to predict the efficacy of VNS treatment. We investigated whether the rs-MEG network topology before VNS implantation can be used to predict efficacy of VNS treatment...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Eva M Bauch, Nico Bunzeck, Hermann Hinrichs, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Previous imaging studies independently highlighted the role of the anterior thalamus (ANT) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in successful memory retrieval. While these findings accord with theoretical models, the precise temporal, oscillatory and network dynamics as well as the interplay between the NAcc and ANT in successfully retrieving information from long-term memory are largely unknown. We addressed this issue by recording intracranial electroencephalography in human epilepsy patients from the NAcc (n = 5) and ANT (n = 4) during an old/new recognition test...
July 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Mostafa Jalilifar, Ali Yadollahpour, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin
Background and Objective: Developing quantitative measures based on spectral analysis of electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings of neural activities plays an important role in developing efficient treatments for epilepsy. Such biomarkers can be used for developing open or closed loop approaches for seizure prediction or prevention. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate antiepileptogenic effects of low frequency stimulation (LFS) applied immediately before or after kindling stimulations using spectral power analysis of extracellular EEG in rat...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthias J Gruber, Liang-Tien Hsieh, Bernhard P Staresina, Christian E Elger, Juergen Fell, Nikolai Axmacher, Charan Ranganath
Events that violate predictions are thought to not only modulate activity within the hippocampus and PFC but also enhance communication between the two regions. Scalp and intracranial EEG studies have shown that oscillations in the theta frequency band are enhanced during processing of contextually unexpected information. Some theories suggest that the hippocampus and PFC interact during processing of unexpected events, and it is possible that theta oscillations may mediate these interactions. Here, we had the rare opportunity to conduct simultaneous electrophysiological recordings from the human hippocampus and PFC from two patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for pharmacoresistant epilepsy...
November 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dirk J A Smit, Margaret J Wright, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Nicholas G Martin, Yvonne Y W Ho, Stephen M Malone, Jian Zhang, Scott J Burwell, David B Chorlian, Eco J C de Geus, Damiaan Denys, Narelle K Hansell, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Matt McGue, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Christopher D Whelan, Sarah E Medland, Bernice Porjesz, William G Lacono, Dorret I Boomsma
Oscillatory activity is crucial for information processing in the brain, and has a long history as a biomarker for psychopathology. Variation in oscillatory activity is highly heritable, but current understanding of specific genetic influences remains limited. We performed the largest genome-wide association study to date of oscillatory power during eyes-closed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) across a range of frequencies (delta 1-3.75 Hz, theta 4-7.75 Hz, alpha 8-12.75 Hz, and beta 13-30 Hz) in 8,425 subjects...
November 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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