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theta epilepsy

Giulia Liberati, Maxime Algoet, Susana Ferrao Santos, Jose Geraldo Ribeiro-Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
The human insula is an important target for spinothalamic input, but there is still no consensus on its role in pain perception and nociception. In this study, we show that the human insula exhibits activity preferential for sustained thermonociception. Using intracerebral EEG recorded from the insula of 8 patients (2 females) undergoing a presurgical evaluation of focal epilepsy (53 contacts: 27 anterior, 26 posterior), we "frequency-tagged" the insular activity elicited by sustained thermonociceptive and vibrotactile stimuli, by periodically modulating stimulation intensity at a fixed frequency of 0...
December 5, 2018: NeuroImage
(no author information available yet)
The putative mechanism of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy is desynchronization of hippocampal and thalamocortical circuitry; however, the nature of the dose-response relationship and temporal dynamics is poorly understood. For greater elucidation, a study in a nonepileptic rat model was previously conducted and showed that rapid-cycle (RC) VNS achieved superior desynchrony compared to standard-cycle (SC) VNS. Here, the authors report on the first in-human analysis of the neuromodulatory dose-response effects of VNS in a patient with posttraumatic, independent, bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medications and SC-VNS who was referred as a potential candidate for a responsive neurostimulation device...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Omer Ashmaig, Mark Connolly, Robert E Gross, Babak Mahmoudi
There is a great need for an electrical stimulation therapy to treat medication-resistant, surgically ineligible epileptic patients that successfully reduces seizure incidence with minimal side effects. Critical to advancing such therapies will be identifying the trade-offs between therapeutic efficacy and side effects. One novel treatment developed in the tetanus toxin rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, asynchronous distributed microelectrode stimulation (ADMETS) in the hippocampus has been shown to significantly reduce seizure frequency...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stanislas Lagarde, Sinziana Buzori, Agnès Trebuchon, Romain Carron, Didier Scavarda, Mathieu Milh, Aileen McGonigal, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we seek to analyze the determinants of the intracranial electroencephalography seizure onset pattern (SOP) and the impact of the SOP in predicting postsurgical seizure outcome. METHODS: To this end, we analyzed 820 seizures from 252 consecutive patients explored by stereo-electroencephalography (total of 2148 electrodes), including various forms of focal refractory epilepsies. We used a reproducible method combining visual and time-frequency analyses...
November 13, 2018: Epilepsia
Linfeng Ma, Yue Pan, Ming Sun, Haonan Shen, Limei Zhao, Yingjie Guo
BACKGROUND: Individual susceptibility to valproic acid (VPA)-caused hepatotoxicity might result from genetic deficiencies in the detoxification and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). This study aimed to investigate the relationships between GST mu 1(GSTM1), GST theta 1(GSTT1), CAT C-262T, GPx1 Pro200Leu and SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphisms and the risk of abnormal liver function in Chinese epileptic patients treated with VPA monotherapy...
October 30, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
November 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
October 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stephen Meisenhelter, Markus E Testorf, Mark A Gorenstein, Nicholas R Hasulak, Thomas K Tcheng, Joshua P Aronson, Barbara C Jobst
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticography studies are typically conducted in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring, but these studies are subject to confounds such as the effects of pain, recent anesthesia, analgesics, drug changes, antibiotics, and implant effects. NEW METHOD: Techniques were developed to obtain electrocorticographic (ECoG) data from freely moving subjects performing navigational tasks using the RNS® System (NeuroPace, Inc., Mountain View, CA), a brain-responsive neurostimulation medical device used to treat focal onset epilepsy, and to align data from the RNS System with cognitive task events with high precision...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Robert Coben, D Corydon Hammond, Martijn Arns
Neurofeedback is a well-investigated treatment for ADHD and epilepsy, especially when restricted to standard protocols such as theta/beta, slow cortical potentials and sensori-motor rhythm neurofeedback. Advances in any field are welcome and other techniques are being pursued. Manufacturers and clinicians are marketing 'superior' neurofeedback approaches including 19 channel Z-score neurofeedback (ZNFB) and 3-D LORETA neurofeedback (with or without Z-scores; LNFB). We conducted a review of the empirical literature to determine if such claims were warranted...
September 25, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Christopher E Gonzalez, Rachel A Mak-McCully, Burke Q Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Y Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow-oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12 Hz) and followed by fast spindles (12-16 Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy ( n = 10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort ( n = 3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TBs) centered at 5-8 Hz...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alba González, Dag Aurlien, Pål G Larsson, Ketil Berg Olsen, Iselin T Dahl, Thor Edvardsen, Kristina H Haugaa, Erik Taubøll
PURPOSE: The congenital long QT-syndrome (cLQTS) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, syncope and sudden cardiac death. Many LQTS genes are also expressed in the brain and emerging evidence suggest that cardiac channelopathies can also cause epilepsy. The aim of the study is to explore evidence of epilepsy and/or EEG abnormalities in a cohort with a genotyped diagnosis of LQT1 or LQT2. METHODS: Adult patients were randomly selected from the outpatient clinic and a random sample of healthy controls were recruited from the general population...
October 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Gloria Maria Tedrus, Leandro M Negreiros, Raquel S Ballarim, Tamires A Marques, Lineu Correa Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment frequently occurs in adult patients with epilepsy (PWE), but its pathophysiological basis is not well known. This study assessed cognition and its correlations with quantitative EEG coherence (QEEG) of patients with epilepsy. METHOD: Eighty PWE seen consecutively in the clinic and 40 normal subjects (NC) were assessed by neurological evaluation, Mini Mental State Examination, immediate and delayed recall of 10 simple figures, phonemic verbal fluency (FAS), category fluency test (VF animals), clock drawing, and QEEG...
September 10, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Carina R Oehrn, Juergen Fell, Conrad Baumann, Timm Rosburg, Eva Ludowig, Henrik Kessler, Simon Hanslmayr, Nikolai Axmacher
Forgetting does not necessarily reflect failure to encode information but can, to some extent, also be voluntarily controlled. Previous studies have suggested that voluntary forgetting relies on active inhibition of encoding processes in the hippocampus by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) [1-4]. During attentional and sensorimotor processing, enhanced DLPFC theta power alongside increased alpha/beta oscillations are a neural signature of an inhibitory top-down mechanism, with theta oscillations reflecting prefrontal control and alpha/beta oscillations occurring in areas targeted by inhibition [5-12]...
September 24, 2018: Current Biology: CB
James J Young, Peter H Rudebeck, Lara V Marcuse, Madeline C Fields, Ji Yeoun Yoo, Fedor Panov, Saadi Ghatan, Arash Fazl, Sarah Mandelbaum, Mark G Baxter
Episodic memory, everyday memory for events, is frequently impaired in patients with epilepsy. We tested patients undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (intracranial EEG) monitoring for the treatment of medically-refractory epilepsy on a well-characterized paradigm that requires episodic memory. We report that an anatomically diffuse network characterized by theta-band (4-7 Hz) coherence is activated at the time of target selection in a task that requires episodic memory. This distinct network of oscillatory activity is absent when episodic memory is not required...
December 2018: NeuroImage
Xiaoxuan Fu, Youhua Wang, Manling Ge, Danhong Wang, Rongguang Gao, Long Wang, Jundan Guo, Hesheng Liu
Interictal spike is a biomarker of epilepsy that can occur frequently between seizures. Its potential effects on brain oscillations, especially on theta rhythm (4-8 Hz) that is related to a variety of cognitive processes, remain controversial. Using local field potentials recorded from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we investigated here the impact of spikes on theta rhythm immediately after spikes and during the prolonged periods (lasting 4-36 s) between adjacent spikes. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in different epileptogenic areas including the anterior hippocampus (aH) and the entorhinal cortex (EC) as well as in the extended propagation pathway...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zeidy Muñoz-Torres, Francisco Velasco, Ana L Velasco, Yolanda Del Río-Portilla, María Corsi-Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to characterize the dynamics of the human amygdala across the different sleep stages and during wakefulness. METHODS: Simultaneous intracranial electrical recordings of the amygdala, hippocampus, and scalp electroencephalography during spontaneous sleep polysomnography in four patients suffering from epilepsy were analyzed. RESULTS: Power spectrum of the amygdala revealed no differences between rapid eye movement (REM) and wakefulness for all frequencies except higher power at 9 Hz during wakefulness and some low Gamma frequencies...
October 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nash Boutros, Seung Suk Kang, Utku Uysal, Mian Urfy, Zack Thomas, Susan M Bowyer, Kathleen Gustafson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current pilot project was to probe the resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) in individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and ascertain if there is evidence for frontal temporal cortical hyperexcitability, as evidenced by increased focal coherence in these regions. METHODS: Six patients with PNES and without any evidence of epilepsy were included. Nine healthy control (HC) subjects (age matched as a group) were also included...
August 3, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Francesca Ginatempo, Fabrizio De Carli, Sara Todesco, Beniamina Mercante, Gian Pietro Sechi, Franca Deriu
Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation method which is increasingly used for its beneficial effects on symptoms of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as drug-resistant epilepsy. Sites and mechanisms of its action are still unknown. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological effects of acute TNS on rest electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. EEG was recorded with a 19-channel EEG system from 18 healthy adults who underwent 20 min of sham- and real-TNS (cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF) in two separate sessions...
November 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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